James Orr.

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There is a smnll woollen manufactory, a Workmen's Club and llbraiy, several
printing establishments, throe newspapers, a native bank (the Caledonian), and five
other bunkinj^-offlces. luverness has still its four great annual fairs, hut the estab-
lishment of shops thronghout the county has greatly diminished their importance.
It has three harbors, built at difiEerent times, and a considerable amount of ship-
ping by the Moray Firth and the Caledonian Caual, which connects it with the
west coast.

INVERNESH-SHIRE, the larKest county of Scotland, includes Badcnoch, Olen-
roy, and tlie valley of the Spey on the east ; Lochaber on the south ; Qienelg, Glen
Qjirry, Arlsaig, Moyilart, aud Frasers' County on the west; Glen Urquhart and Glen
Morristou towards the centre. It includes al^ Strathglass on the north ; and sev-
eral of the western islands, vis., Skye, Harris, North and South Uist, and Barra, Ac
The mainland portion lies between u. lat. 66o 40^ and 57o 86', aud w. long. 3° 80' and
tSP W; and is oonuded ou the e. by the counties of Aberdeen, Banff, E!gin, and
Nairn ; on the s. by Perth aud Argyleshire ; ou the w. by the Atlantic and Itoss-
shire ; aud on the u, by Ross-shire. It measures from north-east to sonth-west S&
miles, and from north-west to south-east 57 miles ; and has an area of 4S56 sqtuune
miles, of which more than two-thirds consist of barren heath. The wildest aud
most mountainous portion is towards tlie west, comprising a tract 70 miles In extent,
and designated tbo Rough Bounds. The most extensive moss in great Britain lies
on the south of Biideuoch, where, in the naturally formed wooded islaudls, large
herds of deer find a refuge. These mosses had at one time been mostly, if not
wholly, covered with trees, some of them of great magnitude. In Strathspey,
three tiers of stocks, one above another, have been found, shewing that a suc-
cession of forest trees must have grown up, flourished for ages, and then,
one after another, disappeared by the work of time or the axe. At present,
the natural pluos occupy a larger space than In any other coimty of Britain.
There are also many thousand acres of plantations of ordinary forest trees. Some
mountains attain considerable altitude. Beu Nevis, now ascertained to be tlie
highest in Great Britain, is 4406 feet above the fevol of the sea. Cairngorm, partly
in this county, is 4060 feet high. The geological formation of the county is various ;
but primary rocks consisting of gneiss, inica-slute, granite, porphyry', and trap
rocks, mostly prevail. The most fertile soil of the county rests on the red sandstone
in the valley of the Aird, aud between the county town aud Beauly. There are scv-
ernl lakes of somo exteut, as Loch Ness, Loch Lochy, Loch l^ag^au, Loch Ericht,
aud a number of other lochs forming arms of the so^u The principsl rivers are the
Ness, Spey, Liochy, Beauly, Findhoru, Nairn, Garry, Morristou, and the Foyers
(q. v.). iTie county is divided among 80 or 90 proprietors, a few of whom possess
above 100,000 acres of surface. The old valued rent (1674) was £6099 ; the valuation
for 1876 — 1877 was X302,493, exclusive of railways and canals, which amounted to
£25.546. According to the agricultural returns of 1876, the total acreage under aU
kindt} of crops, fallow, and grass, was 125,831 : 40,221 acres were under corn crops,
22,421 uuder greeu crops, 26,895 under clover and grasses under rotation, 85,228 with
permanent pasture (exclusive of heath and mouutaiu>Iaud). Of the land nuder
crops, 738 acres were wheat, 7169 barley, 81,067 oats, 1109 r}-e. Of laud luder green
crops, 8017 acres wore potatoes, 14,234 turnips, 162 vetches, ^bc Of live-stock, there

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were 9000 horses, 64,742 cnttle, 724,618 etaeep, and 412t swlno. There are compara-
tively few ADtionlties worth noting In the coun^. These consist principally of
reroains of vitrified forts and mlus of old castles. The battle which decided the fate
of the Stuarts was fonght 16th April 1746, on CuUodeu Moor, a few miles from
Inverness. The Gaelic langnagc Is still eenerally, but In scarcely any district exclu-
sively, spoken. Pop. lu 1871, 87,631. The constituency retoms one member to par-

INVERSION, In Maslc, Is the transposing of one of the two notes of an inter-
val by an octave upwards or downwardB, to a position the reverse of that which it
before occupied with respect to the other note, so that if the transposed note was
the lower note of the two, it shall now be the higher one, and vice verad. The new
interval thus formed takes Its name from the complement of the octave ; for ex-
ample, a unison inverted becomes an octave, a second becomes a seventh, a third
becomes a sixth, a fourth becomes a fifth, a fifth becomes a fourth, a sixth becomes
a third, a seventh becomes a second, and an octave becomes a unison. By inver-
sion diminished intervals become augmented, and augmented become diminished ;
major become minor, and minor become major; but perfect Intervals are also per-
fect when inverted. For inversion of chords, see Chobd. An important use Is
also made of the word inversion, iu reference to a whole passage or phrase, for
which see article ConifTSRPOiNT.

INVE'RTEBRATE ANIMALS (Tnvertebraia) are those animals which have not
a vertebral column or splue. The division of animals into Vertebrate and Inverts
brate is a natural nnd unavoidable one, acknowledged In all systems of zooloey.
But these groups being formed, the one on a positive, and the other on a negative
character, are by no means of equal value in the classification of the nnlmni xing^
dom. Ill Cnvicr*s system, the Invertebrate animals form three of the great din-
sions of the animal kingdom— viz., Molltuea, Arttctdata^ and Radiaia^ each of which,
like Vertebrata, exhibits a peculiar type uf structure. There are also animals of
lower organisation than those which can with certainty be referred to these divi-
sions, although inclndc<i by Cuvler amongst the iCadiafa, forming the Acrita and
Protozoa (^ recent systems. Amongst the lower invertebrate animals, much more
than amongst vertebrate animals, the arrangement into groups roust be regarded as
at present, In a great measure, tentative and provisional ; although in the higher
departments of Invertebrate zoology many of tno classes and other groups are very
well defined. The organisation of some of them, as Insects, however different
from that of vertebrate animals, is not evidently lower, but exhibits a perfection as
admirable as In any of them, whilst all vital powers are roost fully displayed.

INVE'STITTJRE (Lat. in, and vestio. to clothe), in feudal and ecclesiastical his-
tory, means the act of giving corporal possession of a manor, ofilce, or benefice,
accompanied by a certain ceremonial, such as the deliveiy of a branch, a banner,
or nn instrument of office, more or less designed to signify the power or authority
which it is supposed to convey. The contest about eccle«astlcal investitures is so
interwoven with the whole course of medieval history, that a brief account of its
origin and nature is indlspensible to a right understanding of many of the most Im-
portant events of that period. The system of feudal tenure had become so univerw
sal that it affected even the land held by ecclesiastics, and attached to most of the
higher ecclslastical dignities, monastic as well as secular. Accordingly, ecclcsiasticsj
who, in virtue of the ecclesiastical office which they held, came Into possession of
the lands^^tlachcd to such offices, began to be regarded as becoming by the very fact
fendntory to the suzerain of these lands; and. as a not unnatural result, the suzerains
thought themselves entitled to claim, in reference to these perponages, the same
rights which they enjoyed over the other fendatories of their domains. Among
these ri^rhts was that of granting solemn investiture. Now, in the case of bishops,
abbots, and other church dignitaries, the form of Investiture consisted in the ao-
llvery of a pastoral staff or croE>ier, and the placing a ring upon the finger; and
as these badges of office, were emblematic— the one of the spiritual care of souls, the
other of the espousals, as It were, between the pastor nnd his church or monastery
—the assumption of this right by the lay suzerains became a subject of constantand
angnr complaint on the part of the church. On the part of the suzerains it was rc-
plifOy that they did not claim to grant by this rite the spiritoal powers of the office,

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Invottilure ^ AAfi

Invocation luUD

their fauction being solely to graut pocsesriou of its temporalities, and of the tem-
poral rank thereto annexed. But the charch-party nrged, that the ceremonial !n
Itself involved the grnutiiii; of epirltoal powers; insonmch that in order to pnrrent
the clergy from electing to a sae when vucuut. it was the practice of the emperors to
take possession of the crosier and ring, nutit it should be their own plea.«nre to grant
investiture to their favorites. The disfavor in which the practice bad long oeeu
held found its moat enerjretic expression in the person of Gregory
YILf wlio having, in the year 1074. enact«id most stringent measures for the repres-
sion of simony, proceeded, In 1076, to condemn, nnder excomutmiicstion, the prac-
tice of Investiture, OS almast necessarily connected with simony, or lending to it.
This prohibition^ however, as is observed by Mosheim (il. S26), only regarded Inves-
titure in the objectionable form in which it was then practised, or investiture of
whatever form, when tiie office had been obtained slmoniacally. But a pope of the
same century, Urban il., went furttier, and (1096) absolutely and entirely forbade,
not alone lay investiture, but the taking of on oath of fealty to a Iny STtxeratu by an
ecclesiastic, even though holding under him l^ the ordinary feudal tenure. The
contest continued during the most of the 11th century. In the beginning of the 12th
c. il assumed a new form, the pope, Pascal IT., having actually ngreed to surrender
all the possessions and royalties with which the church bod t^n endowed, and
which alone formed tho pretext of the claim to investiture on the part of the em-
peror, ou condition of the emperor (Henrv V.) giving np that claim to investiture.
This treaty, however, never had any practical effect ; nor was the contest finally ad-
justed until the celebrated concordat of Worms in 1122, In which the emperor agreed
to give np the form of investiture veUh the ring and paatoral Btaj^f to grant to the
clergy the right of free elections, and to restore all the posseesious of the chorch of
Bome whicli had been seized either by himself or bv his father ; while the pope, on
his part, consented that the elections should be held in the presence of the emperor
or his official, but with a right of appeal to the provincial synod; that investiture
might be given by the emperor, but only bu the touch of the eeeotre; and that the
bishops and other church dignitaries should falttifuUy dischai^ all tha feudal duties
which belonged to their principality.

Such was the compact entered into between the contending pari lee, and for a
time it had considerable effect in restraining one class of abases ; out it went only a
little way towards eradicating the real evil of simony and corrupt promotion of un-
worthy candidates for church dignities. Still the principle upon which the opposi-
tion to investiture was founded was almost a necessary part of the medieval S7»-
tem, and Mosheim (il. 827) regards it as ** perfectly accordant with the Mligkmi
principles of the age." It was, in fact, but one of the many forms in wliich the
spirit of churchmauship has arrayed itself, wliether in ancient or modem tlm<^
against what are called the Brostinii tendencies which never fall to develop them-
selves under the shadow of a stato church, no matter what may be its creea or its

INVESTITURE, tho term used in Scotch law to denote tho giving feudal pos-
session of lierltttble property. It was formerly given to the vassal in presence of
thoparee curUx^ but latterly h is been superseded by infeftmenfi or aaaine, and now
it is effected by more registration of the deed of couvejrancc.

INVOCATION OP ANGELS AND SAINTS, the act of addressing prayers to
tlie bles^icd spirits who are with Ciqd, wliether the angels or the souls of tite just who
have been admitted to the happiness of heaven. The practice of addrcrsing
prayers to augel*, especially to the angel-guardlaii, to the Virgin Mary, and to other
saints, prevails in the Boman, the Greek, the Rnsso-Greek, and tlic eastern churcties
of all tho various rites. In the Christian religion, the principle of the unity of God
excludes all idea of subordinate sharers of the divine nature, such as is to be foond
In paganism, and all alike, Roman Catholics as well as Protectants, agree that its
very flrst principles exclude the Idea of rendrring divine worship, no matter bow it
may be modified, to any other than the One Infinite Being. But while Protestants
cari-y this principle so far as to exclndo every species of mllgions worship and every
form of invocation addressed to angels or saints, as trenching upon God^ honor,
and irreconcilable with the Scriptures, which hold Him forth as the sole obiect oi
worship and the only foontaiu of mercy, the Bomau Catholic leligiom pemmi and

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IriDc wlilcli it} ^^ doiibU'd by no one." 8t Cypriau, uddreMiug iho confeeeora going
10 inartyrdoiii, engages by auticfpation their pruycrs in his behalf when they ehuU
have receiveil their heavenly crown (Ep. 60, Dotlwell's edition). To the {>ame effect


BnDctions a worship (called douUia) of the BalntJi/inferlor to the Btipremo vror-
Bbip iUUreia) offered to God, and an Invocation of the Baiuip. not for the purpose of
obtaining uiercy or grace from themselves directly, but In order to aek their pmyers
or intercession with God on onr behalf. For tliis doctrine and the analogons prac-
tice, tliey do not advance the direct authority of Scriptiuo (except a few passages
which seem to tliem to imply tiie intercommunion oC the two worlds, as
Matt. xiii. 8, Luke xiv, 17, £zod. xzxii. 18), but rely on what to them is equally dcei'
sive tesriniony, viz., tlie m» written word of God conveyed l)y tradition. Origen (Opp.
ii. p. 278) speaks of the belief that ** the i^aiuts assist us by tliclr pmyers " as a doc*
''**"'*"■' .. -. « . . . . - Bsors going

they shaU

, . , . same effect

are cited the testimonies of Basil (Opp. ii. 155), Gregory Nuzinnzen (Opp. i. 2SS),
Gi-egory of Nyssa (ii. 1017), Ambrose (ii. 200), Chry^ostom (iv. 449), and many other
Fattiers,as welias tholitur^es of tho various ancient chnrches, whether of the
Koman, the Greek, tho Syrian, or tho Egyptian rite.

On tho other hand, Protestant historiaua, even admitting the full force of those
testimonies to tlie existence of the practice, allege that the practice in an eurly, but
nnscriptural addition, dating only fiom the infusion into the cbnrcit system of Alex-
andrian Neo-platonisni and Oriental MugLnuism, wiiich thoy believe to have left
traces even In the so-called orthotlox Christianity of thefonrth niid fifth centuries. But
leaving aside tho doctrinal controversy, tho fact at least is certain, that in the fourth,
and still more in tho fifth and following ccniurics, tlie usage was universal ; and a
curious evidence of its prevalence Is fnniished by the fact, that the very excess to
wliich it was carried was condenr.ned as a licresy (lliat of the CoUyridiaus) by those
wlio t lie nisei ves confessed the iawfulnecs of tho pniclice wlien confined within its
legitimate limits. That similar excesses in tho practice, and similar abuses as to
the nature and limits of tlie legitimato invocation of the saints continued through
the medieval period, Roman Catholics themselves admit, although they allege that
such abuses were at all times reprobated by the authentic tencliTng of the church ;
and the multiplied devotioHs to the saints, especlollv to the BleMcd Virgin, the efll-
oicv claimed for ttiem, and tho extraonlinary leg^ds connected with them, and tho
nromiuenco wliich tho worship hud assumetl in ilie church, were among the most
rertilethemcsof invective with tho first Reformci*?. The Council of Trent (26tb
Sess., ** On the Invocation of Saints ") defines very precisely what is tho doctrine of
tlio Catliolic Church on this subject. It dccuires '* that tho saints who reign
with God offer up their prayers to God for men ; that it is good and
iifeful suppllanlly to invoke them, and to resort to their prayers, aid,
and lielp, for the puruoso of obtaining benefits of Go<l through his son
Jesus Christ onr Lonl, wno alono is onr Ri oeemer and Saviour." From this decree
it is inferred that tho Catholic doctrine on the saints does not prescril>u the practice
of invoking them as nocesfiiiry or essential, but only as ''good and useful,*' and
that what is to be asked of them is not the direct bestowal ot grace and mercy, as
from them^^elves, but only their prayers, tlieir assistance, and their help in obtaining
bdiicflts from God ; and although many forms of prayer which are in use among
Catholics 1)ear, especially to a Protestant reader, ail the appeaiance of direct appeals
to tho saints themselves for the benefits which are im))lored, yet all Catholic author-
ities are unanimous In declaring that these forms of words are to be interpreted,
and that, from liabitual use, they are so interpreted, even by tho most superficially
ln.<iructed Catholics, with the understood explanation, that all tho power of tho
saints to a8^i8t us consists exclusively in their prayers for us, and seconding onr
prayers by their own. See Bellarniioo, ** Controvcrtiiffi do Sanctorum BeatUuuiue,"
lib. i. cap. xvli.

Protestimts object to the Invocation of saints and of ongels, that it Is without
evidence of divine auihority, contrarv to the wliolo tenor o? Scripture, and deroga-
toi7 to the mediatorship of Christ. Tliey atk what reason can be adduced for bo-
lioving that prayers addrej«ai'd to saints are even hMrd hv them, or that thoy have
always a knowledge of the worship addressed to tlnnn ? ^llu'y further deny that the
prayers addressed to saints — and particularly to tho Virgin Mary— are always capable
of explanation as merely an asking of their prayers on behalf of those who Invoke
them, and quote many iustaucea in proof.

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jSdSir 1008

I'K VOICE, a list or account of merchandise or goods sold, either sent along with
the goods iheuQBclves or separately.

IN VOLU'CRB (Lat a wrapper or envelope), In Botany, Is a gronp of bracts nir-
roandiug flowers Id their auexpanded state, and occnpyine a place on the floral axis
beneath them after their expansion. The bracts which form an involocie are
generally grouped in a whorl. In nmbelliferoos flowers, there is very commoulv an
involncre, not only to tlie umbel, but to each division of the umbel, or utnheUtiU,
The former is called the ffmeral involuen^ or simply the inwihu:r€\ the latter are
partial involuereSy or iiuoohtoela. The cup of the acorn, hazel, chestnut, Aa, may be
reg^ed as an involucre.


INVOLU'TION AKD EVOLUTION are two operations the converse of each
other. The object of the first is to raise a number to auy power, which is effected

or o: ( raisea lo lacjounn power is « x « x i ^ «, or xvji, o^ ayuiuuuu, uu %.uv
other hand, is the extraction of a root of any number that is, it is a method for
discovering tohat number, when raised to a certain power, will give a certain known
number— e. g., the square root of 64 is 8. that is, 8 is the number which, mised to
the second power, will give 64; 8 is the fourth root of 61, that ie, 8 raised to th«
fourth power is 81, and so on. The symbols expressive of tlie two operations are as
follow : 6< means that 5 is to be raised to the third power; (7t) B means thauthe

square or second power of 7 is to be raised to the fifth power ; v/9 or v/9 or 9}i sig-
nifies that the extraction of the second or square root of 9 is required; ^/ifteor
956X; that the fourth root of 856 is to be extracted; and soon. Involntiou aud
evolution, lilce multiplication and division, or differentiation and integration, differ
in the extent of their oppllcatlon ; the former, or direct operation, can always be
completed, while there are numberless ca^es in which the latter fails to express the
result with perfect accuracy.

I'ODINE (symb. I, equiv. 127) is one of a group of four non-metalHc dements to
which the term Halogens (q. v.) has been applied. It derives its name from Gr.
iddiSf violet-like, in consequence of its mAgnificent purple color when in a state of
vapor. At ordinary teinp^ratnres, it usually occurs in solid dark-gray glistoniog
scales: it is, however, crystaliisable, and sometimes appears as an octahedron with
a rhombic base. It is soft, and admits readllv of trituration, has the high specific
gravity of 4*95, and evolves a peculiar and clisagreeable odor, which indicates Its
ereat volatility. It fuses at 285<', and at about 860° it boils, and is converted into
the purple vapor to which it owes its name ; it has au acrid taste, and communicates
a brownish-yellow color to the skin. It is very slightly soluble in water, but dis-
solves readily iu watery solutions of iodide of potassiuro and of hydrlodic add, and
in alcohol and ether. Iodine vapor is the heaviest of all known vapors, its specific

K-avity being 8*710. It combines directly with phosphorus, sniphnr, and the metals.
s behavior with hydrogen is analogous to that of chlorine and bromine (see
Htdboohix)rio Acid), but its affinities are weaker than those of the last-named
elements. It likewise combines with nnroerons organic substances, and the com-
ponud which it forms with starch is of such an intense blue color, that a solution
of starch forms the best test for the presence of free iodine. By means of this test,
one part of iodine may be detected when dissolved in one million parts of water.

Tlie following are some of the most important iodine compounds. With hydro-
gen it forms only one compocnd, hydriodic aeid (HI), a colorless pungent acid gas,
which in most respects is analogous with hydrochloric acid. It is obtained by the
action of water on terlodido of phopphorns. The soluble iodides of the metals may
be obtained by the direct combination of hydrlodic acid with the metallic oxides,
the resulting compounds being the metallic iodide and water. Some of these iodides
are of extreme brilliancy, and others are of great value In medicine* amongst the
luUer must be especially mentioned iodide of potassium, Iodide of iron, and the
iodides of mercury.

Iodide of potassium is, next to quhilae and morphia, the most Jmportant medl-

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dne In the pharmaeopoela. It ciystallieea in colorless cubes, which are sometimes
clear, bat nsually have an opaqne whitish appearance, and are solable in water and
spirit. It is decomposed and tne iodine set tree by chlorine, bromine, faming nitric
acid, and oxone (q. v.). There are Tarions ways of obtaining this salt ; the follow-
ing IS one of the best If iodine be added to a warm sointion of potash antil a brown
tint begins (o appear, iodide of potassinm (KI) and iodate of potash (KO,IOg) are
formea. Br gentle ignition of the residue obtained by evaporation, the ioduto is
decomposed into iodide of potasaiam and oxygen, so that all that remams is fused
iodide of potassiam, Avhich is dissolved in water, and allowed to crystallise. Iodide
of iron is formed by digesting iron wire or filings in a closed vessel with four times
the weight of iodine suspended in tvatcr. l5irect combination takes place, and a
piile-greeu solution is formed, which by evaporation in vacuo vields crystals. It is
the solnllou which is most commonly employed in medicine, but as on exposure to
the air it becomes decomposed, and iodine is liberated, it is nsually mixed with
strong syrup, which retards this change.

There are two iodides of mercury, viz., the green sub-iodide (IlggI) and the red
iodide (Hgl). They may be formed cither by the direct union of the two elements,
or by the double decomposition of iodide of potassiam and mercurial salts. There
are two wcll-deflued compounds of iodine ana oxygen, viz., iodic acid (IO5) and pe-

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 195 of 196)