James Orr.

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estimated the number of acres in England under grain crops In 1862 — 1858 at 6^
millions (wheat, 3 millions; barley, 1; onts ai-d rye, 2: beans and peas, 3^), and the
lotal produce at 27>^ million quarters— value X37,000,000. The produce of potatoes,
tumlpa, rape, and clover is estimated at i:26.000,(KK). The annual value of the
pastures and mendow-hay is immense. In 185T, according to the careful statistics
collected by the Highland and Agrlcnltnrnl Society of Scotland, there were in Scot-
land 3,656,572 acres under rotation, the chief crops being grass and hay, 1,469,805
acrf^s ; oats, 983,618 acres, yieldinc 82,150,768 bushels ; wheal 228,152, yielding 5,154,-
985 bushels; barley, 198.387, yielding 6,564,429 bushels; tnniips, 476.691 acres, yield-
ing 6,690,109 tons ; potatoes, 139,819 acres vieidlng 480,468 ions. The live Ftock
amounted to 6,989,868— vix., 186,409 horses. 974.487 cattle, 5,683,168 sheep, and 146,854
swine. The total extent of land returned in 1874 as being under all kinds of crops,
bare fallow and grass, was 81,266,919 acres in Great Britain, 15,752,187 acres in Ire-
land. 94,100 acres in the Isle of Man, 18,486 <1878) acres in the island of Jersey, and
11.678 acres in the islands of Guernsey, Aldemey, Ac,, making a total for the United
Kingdom of 47,143,320 acres. The total acreage of label returned as under culilvallou
in Great Britain has been larger in each year since the returns were Ursi collected from
all occupiers of lai.d in 1868. The live stock in tlie United Kingdom in 1874 was
as follows : The uuml>er of horses included in the agricultural returns was 1,847,148 ;
in Great Britain, only horses used for agiiculture, uu>)roken horses, and mares kept
solelv for breeding, are included in ihe retunis; bv adding 915,000 for the estimated
nnmiierof all deticriptions of horses, we And the totarnumbcr of horses in the
United Kingdom to be 2,860,000. The total number of cattle returned for the
United Kingdom In 1874 was 10,281,036; of sheep the total number was 84,887.597 ;
aud of pig^§,557,854. Of these numbers of live-stock.Great Britain (exclublve of tlie is-
lands) possessed 2,225,000 horses, and Ireland 525,770 ; giving a proportionate number
per 100 acres of land under cultivation, of 71 in Greal Britain, aud 3*4 in Ireland.
Of cattle of all kinds Uiere were 6,126.491 in Great Britain, or 19'6 per 100 acres ; and
4.118,118, or 26*1 per bnndred acres, in Ireland. Sheep numbered 80,313,941, or 970
per 100 acres, in Great Britain. In 1878, there were 47,827,000 acres under cultiva-
lion In the United Kingdom. In l-he same year there were for every 100 acres, 40
horses, 20-6 cattle, 68'2 sheep, aud 8'4 pigs.







Factories in




Horse-power in






1838.


1850.


1856.


1870.


1875.


1838.


1850.


1856.


1870.


Cotton


1,819

1,322

416

392

268


1,932

1.497

501

893

277


2,210

1,606

525

417

460


2,483

7,829

680

600

696


2,656

1,800

692

449

818


69,803
20.617

7,176
11.089

3,884


82,56A
22,144
11,515
14,292
8,711


97.132
25,901
14,904
18,822
5,176


309,870


Woollen


62,302


Worsted


51,035
56,995
8,589


Flax


gilk




Total


4,217


4.600


6,117


6,188


6,414


102.069


134,217


161,486


t^ 8,791



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jrant^a«tor««.-.Tbe foUowlog Uble exhibits the condition of the textile mano-
factures.







Hands Employed.






1838.


1850.


1856.


1870.


1876.


Cotton


259,104
54,808
81,628
43.657
34.303


830,924
74.443

79,737
68,4S1
42,544

596,082


379.213
79,091
87,794
80,262
66,137


420,588
109,300
106.126
38,931
47,461




Woollen „....

Worsted


Klax


Silk




Totnl


423.400


632,497


722,405


»30.«36



The jnte trade Is nipidiy rising into importance, especially in Scotland. Tn 1861

there were 86; in 1868, 41 ; and in 1875, 110 jnte factones in tlie United Kingdom;

and the total nnmber of persons, male and female, employed in tliis mannfaciure in

1875 was 87.920.

For other great branches of industry. See Ibok^ Paper, Pottert, &c
Imports and Exports.— The following table exlubits tbe vulne of the imports and

exjiorta for the years 1857, 1858, 1861, and 1875 :





135T.


1853.


1861.


1876.


Imports.


X187,844,44l

122,066,107
24,108,194


JC1W,683,832

116.608,756
23,174,U23


^17,851,881

125,116,183
85,694,297


X873,941,126

223,494,670
45,402,198


Exports :—

Britibli Produce

For'u & Colonial Produce


Total Exports.


X146,174,80l


X139,782,779


jei60,809,430


je268,896,76S




Total Imports & Exports


X3S4,018,742


jC304,368.611


X878.161.3n


£642.837,893



The chief imix>rts are raw cotton, com and flour, sugar, wool, silk manufactures,
and tea; the chief exports are cotton maimfacttire^, woollen and worsted mannfac-
tnres, iron and steel, linen manufactures, coals and culm, and machinery.

Oold and Silver BxUlion and Specie. — The computed real valne of tlie gold and
silver bullion and specie brought into the United Kingdom In 1858 was X29,498,190 ;
in 1859, je37.070.166 ; in 1860, £22,978,196 ; and in 1861. X18,747,045. Of this quantity
Anstnilia sent by far the most— viz., in 1S58, jC9,066,289 ; 1859, i»,627,854; 1860, jB5,-
719,357 ; and 1861, £6,331,828. Mexico, South America and the West Indies, were
the next largest exporters, then the United States and France. The exports from
the United Kingdom during the same period were— 1858, £19,628,876 ; 1859, £85,688,.
803 : 1860, £25,534,768 ; 1861, £20,81 1,648. The declared real valne of gold and silver
bullion and S))ecie imported into the United Kingdom during the year 1871 was— gold,
£21,618,005; silver, £16.527,322; total, £38,140.327 ; exported— gold, £20.698,276 :
silver, £18,062,896; total, £88,760,671. The dedared real value of such b'llliou and
specie imported during the year 1876 was as follows— gold, £28,100,834 ; sliver, £10,-
123.955; total, £83,:f24,789 ; exported— gold, £18,810,426 ; silver, £3,906,726 ; total,
£27,717,152.

Shipping, — Q. B. had, in 1861 (exclusive of river-steamers), 19,283 registered
sailing-vessels, with an aggregate burden of 3,918,511 tons, and 997 steamers, carry-*
ing 441,184 tons, making togettier 20,285 vessels, of 4,359.695 tons burden, and em-
(loving, exclusive of masters, 171,957 seamen. During the same year, there were
luilt and registered in the United Kingdom 1186 vesoels, 215 of ihem steam, of an
aggremite burden of 810,900 tons. The total tonnage of vessels entering and clear-
Jng British ports in 1861 was 26,595,641 tons, 21.924,983 tons rcpresentmg cargoes,
the rest being in ballast. The coast trade of G. B, during the same year amonntMJ



t



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Great Britain



to 17^,235 tons, all bat 98,000 tons being carried bj British ships. In 1871, the
namoer of registered salliug-vessels engaffed iu the home trade was 11,838, employ-
ing 41,888 men, and their tonnage was 77085. The number of steam-vessels, ex-
clusive of river steamers, in the same trade was 1191: men, 12,61S; tons^ 195,126.
The number of sailing-vessels engaged in foreign trade was, in tiie same year. 8(io,
with 57<S7 men, and an aggregate of 157,964 tons; and of steam- vessels, 1066, with
40,328 men. and an aggregate of 936.914 tons. In 1875, there were in the Inited
Kingdom 20.644 sailing-vessels and 4160 steamers registered under the Itferchnnt
Shipping Act. Tlie estimated number of seamen was 267,886, an increase of nii re
than 50.000 since 1870. In 1877 there were 20,538 sailing-vessels and 4662 steamers,
with 264,876 seamen.

/2a«7vay«.— The total length of lines open for traffic in the United Kingdom in
18^ was 10,483 miles. During the year, 163.435,678 passengers travelled, of whom
M,6S5,861 were first class, 49,041.814 second class, and 98,763,018 third class. The
amount of money derived from these travellers was— fir!>t class, jC8,170,935 : second
class, £3,944,713 ; tliird class, X4,162,487. Luggage, mails, &e., bruu|rht up the re-
ceipts from passenger-traffic to X13,0SS.756. Tlie good«-trnftic in tlie fame year
amounted to jei4,680,866, making a total income of jC27,766,622. The total amount
invested in railways by shares and loans iu 1868 was jC825,376.507, on wliich wtis
paid interest to the total amouut of £6,653.166. The average rate of dividend on
the ordinary share capital over the whole kingdom in 1868 was 8.06 percent.; the
proportion per cent, of expenditure to total receipts in 1860 was 47. In 1860, the
rolling stock of the various companies consisted of 6801 locomotives, 16,076 car-
riagps of all kinds, and 180,674 wagons. At the end of 1874 there were 16,448 mi!es
of railway open for traffic— showing an addition since 18G0 of 6016 miles. Of this
entire length 11,623 miles belouffed to England and Wales; to Scotland, 2609: and
to Ireland, 9127. To the total capital paid up, Bngland ai:d Wales contributed
£608,720,097; Scotland, £71,327,140; and Ireland, £29,902.682. At the end of 1877
there were 12,098 miles of railway open in England and Wales ; 2776 in Scotland ;
in Iretond, 2203— in all, 17.077 miles.

Revenue and Expendmire.—The following table shews the total amounts of
the actual revenue and expenditure for the seventeen years from 1660 to 1876, along
with the proportion of receipts and of expenditure for each person iu the United
Kingdom :





Rkvbjiue.


Expenditure.




Receipts
at' the


Proportion
Mr head of


Payments
out of the


Proportion
per head of




Exchequer.


Population.


Exchequer.


Population.






£ 8. d.




£ s. d.


1860,


jB7l,089,669


2 9 10


£69,608.289


8 8 8


1861,


70,283.674


2 8 11


72,792.069


8 10 8


1862.


69,674,479


2 8 8


71,116,486


2 9 11


1863,


70,603.661


2 8 4


69.302,008


2 8 2


1861,


70.208,964


2 7 9


67,066,286


2 6 2


18<


70.313,436


2 7 7


66,462,206


2 6 4


1866,


67,812,292


9 6 7


65,914,367


8 4 8


1867,


64,434,668


2 6 6


66,780,396


8 4


1869,


60,600.218


2 6 2


71.236,242


8 6 7


1869


72.691,991


2 7 9


74,971.816


8 8 6


1870,


75,434,262


2 9 3


68,8W,7«2


8 4


1871,


68.946,220


2 6 4


69.648,ft89


2 4 8


1872,


74,706,314


8 7 8


71.490,020


8 5


1878^


76,608,770


8 8 2


70,714,448


8 4 6


187?


77,886,657

74,921,873


8 8 2


76.466,610


2 7 7


1876,


8 6 8


74,828,«»4<I


2 5 10


1876,


77,181,698




76,646,208





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£13,948,800 wae nufanded. See Debt^ National.

Army and Xavy.See Bbitish Army ; and Nayt, British.

Form of Government.— The goveruineiit of Q. B. is of the kiud known as a ** Cou-
Btitutional Monarchy," in which the sovereign accepts of his dignity nndcr an ex-
press agreement to abide by certain prescribed conditions. See Coronation Oath.
Ttic sovereignty is hereditary in the family of Brunf>wick, now on tlie throne, and
In tlie person of eitlicr a male or a female. The sovereign (king or queen) is the
directing power in tiic executive of ffovernmeut ; while the Tegislntive function is ex-
ercised bv parlinmcnt. Further iuformntiun regarding the British Constitution and
Laws will i)e found under the heads Parliament: Ministry; Common Law,
CouKTS OP ; Judges, &c.

Money, WeiahU^ and Sfewntrea. See Pound ; Mint ; Weights and Measures.

Reliffion,-~The United Kingdom is a Protcstjuit state, but all religions— not
offenHivc to public or private morals — may be professed, and their different forms of
worship practised, without Interference from any quarter whatever. There are two
churches ** established " by si)ccial acts of the legislature. In England the estab-
lished church is Episcopal in its government. In Scotland, on the other hand, the



ENGLAND AND WALES.



Ewtablislied Church

V/e!«rn Methodists (comprising 7 distinct Sects)

Indei>ondents or Congreeatlonalists

Baptists (comprising 6 distinct Sects)

Calvlnlstlc Methodists

Scot tish and Irish Presbyterians ,

Isolated Congregations

Komau Catholics ,

Society of Friends ,

Unitarians ,

Latter-day Saints, or Mormons ,

Saudemauians ,

Jews ,

Brethren ,

Moravians ,

Now Church

A poHtolic Cliurcli ,

Foreign Profut, ('atliolic, and Greek Churches

Established Church

Otiier Deuomiuutious

Total



Places of
Worship.



14,077

11,207

8,244

2,789

937

161

639

670

371

229

228

6

63

133

32

60

82

16



Sittings
Provided.



6,317,916

2,194.298

1,067.700

751,343

250,618

86,812

104.481

186,111

91,r>99

68,654

30,783

956

8,4.S8

18,629

9,30S

12.107

7,437

4,457



Estimated
Number of
Attendants.



8,773,474

1,386,382

793,142

687,978

180,725

60,131

63,572

806.393

18,172

87,156

18,800

587

4,150

10,414

7,364

7,082

4,908

2,612



14,077
20,390



6,317,915
4,894,720



3,773,474
8,487.568



34,467



10,212,635



7,861,032



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OffMt BrttifB



establifllied charch tB PresbTterlao. See Sootlam d. Cbuboh ot. AccordlDg: to the
censas retnnis of 1861 <lu the returns of 1861 and 1871, religtous etatlnUcs were not
iDcladed, as the government shraok from reopening a BQb]ect which had formerly
ghren riee to much controTersy)^ the number or places of worship, tosetlier with the
'"' ••••'- • ' ' ' the estimated numner of attendants ou



aittioss provided, in England and Wales, and tl
a partlcQlar day, were as in the tables annexed.



BOOTLAND.



Established Church

Free Church

United Presbyterians

Beformed Presbyterians

Original Seceders

Scotch Episcopalians

Independents or Congregatiouallsts.

Bvangelioal Union

Bapdsts

Wesleyan Methodists

Olassltes or Sandemanians

New Charch

Society of Friends

Komau Cntholica

Unitarians

Isolated Congregations.

Moravians

Jews

Mormons

Apostolic



Places of
Worship.



1,1S3
899
465

89


134

199

98

119

89

«

6

7

117

6

61

1

1

90



SitUngs
Pi-ovided.



767,088

495.835

288.100

16,969

16,4?4

40.029

76,84 y

10,819

26,0s6

28,441

1,068

710

9,169

68,766

8,487

11,409

200

67

8,182

676



Ei^timatod
Number of
Attendanta



718,667 .

438,868

278.564

16,065 2

16.781

35,769

70,861

10,589

24,380

21,768

890

630

2,158^

48,771

8,488

9,401

200

67

8,177 t

676



Bstablished Church. . .
Otber Denominations. ,



1,188
2,219



767,038
1,067,717



118,667
976,482



Total.



1,884,806 1,689,049



EdueaHon. — In England, the chief iustitiitions for education are the ancient,
national universities of Oxford and Canibridge ; the more recent institutions of Lon-
don, Durham, and Lampeter in Wales ; the classical schools of Eton. Westminster,
Winchester, Harrow, Charter-bouse, and Bugbv ; Owens College, Manchester, and
other colleges and schools chiefly for physical science; the various miUtary
schools : the colleges of the dissenting denominations ; the middle^Iass schools,
cither started by iudlvidual teachers, and hence called ** adventure" schools, or by
associated bodies acting as directors, to whom the teachers are responsible; and the
schools of design.

For primary education, a national system has now been established. Under the
Elementary Education Act for England, 1870, a popularly elected school-board Is
eetabllsbcd in any district where the existing schools are deficient. Schools under
the act are supported by school-rates and fe^ and by parliamentary grants, varying
according to the number of pupils, and their proficiency as tested by different stand-
ards of examination. They are to be open at all times to government inspection.
It is left to the discretion of school-boaras to make education compulsory.

Scotland possesses four universities for the higher branches of education—vlx.,
those of Edinburgh. Glasgow, St Andrews, and Aberdeen, besides a variety of mi-
nor colleges connected wUh Episcopalian, Free Church, and other non -established
churches. Tlie b'cotch Education Act, 1872, is modelled after the English Act, but
differs from it, by enacting that a school-board if> to be elected in everp parish and
burgh ; by making it lllegiu for parents to omit educating their children, between 6
aiM IS, in reading, wiitlug, and arithmetic; and by compretaenUlng bighei^aaa



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schools. The namber of day-schools to which annual grants are made In Kngland
a»d Wales, inspected iu 1874. was 13,197 ; the daily average attendance throogfaoat
the year was 1,678,759; 2,OS4,007 scholars were present at Inspection ; 857,611 were
examined; and 608,233 passed the prescribed tests. 1432 ukht-schools were ex-
araiued, with an average attendance of 4S.690 scliolars above 12 years old. Iu 1B77,
15,187 day-schools iu Eugland and Wales were Inspected, having 3,151,978 children
on the roll; 1733 night-schools had 69,603 scholars. In Scotland, 2931 dayscboola
were inspected, with 472,668 uapUs; 2S8 night-schools hod 15.522 scholars.

History,— On the 1st of May 1707, daring the reign of Qneeu Anne, tlie anion of
England and Scotland was formerly accomulished. (For the previous history, see
EROUkND and Scotland.) In the latter of these cooutries, the terms at first excited
the utmost dissatisfaction, and even indignation ; but the progress of time has shewn
St to be one of the greatest blessings that either nation could nave experienced. 'The
last vears of Queen Anne's reign were marked by the triamph of the Tory party,
heaoed by Ilarley and St .Iphn (Oxford and Bolinebroke), who kept np a constant
iutrigue with the Pretender, for the purpos>e of procuring his restoration. The
treachery was defeated by the sadden death of her majesty iu 1713. According to
the Act of Settlement, she was succeeded by the Elector of Hanover, who took the
title of Oeorge I. The Whigs then regained their ascendency, and, under the guid-
ance of Walpole (q. y.)« now rising to eminence, at once proceeded to impeach tho
more important ot the Tory iMders. Other severities drove the more Iu)patlent of
that party to attempt bringing In tlie Pretender by force of arms. In 1716, tlie Eart
of Mar iu Scotland, and the Earl of Derwentwater in England, raised the standard
of rebellion ; both efforts, however, proved abortive, and wvre speedily crushed.
Five years later, occurred the frightful catastrophe known as the South Sea Babble,
when the nation was saved from anarchy mainly by the exertions of Walpole. The
latter now became premier and chancellor of tho excheaner, and under him the com-
merce and manufactures of England continued steadily to advance, thoneh little
improvement was as vet percepuble either in Scotland or Ireland. George i. died in
1727, and was succeeded by his son, George II. An attempt was again made by tho
Tories to oust the Whigs from power, but was frustrated by Walpole, who still contln-
ned the prime mover of public affairs. In 1789, after a pence of extraordinary dura-
tion, he was forced by popular clamor into a war with Sitain, on account of some
efforts made by that country to check an illicit trada cirried on by British
merchants in its American colonies. This war was feebly carrietl on,and inglorioosly
terminated ; but the attention of Eugland was speedily drawn towards the Austrian
War or Succession, in which it was involved through tho anxiety of the king for
his Hanoverian possessions, and the strong antipathy of tho people to the French.
Walpole, disapproviuff of the war, was driven from office In 1748. George II. ap-
peared on the neld of battle himself, and at Dettingeti proved himself a man of cour-
agB and spirit. But the saccess of the French at Fonienoy In 1745 paralysed the
diorts of England daring the rest of the campaien ; and In 1748, after nine years'
fighting, a peace was concluded at Aix-hi-Chapelle, by which It was agreed that both
nations should mutually restore their conqaests, and go back to exactly the samo
condition as they were in before the war I Meanwhile, a second attempt had been
inade (1745—1746) bv Prince Charles Edward Stnart to win buck the throne of his
ancestors. This attempt, known as the second rebellion, was crashed at (^Iloden
(April 16, 1746), and shortly after, a variety of importnnt measures were passed by
the Imperial parliament relating to Scotland generally, and to the Highlands in par-
ticular, which had the effect, on the whole, both of conciliating the inhabitants, and
of increasing their civilisation. Now, after a long period of indolence and poverty,
Scotland bene to make advances towards that equality with Engkind, in respect of
comfort and prosperity, which it has since attained.

In 1756 broke out the •* Seven Years* War," in which Britain took the side of
'Frederick the Great against France, Anstria. Rn>»f«la, and Poland. It achieved no
I other triumphs in Europe; on the contrary. It suffered a signal disgrace in the sur-
render of the Duke of Camhertand, with 40,000 men, in Hanover; but in India,
Cllve deprived tJio Freucli of most of their possessions, while Wolfe, in the New
World, conquered their colony of Canada. In the midst of this wnr, George II. died
(1760), and was succeeded by his grandson, George III., whose reign proved to bo
the longest and one of the most eventf ol iu the annals of British history. At this



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time, the principal secretary of state was William Pitt, afterwards the great Earl of
Chatham ; bnt the favor which George III. shewed to the Earl of Bute, a feeble and
narrow -minded Tory nobleman, rendered it necessary for the fonner to retire from
olilce. Spain now joined Prance ngainBt Britain, as Pitt had foreseen and foretold ;
bat fortmie showered her briphtest smiles npou the arms of the latter, and at the
peace in 1763, she was allowed to retain many of the roost vnlnahlc colonial posses-
sions of both her antagonists. These wars, liowcTer, largely increased the uutional
debt.

George III. now shewed himself anxious to destroy the Influence of the great
Whig families Who had brought in tlie dynasty to which he belonged. The nation
tools the alarm, and for some time was strongly disaffected towards its sovenMcii,
•who was believed to be wholly under the influence of his Scotch premier, tlie Kirl
of Bute. Popular Indignation at last forced the latter to resign In 1763. His suc-
cessor. Grenvllle, inaugurated his advancement to ofHce by the pro?ecntion for lll>el
of Wilkes, the member for Aylesbnry, who had made himself conspicuous by his
attacks both on Bnte and his royal master. The proceedings in this case lasted some
years, and were attended with tumults of a serious nature, and a vehemence If not
rancor of public feeling that indicated the magnitude of the discontent which pre-
vailed. During the administration of Grenville, too, the first attempt was made to
tax the American colonies by the passing of the Stamp Act In 1765. Against this
the colonies protested, and the succeeding Wbie ministry of Rockingham repealed
it. This ministry, however, was of short duration, and was replaced by one formed
by Pitt, now created Earl of Chatham. The necessity for an Increase of the finances
led to another attempt at American taxation, and an act for imposing duties on the
Imports of tea, glass, and colors was passed. This measure excitetl the most de-
termined opposuioQ among the colonists: and finally, in 1774, war broke out be-
tween them and the mother-country, which lasted eight years, and in which the
former were supported by Prance, Spnin, and Holland. It resulted in the acknowl-
edgment of their independence, and In the formation of the repnblic of the United
States (1783). During almost the whole of this unhappy contest, the ministry of
Lord North directed the policy of the country ; and it was only the success of a
vote for the c4)ncln8ion of the war that forced them to resign early in 1782.
It was followed by the second Rockingham ministry, and that soon after by the
Shelbnme ministry, onlv. remarkable for the appearance in it of the younger
Pitt The lukewarm Whfggism of Lord Shelbnme gave offence to Pox and other
more advanced political thinkers ; tlie result was a coalition of the Poxltos with the



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 31 of 196)