James Orr.

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The growth of culture did indeed eai ly free ihe Gr^-eks from the vague awe of
erenrday phenomena, and the Alence of mauticlsni tell accordingly into the hands
6( the lowest jugglers and soothsayers, l)elieved in only by the nerd. But in the
same degree, there ros.; nto highest importance another and exalted kind of proplie-
cy— the Oracles (q. v.). In this, the god Jupiter— afterwards principally Apollo, his
son, the partaker in his counsels— spoke himself : first, in the rustling of leaves, in
the clangor of brass basins, later, in dii^tinct human words. Ho chose the weakest
vessela— women, girls, to whom the divine gift was a burden and n pain. The Sibyl
lierself does not understand wliat the god says through her month; slie is uncon-
scious — in a state of somnambulism — of mania. Bui here the priests step hi ; they
act as interpreters, as prophets, aa Evangelides (the progeny of some Evangelos)^
**bringers of good tidings." Their iuflnence, socially and politically, increased with
that of the oracles themselves, especiullv when these latter, b^ degrees, from being
casual and unforeseen, became fnequent and regular. The nchest gifts poured in
from all parts, as It grew matter of piety to have recourse to them as means of grace.
They thus rose into an institution, the importance of whicii, principally for tho
unity and consequent rise of Greece as a poliiical power, cannorweli l>e overrated.
Besides the oldest oracle— that of Jupiter at Dodona— we may mention, ont of the
880 which were counted throughout Greece, those of Dldyma, Delos, Ab«D, Rlaros,
Lansso, Tegyra, of Trophonius — in a subterranean cavern— and of Ampbiarens,
near Oropos, in Attica, where the answers were revealed in dreams. But by far the
most famous, and of highest import for tlie whole nation as sucb. was that of Delphi
(q. v.), where the Amphtotyonic council was he'd; where everything connected with
the public worship throughout the country was settled ; where the calendar Itself
was regulated ; where, in fact, for a very long time was tlie real central power of
Greece.— Its voice ceased under Julian the Apostate.

GREELKT, Horace, American journalist, was bom at Amherst, New Hamp-
fchlre, February 3, 1811. His father was a farmer of small means ; and Horace, after
acquiring the rudiments of education at a common school, entered a printing-office
as an apprentice, 1826, at Putney, Vermont. On the completion of his apprentice-
ship, he worked for some time as a journeyman printer, and in 1834 commenced tho
"New Yorker." a literary weekly paper, for which he wrote essays, poetry, and
other articles. After one or two other essays at editorship, he began in 1841 the
'*Now York Tribune," of which he has ever since been the leading editor. As Mr
O. had adopted, to some extent^ tho social theories of Fourier, ho was joined l»y th.?
most able writers of that school of Socialism, and the paper is published as a jolm-

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Oraenbaeki i qo

Green Oolon J.«7^

stock concoro, bein^ held in ebares by ita ^viitera ft&d others engaged In Us publica-
tion. The **Tribaue " has also been an earnest advocate of temperance, woman's
rights, the abolition of slavery and capital panisbment, and other reforms, and is
recognised as the origan of the extreme or radical Kepnblican party. In 1848, Mr
G. was elected to congress from one of the districts of iNew York, for the short term,
bat failed in his congressional career by agitating an unwelcome reform in the mile-
age payments to members. In 1851 he vLuted Earope, and was cliairmau of one of
the committees of the Great Bxhibitiou. His aspirations to political position were
defeated by the more conservative party leaders, and he. in turn, is supposed to
have secured the election of Mr Lincoln, instead of Mr Seward, in ISdO. On the
secession of the southern states from the Union, Mr G. at first advocated their rltiht
to secede, in accorduice with the principles of the Declaration of Independence ; but
when the war began, he became one of Its most zcidous advocates, and is supposed
to have caused the premature advance that resulted in the defeat of Bull's Knii.
Julv 21, 1861. In 1S7S^ he was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidentship, and
dlea the same year.

GRBE'NBACES. During the Civil War hi America from 1861 to 1865, the im-
mense exixmditure of the United States government led to the printing of an nnpru-
cedented number of bank-notes, bonds, and currency piq^ers of various kinds.
These documents, from the color presented by them, or some of them, obtained the
name of greertbaeks, a designation which became almost as familiarly used in Con-
cress as among the genenu public At first, the manufacture of these notes tax* d
tlie resources of the government in a very embarrassing way ; and there was ample
reason to suspect that forged notes and bonds were abundantly in circulation ; but,
by degrees, a fine and large establishment was organised at Washington, under the
immediate control of the secretary to the Treasury. In this estabUshment, every-
thing was conducted from first to last ; rags, fibres, phites of steel, and colors were
taken in, and finished notes were sent out. It was only under very rare circum-
stances that strani;er8 were admitted to view the operations ; but one such occasion,
in 1864, led to a eeuerol description of the phioe being eiven in most of the news-
papers, from which it was copied into some of the English scientific journals.

Speaking of the establishment as it was in 1864. and not touching upon any of
the modifications wliich may since haVe been introduced, tliere were distinct und
separate departments for mechanical repairs, paper-making, ink-making, paper-
wetting, plate-enzraving, printing, numbering and denominating, and cutting. In
the paper-mill, all the naper for the greenbacks was made, with a degree of scrupu-
lous attention and uniformity that cannot always be insured in a private establish-
ment. It was necessary to have a paper that would wear well, would not split
easily, and would be sufficiently non-photographic to baffle a forger. Dr. Gwynu
made many experiments, with a view to attain excellence on these points ; and at
length he produced a kind of paper nearly as strong as parchment and as smooth as.
satin. The nature of the material was kno>vn only to himself and the government.
There was a fibre in the paper, quite moulded or felted into its substance, which
could not be photographed without discoloring the sheet to which it was transferred,
giving it the appearance of a coarse, black, spider-web, which would instantly have
Betrayed the forgery. In another department, the ink was made by means of grind-
ing- machines, one for each of the several colors used in the various kinds of notes
and bonds. While these operations of paper-making and ink-making were In pro-
gress, the engraving of the plates was conducted in another department. The steel-
plates were engraved with the most minute and intricate devices which the hand aud
the eye of the artist could execute : it mattered little what device was selected, pro-
Yided it were difilcult for a forger to imitate. One particular note was. in its main
features, an engraved copy of a picture in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington ;
and the engraving is said to have occupied a whole year to execute. All the devices,
of whatever kind, were made to co-operate with delicate water-lines in the paper, to
render forgery difficult. As the plates were costly to engrave, and fitted to yield
only a certain ^though large) number of impressions each, a mode of multiplication
was adopted which had for manv years been largely used in England. The pro*
1 were thus connected : 1. The engraver executed the desiKu on a smooth plate

of soft steeL 2. The phtte was hardened by well-known processes of heating and

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v»Iliig. 8. A roller of soft steel wua preraed with IminAnne force over the bard-
tfttfd plate, aiid took npon its enrface the device in relief: ub the roller w&s equal in
length to the le^h of the plate, and cqaal in circamfcreuco to its breadth, the
cunrod surface exactly took iu the whole of the device. 4. The roller was hardened.
6. The hardened roller was used as a matrix to prodaoe any num\>er of plates in
soft steel, which had the device In intaglio^ like the original plate, tt. These plates,
when hardened, were used to print from.

The paper, the ink, and the plates beiug thus prepared, all was ready for the
printing. In the earlier period of the working of the establishment, presses were
used snch as are generally employed by copper-plate printers ; each press attended
by a woman to place and remove the paper, and a man to manage the inking and
the pressnre : bnt afterwards, a large room was filled with hydraulic printing-
presses, whieii conducted the operations much more rapidly. The notes, ns fast as
printed, were Interleaved with sheets of thin brown paper, to prevent blurring. In
nombering and denominating the notes, a yellow mordant was emploved, of such
kind that the note could not be photographed without producine a black impression
from the yellow portion. The numbering-macbine was worked by a treadle ; there
were six discs with figures on their edges, and they su acted on each other by means
of ratchets, that tiiey could ^rint any number from 1 to 9M,999. For consecutive

numbering, the machine adjusted its own figures after each printing. The notes
were nanally pouted four on a sheet, and were afterwards severed and trimmed by
a cnttiug-machine, wtiicU made them all precisely equal in size and shape. 8o com-

plete was the check established in all the operations, that ** not even a blank sheet,''
said a narrator, *< much less a printed one, is passed from one baud to another with-
out being counted and receipted for ; and unless there is collusion from one to another
in evenr process through which the paper has to pass before it is finished, there
cannot bean over-iMue. Tlie paper is issued from one room, and is re-issued from
that room sixteen or eighteen times before it is put into circulation ; being counted,
charged, and receipted for each time, and recounted, recharged, and ro-receipted
for through each process that it pusses after leaving that room." For the English
system, see Bank-notbs.

GREEN CLOTH, Board of; a board connected with the royal household, con-
rtrting of the lord steward and inferior officers, which has power to correct offend-
ers wUbin the veree of the palace, snd two hundred yards beyond the gates. A
warrant must be ohtaiued from this board to enable a servant of tiie palaco to be
arrested for deM.

GREEN COLORS. Although every shade of green can be produced both In oil
and water colors, and also in dyeing, most of them are made bv mixing the various
yellow and blue materials in different proportions. The following arc the green
paints in use : «

Armnical green^ or Scheele's groen, Is an arscnite of copper, made by dissolving
arsepions acid in a solution of potash, and adding it to a solution of sulphate^
copper. A precipitate is formed, which is Seheele°s green^ or MitiM green.

Brunwfiet green.— The best is crude oxychloride of copper, but the kind com-
monlv sold Im a mixture of carbonate of copper and chalk, or pipe-dfiy. One shade
of this mixture is sometimes called Bremen green.

Chrome green Is a mixture of Prussian blue and chrome yellow.

Copper green is sometimes a natural product, but Is more generally manufactured;
it is tlie oxide or the carbonate of copper, and Is sometimes called green bice^ or
movntain green.

Emerald green Is an arscnite of copper, prepared by a slightly different process
to ScheeWe green.

FrimoT Friesland green is made with sulphate of copper and sal ammoniac.

OeUarVe or GellerVti green \b a mixture ot cobalt bluet fiowers of cine, and chrome

Sap green— 4he juice of buckthorn-berries fermented for seven or eight days,
after which a llttiealum Is added ; and when evaporatod to a thick consistency, it is
pressed Into bladders, and hung up until entirely dry. It is chiefly employed la

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Schweinfurth green is another form of the arscuite of copper produced by d!»-
Bolviiig Bcpurately equal parti* of nceuilc of copper aud arseuioua acid. ITic solutions
arc then added together quito hot, niid the precipitate formed is*ihe beantifal bat
highly dangerous pigment, It^ great beauty has led to its froqnoiit cmp'.oymeut in
coTormg wall-papers, uriiftcial flowers, aud even iu,6ome cases. It is to be feared, iu
coloring pugar coiifeclIouM.

Ail of iticsc colore, with tlic exception of sap green, arc dangeronslr politonous.

Qrecn, in dyeing, is ahvayn uudenttood to bo u mixture of tlie two colors blue and

?rclIow. The materials are geiierully mixed first witiiblne. and afterwards with yel-
ow, proportlouluj; tlie intensify of each to the shade of color required.

The Chinese Imve a vegetable green color called ZuA-fcuo, or green iudigo, but H
is exceedingly cosily, and it is only obtainable In very email qnanutlei<.

OREEN EAUTU, a mineral of a green color and earthy charactx'r, often found
filling the cavities of amygdaloid, or incrusting agates iu that rock, sometimt-s also
iniissive or disseniiuatecl, cliiellv iu trap rocks. It couslsis principally uf silica^ al-
umiua, and protoxide of iron, the silica coustituting about one half. It is used as a
pigment by paiuters in water-colors, wiio know it by the name of Mountain
Green. For their use, it is mostly brought trom Monte Boldo, near Verona, and
from Cvprtis. In New Jersey, green earth is u:£cd us a manure, and is said to be very
beneficial. - %

GKEEN EBONY, a dyowood imported in considerable quantities into Britain
from South America. It is the wood of tUo Jacaraiida oealifotia, a tree of tlio natural
order Biananiacece. Ii yields olive-green, brown, and yt-llow colors. It is generally
imported in pieces about three feet in length ; it is a hard wood of an ohve-grceu
color, and is sometimes used for purposes of carpentry aud by turners. The tree
has showy, pauicicd flowers.

GREENE, Natlianael. an American revolutionary general, born May 27, 1T42, at
Potowliommet, Warwick county, Rhode Island. His father was a leading preacher
among the Quakers, and educated his son very simply, training him from childhood
to work on liis farm, and at his anchor-forge and grist-mill. By liis own persever-
ance, iiowever, he acquired considerable knowledge of ancieut and English history,
geometry, law, and moral and political science; lie was also fond of reading' books
upon war. In 1770, he was cliosen a meml>er of the Rhoda Island Assembly, and,
to tlie great scaudal of his fellow Quakers, was among tlie first to engage iu the mili-
tary exercises preparatory to reslKiiug the motlK*r-conntry. In 1T74, he eniistod as
private, and io 1775 was appointed to the command of the Rhode Island contingent
to tlie army at Boston, with the rank of brigadier-gpneral. He was promoted to be
major-general in 1775, and distinguished himself at the engacements of Trenton and
Princeton. At the battle of Braudywine, he commanded a division, and by his sUI-
f ul movements saved the American army from utter destruction ; and at German-
town lie commanded the left wing. In 1778, he accepted the office of qnarter-
master-generaL In 1780, he succeeded Gates (q. v.) in the command of the army of
the Souui. Gates had just been completely defeated by Cornwallis, and G. foaod
tlie army in a wTctched state, without discipline, clothing, arms, or spirit. By dint
of great activity, he got his army into l>etter condition, ond remained on the defen-
sive for the remainder of tlie year. In 1781. ho had a successful skirmish with an
English detachment, but drawing upon himself the whole anny of Cornwallis, much
his superior in numbers, he made a masterly and successful retreat. With 5000 new
recruits, he entered upon more active operations, and finally defeated the English at
Eitt^iw Springs, the hoitlest fought field of the revolution, which put an ena te the
war in South Carolina. Congress struck, and presented to him, a medal in honor of
this battle, aud the Carolinas and Georgia made him valuable grants of laud. When
peace was restored in 1788, G. returned to Rhode Island, where he received numer-
ous testimonials of the public admiration. In 1785. he retired with his family to his
csuite in Georgia, where lie died of sun-stroke in 1786.

G. was one of tlie very best generals of the war of independeuce, 6econd» per-
haps, only to Washington, whose intimate friend he was.

GREENE, Robert, an English poet and dramatist, was bom at Norwich abont
1500, or, :is stateti by some of his biographers, in 1550. He was placed at 8t John's
College, Cambridge, and took out his degroe of A.B. there iu 1578. Ue afterwards

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Oreen Earth

travelled in Spain and Itnly. On hia retnrn, he re-onterod tJie nnlveralty, and took
his degree of A.M. at Clare Ilall in 1683. He also appears to liave studied at Ox-
ford ill 1688. On leaving Cambridge, he proceeded to London, wliere ho sopported
himselX by writing plnys and romances. Ho poured out pinys, poems, and novels,
raffled about in sillcs, wore long tiair, and haunted taverns and places of ques-
tionable resort with such wild and profnno geniuses as Marlowe and Peele. He
died of the consequences of a debauch, 8d September 1692, and was burled next day
in the New Churchyard, near Bedlam. After his death ap|>eared the siugnlnr pam-

1>hlet entitled **The Repentance of Robert Greene, Master of Arts," In which he
ays bare the wickedness of his former life. It is perhaps the most valuable of lils
prose writings. G.'s poems possess coiisiderbble grace and tcndomess, but his
plays have almost perished from human memory. His *• Groat's Worth of Wit
hongbtwith a Million of Repentance '* contains one of the few authentic contem-
porary allusions to Shakspeare; and when his writings are forgotten, he will be
remembered for it, and for l)eing one of the knot of young men who came up to
London when the English drama was creating itself, and who burned themselves
cot in fierce lat>or and fiercer dissipation.

GREENFINCH {CoceothraiuU» ehlorU\ a bird of the family FringiUida, com-
mou in most parts of Britain, ff'equenting gardens, orchards, shrubberies, small

{ilantationa, tall hedges, and cultivated lands. It is found even hi Scandinavia, but
s more common in the south of Europe ; its range extends throughout Asia to the
Pacific Ocean, and westward as far as Madeira. It is sometimes called Grteii Gros-
beak and Grten Linnet (Scot. Green Lintie), The bill Is much thicker than that of
the true linnets, to which, however, it is nearlv allied. A prevailing green tint,
mingling with gny and brown, characterises tne plumage, and gives the bird its
name. The whole length is little more thnn six inches. The tail is a little forked.
The proper song of the G. is not very sweet, but in confinement it readily Imitates
the song of other birds, and In consequence of this and of its very easy domesti-
cation, It is rather a favorite cage-bird.

GREENGAGE, a varietv of plum, of a grefn color and roundish shape, Uie
lUine Claude of the French, generally esteemed as one of the finest varieties in
cnltivation, if not ccrtainlv superior to all others. It Is not of the largest size, but
io delicacy and richness of flavor it is unsurpassed.

GREENHEART, or Bebeora (Nee*undra JtoduBi), a tree of the natural order Lau-
raeeee, a native of Guiana, of great value as a timber-tree, and also yielding a vul-
nable medicinal bark. The umber is commonly called Greenheart ; the oark is
better known as Bebeeru (otherwise Beebeeru^ Bibiru, Bibiri^ Ac, and Sipiri or
8ipeira)i and the alkaloid to which it chiefly owes its properties is called Bebeerine
(q. v.). The tree gff)\n chiefly in British Guiana, and In the greatest perfection on
the low bills immediately behind the alluvial lands ; it rises with an erect, slightly
tapering trunk to a height of 40 or 60 feet without a branch, attaining a height of 60
or 90 feet in all. and a diameter of 8 or even 4 feet The wood is extremely strong
and hard, and is imported into Britain, to be used chiefly by turners for the same
purposes as lignum vitee, which it much resembles. It takes a high nolish. It is so
heavy as to sink in water. It is remarkable for its dnrabilitv, and for being almost
exempt from the attacks of the white ants on land, and of the teredo In water. It
1» nsed in Guiana for ship-building, and for all the most important purposes for
which timber is requlred.^Tho bark is hard, heavy, and brittle, with a fracture re-
teroblins that ef sandstone, has a white epidermis, and is of a bright cinnamon
color within. It has a very bitter, somewhat astringent taste. Its tonic and fubri-
f ogal properties resemble those of cinchona bark. Instead of the bark itself, the
■nlpbate of bebeerine is generally used in medicine.

South America produces a number of species of Neetandra, N. Puchury yields
the seeds called PUehurim Beang. which are astiingent, are regarded as febrifugal,
and are prescribed In dysentery, oiarrbcea, &c,, and the oil of which is nsed asa sub-
Btltote for chocolate.

GREEN-HOUSE, a building appropriated to the cultivation of such exotic
planta as do not require much artifldal heat, but cannot endure the open air, at
least in the colder part of the year. The name is derived from the original use of
Mich buildings for the preservation of oranges, myrtles, and other evergreens ; the
cultivation of heaths, pelargoniums, fachsii^ and the many other flowers now fa-

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Greenock J-^O

miliar to evervbody, DOt bavinj; l)eeu then iDtrodooed. The lint ffreen-hoiue of
which there Is ouy record was erected ttboat 1619, by Solomon De Caos at Heidel-
berg, to shelter orange- trees. The Chinese, however, are not ouacqoainted with
greeu-houses, and it is not known bow long this has been the case. The earlier
green-houses were glazed only on tlie sides ; glass roofs were lutrodnced in the be-
glnniug of the ISth c, aud the arched or curviUnear glass roof, still more favorable
to the proper admission of the suu's raya,isau improvement which dates from the
early part of the 19th. Heat was at first supplied, when necessary, by hot embers
put in a hole in the floor, afterwards by furuuccs iu the greeu-honse ; flues, steam,
aud hot-water pipes, &c, are more receut iuventious. See Hothouse. As a green-
house does not require artificial heat during summer, the roof is sometimes made
capable of being then n»moved; more generally, many of the plants are carried
out into the open garden. Air is freely admitted into the greeu-honse in flue
weather, even in wfuter, during the warmest part of the day, care being taken
that the plants are not expowsd to frost, nor to nugenial and chilling winds^
Green-honses are sometimes appropriated chiefly to particular genera (S plants,
nnder such names as Heatherv. Cameltia-howie^ <&c. According to ilie present use
of the term, a graen-house differs from a conaervatory only in the jplants being in
pots, which arc very generally placed on the shQlves of ntages^ having a slope not
very different from that of the roof.

GBEE'NLAND, a region of unknown extent northwards, stretches from Its
southern extremity. Cape Farewell (q. v.), along the Atlantic aud Arctic Oceaus on
the east, and Davis' Strait, Baflin*s Bay, and Smith's Sound on the west. The west
coast pursues a north-north-west direction as far as Cane Alexander, in TS** KK n.
lat. It then has a general nortli-easteriy direction, gradually changing to easterly
beyond 82<^ 80'. Lieutcnaut Beanmont, of the British Arctic Expedition of 1875—
lSi<i, followed the line of the const with a sledge-})arty to 82<> 54' n. lat. aud 48<3 33'
w. long., when the land was begtnniu;^ to trend southward. It is thus almost con-
clusively proved that G. is entirely distmct from the laud on the west side of Smith's
Sound— that in fact G. is an island. Previously our knowledge of the western coast
was chiefly derived from Dr Kauc, who has assigned Cape Alexander, in abont lat.
ISP 10' u., as its termination. G. is said to have been first discovered about thcclo««e

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 38 of 196)