James Orr.

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Bart's ** Misericordias Domini;" "Soncta Maria;" "DeProfuodls," *c.

GRADUATION, the art of dividing mathematical, astronomical, and other in«



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Graduation

Btrnxnents. The ffimplest problem in graduation ia the dividing of a straight line,
anch oa an ordinurf acaie or rule. This ia commonly done by copying from a Bttiu-
dard acale, for which puipoae a dividing sqnarn and a suitable knife fur cnttiug the
diviaiona are ttaod. The dividing Fqnure is a Iwrd steel atraight^dgo, with a shoul-
der at right angles tike a carpenter's square. This ia mndo to slide along tlie stnn-
ddrd scale. and haltateach required division, when a corresponding one is cut npon
the mlp, Ac, by nsiug the steel atraight-edge as a guide to the knife. The original
pt-udutUivn of a strai^t line into equnldlvisions, as in making a first standard scale,
Ac, is performed either on tlie nrinciple of bi^leet^ot^ or stepping. In bisecting, the
poiuta of a beam-compose (see Cohpass) ore adjusted to nearlv half tiie length of
the line to 1>a divided; one point is then placed nt one end of the line, and a
faint arc strack towaitis the middle; this is repeated at the other end; tiie»-mull
distance between these area ia then carefully bisected with the aid of a fine A»ointer
and magnifier, which gives an accurate half of the line. The half thna obtained ia
again bii'ected in like manner, and these quarters bisected again, and
eu on nntil the required snlxllvision is a'taiued. Stepping Is performed
with deitoately pointed spring-<lividers. which are sot at once as nearly
aa possible to the oiienins oC tlio ainail division required; then the points
are 'made to step on, leaving at each atup a very fine dot; and when
it ia found that the last dot cither foils short of or overpasses the end of
the line, the opening is adjusted rccordingly, until perfect accuracy is obtained.
Thna, if a line were aividetl into a thousjind ports, and eacii division were 1 -1000th
too long or tooaiiort, the error would amount to a whole division at the end of a
thousand steps. The method of bisection is pnctically the most occunite,
and has been adopted by Qrahoin, Bird, Itamsden, Troughton, and other
eminent artists in original gnidnntlon. Curved lines are divided on this
principle, llie chord of an arc of 60° is equal to the radius; therefore, the open-
ing of the compasses required for striking the circle gives this arc ot once to stort
with. An arc 90'', or a quadrant, is obtained bv bisecting 60°, and adding the half.
By continual bisectiou of fi0<*, the finer graduations are produced. The amount of
care, patience, skill, and delicacy of touch required In the original graduation of im-
portant aatronomicflt instruments, is such, that not above one or two men in a gen-
eration have been found competent to the task, and these have become almost ns
famous as the astronomers who have successfully used the instruments. It would
bcoutof place hero to point out in detail the minute precautions and methods of
correction that are adopted in this moat delicate manipulation ; but, as an example,
we may mention the fact, that Graham, when dividing the mural quadnmt for the
Green wich Observatoiy, measnred his larger chords from A scale made for the pni-poyr;
but l)efore laying these down on the quadrant, he left the scale, beam-compasses, and
quadrant io stand for a whole night, in order to acquire exactly the same temperature,
and that ue<!lect of this precaution would have involved a notable amount of error.
The necessity of such extreme accuracy will be understood when we consider the
appMcatlou that is made of these divisions. When, for example, the mariner det< r-
roinea hla latitude by taking the meridian altitude of the sun, the graduated arc of
the limb of the sextant or quadrant ho uses represents, practically, the curved snr.
face of the globe, and the error is magnified just to the same extent as the radius of
the earth exceeds that of the divided arc of the instrument. Suppoaiug this arc to
be partof a circle of 60 Inches' circumference, each degi-ee will occnpy l-6th of nii
inch. An error of 1-lOOthof an inch in the diviaion would thus mislead the mariner
to an extent of more than four statnte miles as regards his position on the wateri*.
But such a Bhip*s quadrant is but a coarse and rude instrument compared with S)*-
tronomical iustrninenta for measuring celestial angular distances by means of a
divided arc; in these. an error of a thousandth part of an Inch would be regarded as
one of serions magnitude.

The methods of oHpinal {p-adutUion above described are not practically adopted
except for tbe largest and most im))ortant astronomical or geodetical Instruments.
Ordinary inatmmeuta are graduated hv dividing plat.es or engines which copy and
adapt a set of already eidsting divisions. The dlviding-plnte which ia used for
common nnrposea, such as dividing compass rings, &c., is a divided circle with a
ateel straight edge, made movable on the axis or art>or or the plat*' in such a man-
ner that ita edge during every part of its revolution ahull full in the exact line from



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centre to cfrcamCeraoce. The ring, protractor, or other inBtmmcnt to be dirfded,
le clamped upon the plate with lt» ceutre exactly colncldiug wiNi that of the plate,
nud the straight-edge ia moved round, and made to halt at the reqnired diviftions on
the circumference ot the dividuig-plate, nud by using the steel straight-edge as a
guide, corresponding divisions are marked oil upon the concentric arc of the In-
strument to be divided. The dividing-engine is a very complex machine, requiring
tiie greatest accuracy and care in Its conatmction ; so much so, that the possession
of a gooil one affords the means of obtaining a very good income, with a moderate
amount of labor in using it. Such was the case with the instrument of Mr Paf^ns
of Loudon, who for many years divided a large proportion of the best theodolites,
sextants, &c, that were made In this country. Among the most celebrated divid-
ing-engines may be mentioned those of Kamsden, Troughton, Simms, and Roes.
A detaijed account of tho construction of these would far exceed our limits. Their



moved tlirough any given number of revolutions, or any measured fraction of a rev-
olution, by means of a treadle or other suitable power, thus malciug the requU»ite
steps for each division ; another part of the machine cutting a fine Ime at the mo-
ment of tUe halt of each step.

These divisions are cut upon an arc of silver, gold, or platinum, which is soldered
or Inlaid npon the limb of the instrument^ tho precious metals being iL^ed, on ac-
count of the oxidation to which common metuls are liable.

GR^CIA, Magna. See MIgma Ubjbcia.

GRAF, the German equivalent for Count (q. v.), Comtey Comes, and for our Karl
(q. v.). The etymology of the word is disputed, but the m»wt probable coinecture
sterns to be that it spnngs from the same root with the modem German rafen and
the Anglo-Saxon r«(^an, to snatch or ciirry ofif hastily; and also with our words
»*e«7«, pretJ«, and the last syllable of sheriff. If this view l>e correct, the graf, ia
all probability, was originally a fiscal olHccr, whose duty it was to' collect the
reveuue of a district. Tiie tiile first appears In the lex mliea (compiled in the 6th
c.)t under the Latinised form of Orafio; ut a later ]>eriod, tho office is often desig-
nated by the Latin equivalent of Cornea, Charlemagne divided his whole kingdom
into GraT-districts {Gra/engaue) or counties, each of which was presided over oy a
graf. The people were in tlie habit of npi>ointlng a representative called the Cent-
ifrafXo attend to their Interests with the graf, ana probably, if necessarv, to appeal
from his discisions to the central government. Then there was the Stall-gra^ or
Ftable-graf ; the Comes Stabitlij or constable of later times ; the Pfalz-graf (,Come%
PalcUit)^ who presided in the domestic court of the monarch, which as such was the
highef>t court in the realm ; the Send-nraf^ who was sent as an extraordinary deputy
of the king to control the onlinary ffdit-anrafen; and lastly, the Mark-graf, or mar-

?[uis, on whom the important duty of defending the border-lands devolved. When
eudal offices became hereditary, and the power of the princes of the empire, secular
and ecclesiastical, developed itself, the graf graduallv ceai«ed to be an officer pos-
sessed of real power, and became merely a tilled noble. In Germany, In modem
times, there arc two classes of grafs; thope who ore representatives of the old
prafel f until ies, who held sovereign jurisdiction immeiiiately under the crown
\landeitfioheit), and who still belong to the higher nobility, their chief taking tho
title Brlaucht (Illustrious) ; and those who form the highest class of the lower
nobility. The former is a very small, the kitter, an extremely numerous class
of persons.

GRA'FENBERG, a little village in Austrian Silesia, In an extension of the town
of^Freiwttldau towards the north, and is celebrated as the spot where the water-
cure (see Hydropathy) was introduced about the year 1828 by PriesKuitz. The
village is situated at an elevation of 1900 feet above the level of the Baltic Sea ; ttie
climate is Inclement, and the vegetation scanty. It extends from the valley, half
way up the Grfifcnberge. The lodgings for visitors are portly In the buildings con-
nectecl with the baths, partly scattered on the declivity of the hill, or in Frciwaldao.
GRAFPI'TI (Ital. graffilo^ a scratching), a class of ancient Inscripilons to which
attention has recently been called, and of which several collections have been mad%



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or are In pro^rets. The graffito i« a rude FcribWlng or Mnratching with a stylus, oi
other sharp inBtmment, ou the plaster of a walU a piUar, or a door-post. Snch
ecribbUiigs are pretty commonly foond ou the Bnbfitmctions of Roman ruins, as in
the Golden House of N^ro. the palace of the Cfe^ars-aud the Palatine, and in still
greater numbers in Pompeii and in the Roman catacombs. Their literary value, of
course, is very slight ; but as illustrating the character and habits of a certain class
of the ancient Romans, and what may be called the " street-life " of the classic pe-
riod, they are deserving of study. A small selection of Pompelian graffiti was pub-
lished in 1837 by Dr Wordsworth ; but the most complete, or. at all events, the moti
popnlar collection, is tliat of Padre Garrncci, a Neapolitan Jesuit, wliicb was put)-
lisbed in Paris in 1856. Greelc graffita occasionally are found npnon Roman miiis,
but they are commonly in Latin, and in a few instances at Pompeii, in the ancient
Oacan. A lew specimens mav not be uninteresting.

Some of them are idle scribblings, such aa we may suppose some loiterer to in-
dite at the present day ; thus, some lounger at the door of a wine-shop at Pompeii
arouses himself by scratching on the door-])ost the tavern-keeper's name— Tabfrna
Appii (^ Appius's Tavern." In other cixses, wo meet with some scrap of rude pleas-
antry or scandal, such as not unfrequently defaces the walls of our own towns or
villages; thus, Augeamat Arabienwm (" Auge is in love with Arnbtenus.") Many
rude slcctches also are found upon the walls, some of them evidently caricatures,
others seriously meant, and grotesque from the extreme rudeness. A great many
of the subjects of those sketches arc gladiatorial.

Bv far the largest proportion of the graffiti are from Pompeii, but many have
also been discovered at Rome, and some of them are of a most interesting charac-
ter. One discovered by Father Garrncci in 1866, in a subterranean chamlier of the
palace of the Ctesars, possesses a stranee and tmly awful interest^ as a memorial of
tlie rude early conflicts of paganism with the rising Christian creed. It is no other



room for slaves and others of inferior grade.

The graffiti of the catacombs are almost all sepulchral, and are full of interest as
illustrating earlv Christian life and doctrine. Bee for the whole subject the " Edin-
burgh Review," vol. ex. pp. 411—487.

GRA'FRATn, a town of Rhenish Prussia, in the government of DUsseldorf, and
12 miles east-bv-south from Dusseldorf, on the Itter. It has mauufactnrcs of cotton
goods, silk ribbons, and iron-ware ; and has recently much increased in manufac-
turing industry, wealth, and population. Pop. (1871) 5420.

GRAFTING, the uniting of a young shoot (aciwt) of one kind of plant to a stem
(«toek) of another kind, so that the scion may receive nourishment from the stock.
Qrafting has been practised from ancient times, as mav be seen from passages in
the New Testament, and in Virgil and other Latin classics; although it cannot be
certainly traced to a more remote antiquity ; and its introduction among the Chinese
is ascribed to Roman Catholic missioaaries. It is a most important part of tlie art
of gardening, and is practised for various purposes, but chiefly for the perpetuation
and propagation of the flnest varieties of fruit-trees, which could not bo accom-
plished Dy seed, and is accomplished by grafting more rapidly and easily than by
layers or cuttings. Besides this, however, grafting is of great use in hastening and
Increasing the ^'nitfulness of fruit-trees; the circulation of the sap being impeded
at the junction of the stock and scion— as by a deep wound, removal of bark, or
the like— more particularly when there is a considerable difference between the stock
and scion ; and repeated grafting (technically, working) is often resorted to by gar-
deners to obtain flowers and fruit much sooner than would naturally be the case.
Grafting is also employed to turn to account the vigor of a root and stem of which
the branches are exhausted or otherwise unproductive, and large crops of fruit may
often be thus obtained in a garden, mnch sooner than by any other means.

In grafting, it is particularlv to be attended to that the Alburnum (q.v.) of the
scion is brounit Into contact with that of the stock. The linrd wood of the one never
unites with that of tlie other, remaining separate and marking the place of the
opmtlon even iu the oldest trees. For bcIods or grafts, pieces of about six to eight



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(itraham JL X U

Inches long aro gefoerallj taken from theBbootfiof the preTioas summer, vUhflererel
buds, !}Qt portions of sboots of two years old are sometimes successfnlly employed.
Tbe time for grafting is In spring, as soon as tbe sap begins to appear. The scion
should, if possible, be taken from a healthy and fmitf nl tree, bat scions from the
extremities of lateral branches are more likely to become speedily fmitful than those
from the uppermost branches, where growth is most Yigoruus. The scion ehonld be
kept for a few days iMfore grafting, so that the stock may i*uther exceed it, not only
in vigor, bat in the progress of its spring growth ; and for this purpose may be placed
in the ground, in a rather dry soil, slieltered from Uie direct rays of the smj. Scions
may be keptfor some time, and easily carried to a distance, by sticking tlieir lower end
into a potato. The end shoold always be f reshlv cut off when tl\e scion is to bo nsed.
There are various modes of grafting. Cleft-grafting is very commonly practised wlieu
the stock is very cousiderably thicker than the scion. The stock being cut over, is cleft
down, and the graft, cut into the shape of a wedge at its lower end by a sharp thiu
knife, is inserted into the cleft. This mode of grafting is particularly applicable to
branches of Urge trees, when the introduction of a new variety of fruit, or increased
fmitfnlness, is sought. — Crovm^ra/ting is nsed for still thicker stocks, which are
cut across, and ttien cleft down by two clefts crossing one another at right angles,
two scions boing inserted close to the bark in each deft ; or no cleft at all is made,
and any desired number of scions obliquely cutaway on one side are simply inserted
between tbe bark and wood of the stock, the operation in this case being deferred
till tbe bark readily parts from the wood. In this kind of grafting, a longitudinal
slit in the^bark of the stock, opposite to each graft, is advautageon8. - r«(mffM«-ffr<\/Tt-
ing is the mode most commonly practised for young trees in nurseries. For this, it
is necessary that the stock and the scion should be of not very different thickness. A
slit or a very narrow augnlar incision is made in the centre of the stock downwards,
and a similar one in the scion upwards, both having been first cut obliquely, at cor*
responding angles, and the tongue thus made in the scion being inserted into tbe in-
cision in the stock, they are fastened very closely and thoroughly together. — ^In Sad'
dU^afling, the end of the stock is cut into the form of a wedge, an^the sdon is
affixed to it, the l)Asc of the scion having been cut or slit up for the purpose.-^
ShoiUder-grafUng used chiefly for ornamental trees, is performed by cutting obli-
quely, and then cutting across a small part at top of the stock, so as to form a
shoulder, the scion being cut to tit it. — Peg-grafting, not now much In use, is accom-
plished by making the end of the sciou into a peg, and boring the top of the stock
to receive it

Whichever of these modes of grafting Is adopted, the graft must be fastened In
its place by tying, for which purpose a strnnd of bast-matting is commonly nsed.
The access of aJr is further prevented by means of clay, which has been worked up
with a little chopped hoy, horse or cow dung, and water, and which is applied to the
place of junction so as to form a ball, tapering both upwards and downwards. In
France, a composition of 88 parts black pitch. «8 Burgundy pitch, 16 yellow wax, 14
tallow, and 14 sifted ashes, is generally used instead of clay. Gutta-percha, ap-
plied in a soft state, has also been Ubed, or even blotting-paper held fast by stripe*
of sticking-plaster. The progress of the buds shews the union of the graft and
stock, but It is not generally safe to remove the clay in less than tiiree mouths; and
the ligatures, although then loosened, are allowed to remain for some time longer.
From some kinds oi fruit-trees, fruit is often obtained in the second year uter
grafting.

Budding (q. ▼.) is in principle tlie same as grafting; and Flutt-graftinff\% a kind
of budding in which a ring of bark is used instead of a single bud, and a stock of
similar thkkness having b^u cut over, a ring of iMrk is removed, and the foreign
one substituted. This is commonly performed in spring, when the bark parts
readily, and is one of the surest modes of grafting.— /worcfctnf? (q. v.). or gr^inq
hy approach, in which the scion is not cnt off from its parent stem until it is united
to the new stock, is practised chiefly in the case of some valuable shrubs kept in pots,
in which success by the ordinary methods is very doubtful

An effect is produced by the stock on the scion which it nourishes anak^ous to
that of a change of soil ; much of the vigor of a strong healthy stock is also com-
innnicated to a scion taken even from an aged tree. There is, moreover, in some
degree, an influence on the elaborated sap descending from thJo scion on the stock



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wbich Biipports If. An Important pnrt of the practical »kil] of the gardener or nnr
•errman conabta lu tbe selection of the proper kinds of stocks for different species
and varieties of fruit-trees. Tlie stock and scion, however, roust not oe of speciea
extremely dissimilar. No credit is due to the statements of ancient anihors about
Ytnea grafted on fig-treet*, apples on planes, Ac., tbe semblance of which can only
have been brought about by some delusive artifice ; for ali attempts at grafting
fail except among plants of the same genus, or at least of the same natural
family.

Herbaceous plants with firm stems, as dahlias, are sometimes grafted. Some
kinds of ulauts, of small size, in pots, are placed in moist hothouses or hotbeds,
under l>dUglasse8, whilst the junction of the scion and stock is going on, which lu
these circnmstancep. takes place very sarelv and very expeditiously. But nn accumn-
Jation of too much moisture under the belt-glass must be guarded against

GRAQNA'NO, a town of 8000 inhabitant, in the province of Napl£!>, two miles
south-east of Castellamare, is situated on the flank of Mount Qaurano, from which
it is said to hnve derived its name. The oriuriu of this town dates from the great
eruption of Vesuvius in 79 a.d., when the niiiflbitauts of 8tabia, in dread of the
vinciuity of the volcano, fle<l from their dwellinfrs, and sought refuge on the muni^
tain of Ganrana G. lies lu a beautifully picturesque neigbM>rlkK)d, which produces
exoelleut wines, and has good macaroni manufactories.

GRAHAM, Family of. See Montrosb.

GRAHAM, Sir James Roliert George, tlie Right Honorable, of Netherby, Cum-
berland, statesman, eldest son of Sir James, the first baronet, bv Lady C. Stewart,
eldest <uin£liter of tbe seventh Earl of Galloway, was bom June i, 179S. The Gra-
hams of Netherby are a junior branch of tlie Grahams of Bsk, Viscounts of Preston,
descended from the Earls of Stratheme and Menteith. G. was educated at West-
minster School, whence he proceeded to Queen's College, Cambridge. He after-
wards becan^ private secretary to Lord Mouteoiuerie, the British minister in Sicily,
during tlie most critical period of the wur, and the entire munogement of the mission
devolved upon him at a roost Important moment, lu consequence of the illness of
his chief. On the arrival of Lord W. Beutiuck he was continued in his post, and he
afterwards accepted a military situation attached to the person of Lord William, who
was commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. He was sent in this capacity to
Murat. with whom at Naples lie negotiated the armistice which sepiiratcd that gen-
eral from Napoleon. In 1818 he was returned for Hull on Whig principles, but at
tlie next election in 1820 lost his seat, and some years elapsed b^ore he re-entered
parliaiuent In 16S4 he succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his father. lu
1886 he was returned for Carlisle as a Whig and a warm supporter of Catholic cman-
dpstlon. He displayed so much ability in opposition, that Earl Grey offered him in
18S0 the post of first Lord of the Admiralty, with a seat In the cabinet He was also
one of tiie committee of the cabinet appointed to discuss and settle the provisions of
tbe first Reform Bill. He was at this time very popular with the extreme liberal
party, and was supposed to be, of all the raeiubers of the Grey cabinet, most favor^
able to radical changes. In 1884 he seceded from tlie government with Mr Stanley,
on the appropriation clause of the Irish Ciinrcli Temporalities Act He
refused to join the Peel administration in that year, but gradually in
opposition approximated to the politics of that statesman; and lu 1841
became Secretary of State for tbe Home Department in the government of
Sir Robert Peel, who on one occasion declared thai G. was the ablest administrator
and the bent man of business he had ever known. In 1844, he issued a warrant for
opening the letters of Mauslnl, and caused tbe information thus obtained to be com-
manicated to the Austrian minister, an act by which the ministry, and G. >u par-
ticular, incurred great obloquy. He also encountered great displeasure north of
the Tweed by his higl^handed roethod of dealing with the Scottish Church during
the troubles which ended, contrvy to his anticipation, in the Disruption, and the
formation of the Free Church. He gave Peel a warm support in carrying the Corn
Law Repeal Bill, and resigned ofllce witli his chief as soon as that great measure
was carried. On the death of Peel in 1860, he became leader of the Peellte i>arty
in the Lower House, and led the opposition to tbe Ecclesiastical TiUes Bill. lu De-
cember 1808 bo took office in the Coalition Ministry of the Earl of Aberdeen, uud



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accepted his old office of First Lord of the Adniralty. This was a post mnch b«k
low his talents and pretensious, but he held it ouUl February 1866. Q. refosed to
take office either in the first or second administration of Lord Palmerston, hot be



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 22 of 196)