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kjwed by seven retainers well armed, and was instantly attacked. Merced throuirh
the heart by Sir John Ramsay, he fell dead without uttering a woid. The inhabi-
tants of Perth, by whom Gowrie, who was their provost, was much beloved, hearing
of his fate ran to arms, aud surrounding the house threatened revei ge. The king
addressed them from a window and admitted the magistrates, to whom he fully re-
lated all i be circnmstances, on which they dispersed and he returned to Falkland.
Three of the earl's aervanti* were executed at Perth. The roan in armor, Andrew
Henderson. tl»e earl's steward, waa pardoned. All who were examined were totallv
ignonujt of the motives which hag prompted the brothers Ruthven to such a deed,
■Dd they still remain iu some degree of mystery, although recent diacoverica have

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gS? 102


Atd to a pref tjr general belief that the obiect of the conepiratora was to poB^eM thcra-
0elvee> of the kiiig's pereoi^ to convey liira by water to FjipI Cnntlc, nnd wltluT to give
hint np to England, or to adniiiuBter thu government in his name iu the interoet of
that country and of the Pix>i»byterluu leaders at home. Moht o£ the docuiueuts re-
lating to the plot are printed.

OOYA Y LUCIENTES, Pranclfco, the most distlngaishcd painter of tlie new
Spauinh Bchoo), was Iwni at Pnenle de Todos, in Aragou, 31i»t March 1746, and re-
ceived his first education iu art in the academy at San Luis, Saragossa. On his re-
turn from a VT&it to Rorae^ the talent and speed with which heoxecnted some paiut-
in(;8 for tlie royal tapestry manufactory gained the approbation of the celebrated
Mengs. who superintended that work. His scenes from the common life of the
Hpanisii people excited s)>ecial admiration ; but all the productions of his easel dur-
ing this early period, to which belong the altar-piece and ihecruciflx at the entrance
to tlie choir of the church of Han Francisco al Grande In Madrid, are marked by
simplicity of comnoAition, charming trttthfultiess* aud a natural and effective cliiar-
oscnro. In 1760. lie was elected mcmlicr of the academy of San Fernando. From
this time, the influence of Velasquez and Rembrandt is observable in his palntingt>.
Among th J most celebrated of thew* is hie portrait of Charles IV., for which he wan
made court-painter. In general, his i)ortr..it» were executed wtth great felicity and
ease. In 1834, he went to Parisfor his he.ilth, :ind contihued to restfle in France till
his death, which took place at Bordeaux, Iftili April 1828. Besides his works in oil-
cdtor, Q. is celebrated for his essays iu fresco paiDting, etching, lithography, aud tn
almost every department of his art.

GOYA'NNA, a city of Bnieil, in the province of Pemambnco, Is situated on a
river of the same name, S5 miles north-west of Oliuda. It has nnmerouB factories
and an active trade. Po|). upwards of 10,000.

GOYA'Z, a city of Brazil, is situated on tho river Veitielho. In lat. 1(P 81' s.,
long. 50<3 35' w., nearly in the middle of the empire, being the capital of the central
province, whlcli bears its name. The city contains about 8500 inhabitants ; and the
province, with an area of 200,000 square miles, has, according to the government es-
timates in 1S72, a population of only 180,000 (besides 15,000 Indians), mostly abori-
gines. The chief productions are cotton, timber, aud cattle.

GO'ZO, or Gozzo (culled by the Romans QaiUo»)y an island in the Mediterranean,
belonging to Britain, is about 10 miles in leiigth, and about 6 miles in breadth ; has
au area of 86 sq. m., aud a pop. of 17,000. Its surface is agreeahly diverslfled. aud
it has manv fertile valleys. It apiiears to have been formerly connected with Malta,
from which it Is now separated by a channel four miles in width. On this account,
aud from its natural productions, It is a spot of the highest interest to the natural-
ist, while the cyclo|»ean walls of the *' Giant's Tower " and Roman moniiments of a
later period excite the attention of the antiquary. The island abounds in game, and
Is much frequented by sportsmen. It produces large quantities of grain and cotton,
and is celebrjii«l ^or cattle aud for a breed of large as^es. From Uio circumstance
of its Imving two liiirbors, it is likewise of importance in a commercial and nautical
point of view. The chief town is Rabato. eitnated near the centre of tho island.
The British governor resides iu the Castel del Gozzo.

GOZZOLI, BenozzI,, a famous fresco-painter, was iwm at Florence »l>ont the
beginning of the 15tb c, and stndled under Fra Angelico. whose excelleuce as a
painter of sacred snl>)ects he fully equalled, if not surpassed. A glow of rejoicing
life seems Infused into all G.'s productions. Uls chief works liearlng traces of his
master's influence are fresco^ iu tho churches of Orvieto aud Rome ; his own style
being visible In the paintings he executed by command of Pietro de' Medici, iu m
chai>el of the Medici, now Riccordi Palace, at Florence. The great work, however,
on which G.'s fame i-ests, is the immense frescoes executed on the north wall of
the famous cemetery, or Campo Santo of Pk«a. This wonderful series of p«dnting8,
not inaptly termed by Vasari fi»»a tem'bitijmma opera ("a terrific work"), waa un-
dertaken by the artist at the age of sixty, and accomplished in sixteen years. Tho
scenes, which are all scriptural, are 84 iu nnml)er, and are sUll in exceUeut preser-
vation. G. died in 1485.

GRAAF, Regnier de, a celebrated Dutch physician, was bom at Sehoonhove fn
IMl, and died at Delft iu 1678. He studied ft tho imiversity of Leydeu nuder

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Dubois (De le Bo6), wbo is better known nnder bis Latinised name of Svlvios ; ond
on the deatli of the latter, in 16T2, wonld have been unaiiiniouslv elected to the va-
cant chair, if bis religion (he was a Catholic) had not proved an insuperable obstncle
to his appointment. In 1664, wlien only twenty-three yenrs of n^e, be published
his "Dlspotatio Medica de Natura et Usn Succi Paucreaiici," which alrliongh con-
taining several errors — as, for instance^ that tlie pancreatic juice is add, and that
many diseases, and esnedally intenniitent fevers, are due to a morbid condition
of this fluid— gained him a great reputation. After a short residence in FranwN
where be took his doctor's degree at Angers in 1665, he returned to Holland, and
settled at Delft, where ids success in practice gained lilm nmch envy. He ren-
dered great service to anatomy in beinc the inventor of those injections of the
blood-vessels which Swnmmerdam and Kuysch brought to a state of compomtive
excellence, and which arc at the present dnv the basis of our sound knowledge of
roost of the tissues of the l)ody. He pnblishefl several dissertations on the organs
of generation in both sexes, which involved him in a prolonged and angry contro-
versy with Swammerdam. According to Haller, his death was occasioned by an
attack of jaundice, brought on by the excitement of this controversy, but we do not
know Bailer's aathoHty for this assertion. All ids works were collected iu one oc-
tavo volume, and published under the title of " Opera Omnia '* Iq 1677, and they
were republished in 1678 and in 1709.

GRAAFF-REI'NET, tlie chief town of the division of its own name, is one of
the most important and prosperous towns in Cape Colony, llie number of inhabi-
tants Is alMut 3300. During the ten years Immediately preceding 1857, it had risen
from an inland village to be a great centre of commerce, having its public
library, its college, its i^cultnral society, its banks, ond its uewspaptr. It owes
its advancement partly to its position on the high-road between Port Elizabeth
and the nortliem Douudory. It is situateti on the Sunday, which entei-s Algoa Bay,
near Port Elizabeth.


QRAAI^ Oral, Oral, or Grdal (derived probably from the old French, perhaps
Celtic, jjrrM/, Provencal, grazal^ medieval Latin, gradcUiH)^ signifies a Kind of
dish. In the legends and poetr}' of the middle ages, we find accounts of the Holy
Graal — San Gr6al— a mihkculons chalico made of a single precious ptone. sometimes
said to be an emerald, which possessed the power ot preserving chastity, prolong-
ing life, and other wonderful properties. This chalice was believed to have been
first brought from heaven by angels, and was the one from which Christ drank at
the Last Supper. It was preserved by Joseph of Arimathea, and in It were caught
the last d?op6 of the blood of Christ as he was taken from the cross. This holy
chalice, thus trebly sanctified, was guarded by aneels, and then by the Templises, a
society of knights, chosen for their chastity and c^votion, wbo watched over it in a
temple-like castle on the inaccessible mountain Montpalvage. The legend, as it
erew. appears to have combined Arabian, Jewish, and Christian elements, and it
Dccame the favorite subject with tbo poets and romancers of the middle ages. The
eight centuries of warfare between the Christians and Moors in Spain, and the
foundation of the order of Knight Templars, aided in its development. The stories
and poems of Arthur and the Round Tnolc were connected with this legend. About
1170, Chretien of Troves, and after htm other troubadours, sang of the search for the
holy graal by the Knights of ihe Round Table, in which tbev met with many extra-
ordinary adventures. Some have supposed that the story of the connection of the
miracaknis chalice with the Last Supper and the blood of Christ arose from a
wrong division of the words wn gritU. holy vessel, which were written 9ang rial,
royal Diood, blood of the Lord ; but although the coincidence is curious, there is no
good reason to suppose that a pun could have been the foundation of a superstition
which spread over Europe. The legend of the graal wa? introduced into German
poetry In the 18 c. by Wolfram von Eschen bach, who took Guiot's tales of Parcival
and Titnrel as the foundation of his poem, but tilled it with deep allegorical roeau-
Uiga- It is more elaborately treated by the autlior of Titnrel the Younger; and
much curious information on the subject mav be found in Lang's **Die Sage vom
belligen G." (1862), Cased's *'Der Q. n. sein Name " (1866), Droysen's **Der Tern-
pel des h. 0.'> (1872), and Zaracke's *« Der Graltempel ^ (1876).

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Grab. 104

GRABS, vetweto of from IBO to 800 tons, employed on the Malabar coast They
arc broad armed f^hipB, witli t^^o or tbrco masts, and nnsuited for very heavy

GRA'CCHUS is the name of a Roman family, of tlie gens Semprouia, which con-
tribaied several famous citiscu.s to the statti. First we have Tiberius Semprouius,
who was consul in 238 B.G., tjid conducted some warlike operations in Corsica and
Snrdlnia. Another Tib. Semprouius distinguished himself in the second Punic war,
and for liis success in opposing Hannibal, was honored with the consulship in 215
B.C., and again in 213 b.c. In those days of despondency, he did much to revive the
spirit of the senate and people : with the allies, and 800U voloneB^ or volunteer slaves
(who afterwards gained I heir liberty as a reward for their bravery), he withstood the
Carthaginians in South Italy, defeated Hauno, and checkmated Ilaunibal himseiC;
l)nt after many victories, he at length lost his lifev either in battle witli Mago, or,
according to others, by treachery. Hannibal honored him with a splendid funeral.
Passing by some Gracchi of minor note, as the augtu of 203 B.a, the tribune o^ 18i>
B.C., and others, we come to Tiberius Sempronius,the fatlier of those two reformers
and friends of the people whose fame lias overshadowed all thokOthers. He was born
about 210 B.O., and for mauv years occupied a foremost position in the state. He
was successively tribune, redile, pnetor, consul f twice), and censor, and distinguished
himself in several wars. He introduced some important constitutional changes, and
was often employed on foreign embassies, in which his judgment and concilhitory
spirit were of great service to the state. He married Cornelia^ the youngest daughter
of P. Scipio Africanus, by whom he had twelve children. Nine of these died In
youth ; a daughter, Cornelia, married Scipio Africanus the younger. The history of
uls two sons follow^:

1. TiBBBius Sbmpbonius Gbaochus was boi*n about 168 b.c., and was educated
with great care by his excellent mother (his father having died while he was yet very
young). He first saw military service under his brothcr-fii-law, Scipio Africanus the
younger, whom lie accompanied to Africa. He was present at the capture ot Car-
thage, and is said to have been the first of the Romans to scale the walls. In 1ST
B.C., he acted as qusestor to the army of the consul Mancinus in Spain, where the
remembrauce of his father's good faith and clemency was so fresh after forty years*
interval, that the Numantines would treat with no other Roman but the son of their
former Dcuefactor. He was thus enabled to save from utter destruction an army of
80,000 Romans, who had been defeated, and were at the mercy of the Nnmantinee.
But the peace wtis considered by the aristocratic partv at Rome as disgraceful to
the national honor, and was repudiated, Nfancinus being stripped naked, and sent
back to the Numantines, that the treaty might thus he rendered void. Disgust and
dl^ppolntment at this result are said by some, though without good reason, to liavo
determined G. to espouse the canse of the people against the nobles ; but a much
more feasible ground for his conduct is to l)e found in the oppressed state of tbe
commons at the time. Being elected tribune, he endeavored to reirapose the Agrar-
ian Law of Licinius Stolo. and after violent opposition on the part of the ansto*
crutic party, who had bribed his colleague M. Octavius Ceecino, lie succeeded in
passing a bill to that effect (For a detailed account of the measure, see Aqrabian
Law.) Tiberius G., his brother Cains, and his falher-in-law Ap. Claudius, were ap-
pointed triumvirs to enforce its provisions. Meantime, Attains, king of Pergaraus,
died, and iwqueathed all his wealth to the Roman people. Q. therefoi-e proposed that
this should be divided among the poor, to enable them to procure agrieultiu*al imnle-
ments. and to stock their newly acquired farms. It is said that he also intended to
extend the franchise, and to receive Italian allies as Roman citizens. He al^o di-
minished the time which citizens were required to serve In the army. But fortune
turned against the good tribune. He was accused ot having violated the sacred
character of the trTbuneship bv the deposition of Ciecina, and the fickle jwople
In large numbers deserted their benefactor. At the next election tor the tribune-
ship, his enemies used all their effoits to oust him; and a violent scuffle having
arisen between the opposing factions, G. was slain, along with upwards of SOti
others. His surviving fronds were imprisoned, exiled, or put to death.

Caius Sbmpronius Gracchus, who was nine years younger than his broUier,
was possessed of much greater natural powers, and of more comprehenBive views.
His l>rother's death, wliich occurred while he was serving in Spain undei* Scipio

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AfricanoB, deterred bim for some years from entering Intopabliclife, and the nobles
seeing his great abilities and fearing his inAuebce with the people, endeavored to
keepltim as long as possible ou foreign service in Sardinia and elsewhere. Bat at
length he nnexpectedly retomed to Borne, being nrged bj bis brother's shade, as was
said, to enter on bis great mission. Goaded bj the persecntiou and gronudless accn-
SAtious of hhi enemies, be stood for the tribaneshlp, and was elected in 128 B.a
After bringing forward some measures to take vengeance on his brother's murderers,
he set himself to carry out the agrarian law, which though not repealed, had by the
roachinatlouH of the nobles been kept In abeyance. The two great alms of his legis-
lation— viz., to improve the condition of the poor and to curtail the power of the
senate ^nd nobles—were now prosecuted with the utmost vigor and with unflinching
steadiness of purpose. To develop the resources of Italy and at the same time to
employ the poor, lie made new roads throughout all parts of tlic country, repaired
old ones, and erected milestones. By his seal and by his unwearied industry In per-
sonally carrying out his own measures, even to superintending the execution of the
public works, and by his affability and kindly good nature, he gained the esteem and
approbation of all men with whom he came In contact. With the eauites and the
poorer classes, he was In special favor. But he at length fell, as his brother bad
done, bv the intrigues of the nobles. One of his colleagues, M. Livlus Drusus, was
bribed by the opposite faction, and soon succeeded in undermining the influence of
CaiuM by far surpassing him in the liberality of his public measures, and by bis bene-
fits to the commons. G. having stood for the tribnueship a third time, was aejected.
Ultimately, by a series of moves, the history of which is too long for our space,
violence was employed against Caius and his party— a fearful stra^lo took place In
the streets of Rome, in wtiich 3000 men are said to have perished. Many others were
imprisoned and afterwards executed. Caius held aloof from the flght, but was at
length compelled to seek safety in flight. He escaped to the grove of the Furies
with a single slave, who first slew bis master ond then himself. The people saw
when too late the folly of which they had been guiltv in abandoning their nest friend
in the hour of need, and endeavored to atone for their crime by erecting irtatues to
the brothers G., by declaring sacred the spots where their blood had been shed, and
by offering sacrifices to them as to deities. Cains left a son, whose after fate Is un-

GRACE is an expression frequently used in Scripture and In theological discus-
sion. Its distinctive meaning if the idea of fire* aiiA unmerited favor. According
to Aristotle, this is the proper meaning of charts (Gr. grace), even when applied to
man. It is a l>eneflt springing out of the liberality and f reehcartedness of the giver,
and bestowed without any hope or expectation of reward. Applied to God in the
New Testament and in ttieology, it denotes the free outcoming of his love to man ;
and when man, on the other hand, is said to be in a state of grcuie^ it Implies that
he is In the enjoyment of tliis divino love and favor. St Paul draws a sharp con-
tnuit (Rom. xi.) between eharis and erga (Gr. works), as mutually excluding one
anotlicr. '*And if bv grace, then is it no more of works; otherwise grace Is no
more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace ; otherwise work is no
more work."

Theologians have distinguished grace Into eommon or general^ and special or par-
Heutar, Common mce is supposed to denote the love which God has to all His
creatures, and the light of nature and of conscience which they all enjoy. Special
grace is the lore whKh God has for His elect people, and by which He saves them
&om their sins. This spteial or savrna grace is sometimes also divided In various
ways, and spoken of as electing, justifying, sanctifying grace: also in respect to
man, as impfUed or inherent grace — the grace, that Is to say, of Christ's rigbteous-
uees imputed or reckoned to the account of those that believe on Him. and the grace
of holy and pious dispositions wrought in the heart by the spirit of God. Grace is
also spoken of as ejicacioue and irresittible.and the relation in which the elect or
believing people stand to God is represented as a covenant of grace, in contrast with
the primitive relation which Adam bore to bis Maker before tbe fall, which is called
a eovenani of works.

All these theological distinctions have arisen in the course of extended argu-
ment and discussioii,on divine truth. They are not to be found— at least In their
more technical sense— in the New Testament. The eharis of St Paul is not a logical

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Ckaduatton ^^"

distlnoUoD, bat a iiplritnnl fact. It Is the loving Aspect of God towards tbo sfimep—
towards all siuuera, wbereby tdl who confess tbeir sins have free access luto His
favor, and received the ** adoption of sous.** The techuical distlDctloiis of theology,
however, are not without their value wlien rij^htly apprehended and interpreted.
They mark the conrse of past controversy— they give precision to theolofrical thought
—and wlien not allowed to deface the simpler proportions of divine tratb, they may
teach ueedfnl and important lessons. .^^1

GRACE. Days of. See Bill.

GRACES, the goddesses of grace, favor, and centlencss, tlie sonrces of all grace
and l)eaaty, apiicar in Homer in iiulefluito numbers as the attendants of Cytberea
(Venus), whom it is tbeir office to bathe and anoint. Hesiod and most otlier poets
mention ttiree Q.— Aglnia, llialia, and Enpbrosyne, the daughters of Zeus and
Euryuome. Their worsliip is said to have been first Introduced into Greece at Or-
cliomenos. in Boeotia, by Bteoclcs. The Lacedemonians and Athenians origlnully
recc^iisea only two Graces, called, by tlie former, Pluenna and Kleta ; by the latter,
Hegemone and Auxo. In the early ages, tlic G. were represented in elegnnt drapery ;
at a later period, slightly draped, or entirely nude. They appear holding each other
by tbe hand, or loclccd m each other's embrace.

GRACIO'SA, one of the Azores Islands (q. v.), and the soveotb of that group in
population and Importance.

GRA4>IENT. A tortoise walking is said, in Heraldry, to be gradient.

GRADIENT, a term nsed chiefly in connection with railways, to signify a de-
parture of tbe line from a perfect leveL

GHA'DUAL, in the Liturgy of the Roman and other Western churches, means
that portion of the mass which intervenes between the epistle and gospel, and con-
sists of a few verses of the Holy Scriptures, generallytakeu from tlie Psalms. It
was originally called the ** Responsnm,*' or *' Cantos Respousorius ; ** bat, probably
for the sake of distinguishing it from other portions of tbe service calico by the
same name, its present appellation baa been substituted. The name ** gradual " ia
derived from the place at which this response was chanted, and which was either the
ambo, or chanting pulnit, which is approached by ** Pteps^' {gradxM) or the '* steps"
themselves, whether oc tbe ambo or ot the nltar. Originally, as we find from St An-

Sustlne, the gradual response consisted of an entire psalm, and in the mass of the
rst Sunday of Lent tbe entire of tbe 9lst (90tli in tlie Vulgate) psalm is chanted.
In the Ambroeian Liturgy, the gradual is partly from the Old and partly from the
Kew Testament. Tbo gradual, in the Roman liturgy, is always followed by the ** al-
leluia,'* except in penitential time, when a slow and monruful chant, called tbe
" Tract," is subsUlutod.

GRADUAL PSALMS, or ••Psalms of tbe Stens," or •'Songs of Degrees," a
naroegiven both by the Hebrews and in the Christian service-books to the fifteen
psalms, 120—184 (119—183 in the Vulgate). Tbe origin of this name is uncertain.
Tlie rabbins trace it to a fabulous hicMeut connected with the building of tbe second
temple ; others explain it as an allusion to the fifteen steps by which (Esekiel xl. SS
— 96) tbe temple was reached ; others, again, regard these psalroa as containing a
prophetic allnsion to the return from captivity, which, in the language of the Jews,
was "a going up," the 134tb iMalm being the full outburst of exultation at tbe ao-
complishmeiu of that great object of hoi>e and longing. These psalms, in the Ro-
mish Cbnrcb, form jMirt of the office of each Wednesday during tbe Lent

GRADITALB^ the name given to tbe music of tbe above described portion of tbe
Roman Liturgy. It is performed during ma^s after the epistle is read. It is said to
have been ns^ from tbe earliest times to allow the offlcbting priest time, during its
performance, to take bis place on the steps of tho reading-desk, or on tne steps of
the gospel side of tbe altar. The music is according to the character of the words,
and may be either an aria, duet, or chorus. The coropofdtlon must not be long, as
tbe priest has little ceremony to go through dnring its |)erformance. The best speci-
mens of thogradnaie are Havdn's "Insame et Vanee Onne ;" "Salve Regina;** or Mo-

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 21 of 196)