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year without becoming rancid.

GUACHINA'NGO, a small town of Mexico, in the norih of (he state of Pnebin,
and 103 miles north-east of the citv of Mexico, has a population of 6000, and ia
noted for the great quantity of excellent vaniiUi raised In the vicinity.

QUA'CHOS, the name given to the country-people who Inhabit the Pampas in the
states of La Plata, and are engaged iu rearing caitle. Although they pride them-
selves on l)eing whites, they belong chiefly to the Mestizo class, and by their Inter-
course with Iimian women, contribute to approximate the population of the inland
provinces to the type of the aboriginal inhanitants, whom they likewise greatly re-
semble lx>(h in their manners and turn of mind.

GUADALAJA'RA, or Gnadalaxara, one of the hsndsomest towns In Mexico, Is
the capital of the state of Xalisco, in the Mexican Confederation. It stands on the
Rio Grande de Sautiajgo, whicli, after passing through Lake Chapala, enters the
Pacitto at San Bias. The population has been estimated at 90,000. As the bouses
are geuerally but two stories high, the place covers a wide extent of surface. It con-
tains the boildlngs for tlie eovernmeut, a cathedral, a mint, an episcopal palace, an
opera, largo barracks, a college, and many inferior iteminaries. It liaa weU-supplied
markets, and extensive manufactures of cotton and earthenware

GUADALAJARA (anc. Arriaca), a decaved town of Spain, capital of the prov-
ince of the same name, is situated on the left bank of the Ilenares, 85 miles north-
east of Madrid. It is a iurge but ill-built town, and contains many buildings of
interest, which, however, are for the most part falling to inUi from neglect. The
chief of these are the palace of the Mendozas, the feudal lords of G.; the PanUoti^ in



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Q-nadalajara O Q Q

aaaiacam ^*>0

which they are bnrled : and the chnrches of San Francesco and San Esteban. Q. te
the chief towu of the flue pastoral and wheat district of the Alcarria. Pop. T650.

GUADALAJARA, a province of Spain, the most north-eastern of fhe fire mod-
eru provinces into which New Castile has been divided. Pop (1870) 208,838. See
Castiub.

OUADALAVIA'R, or Taria, a river of Spain, has Its source near that of the
Tagns, iu the sonth-west of Araffon, and alter a course of 180 miles, iu a goueraily
8oath>soath-east direction, falls into the Mediterranean, at Grao, a mile and a half
east oC Valencia. The G., in passing throuj^h the beantif nl gardens of Valencia, is
divided, for purposes of irrigation, into eight cuials. Its mouth is much silted
up.

GUADALQUIVI'R (Arab. Wad-aX-KMr^ the great river ; anc. BaetU), the most
important river of 'Spain, for the mass of waters which It conveys to the ocean, and
for the extent of its natural navigation ; has its origin in the Sierra de Cazorin, near
the eastern border of the province of Jaeu ; flows Tu a general soutti-west direction
through the provinces of Jean, Cordova, Sevilla ; and forming the l)oundary for
about ten miles lietween the provinces of Hueiva and Cadiz, fails Into the Atlantic
at San Lucar de Barrameda, after a course of abont S60 miles. The principal towns
upon its banks are Montoro, Cordova, and Sevilla, to the last of which, abont 80
miles above its month, the river Is navigablo. Below Sevilla it twice divides itself
into two branches, forniin${ two islands — the Isla Menor and tiie Isla Mayor. Its
chief aflluouts are the Gadajos and the Jeuil on the left, and the Guadalimar and the
Gkiadiato on the righL The lower course of tlie G. is sluggish and dreary iu tiie high-
est degree; the stream itself Is turbid and muddy, and eats its way through an alluvial
level given up to herds of cattle and to aquatic fowls. There are no villages In this
district, which, though favorable to animal and vegetable life, U fatal to man, from
the ague and fever caused by the numerous swamp?. There Is no great trade on the
G. ; foreifi'n vessels are generally moored at the Isla Menor, and their cargoes sent
up to SevUla by meaus of barges.

GUADALU'Pfi. ariver of North AmericA, rises in the sontbem section of the
state of Texas, and flows iu a soath-easteni direction, emptying Its waters into Bs-
piritu Santo Bay, after a course estimated at about SSOuulos. The geography of
this stream and its capabilities are not yet well known.

GUADALUPK-Y-CALVO, a town of Mexico in the state of Chihuahua, and 170
miles south-nouth-west of the town of Uiat name, Is situated in a mountainous dis-
trict in close vicinity to several important sliver miles. Pop. 10,000.

GUADKLOU'PE, one of the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, and the most im-
portant of ilioso which belong to France, lies iu laU 16° n. and long. «!<> 46' w., and
contahis COO sq. m., with a pop. (Including dependencies) in 1874 of 167,344, of whom
ll^ths are colored. It la divided into Grande Terre on the east, and Basse Terre or
Guadeloupe Proper ou the west, by a strait of about 40 yards iu width, which, under
the name of Salt River, is navigable for vessels of fifty tons. The nomenclature of
the separate islands Is apparently out of place, for of the two Basse Terre is the
loftier and Grand Terre is the smaller. Graud Terre, generally low, Is of coral for-
mation ; Basse Terre, on the contrary, is traversed by volcanic mountains, wliicb
culminate iu La Soufridre (the ** Sulphur Mine ") to the height of 5108 feet. Thongh
this range sliews no regular crater, yet It emits by several orliices columns of smoke,
and even sparks of Are. In addition to these symptoms of subterraneous action,
may be mentioned a boiling spring and frequent earthquakes. Basse Terre, on the
Island of its own name, is the chief town, having an indifferent harbor. Connected
with G. as dependencies, are the neighl>oriug Islets of Desirade, Marie Galante, Las
Balntes, and the north part of St Martin, ui 1870, the exports to France amounted
to 84,900,000 f raucs, and the Imports from France to 9,600,(>00 francs. In 1848, slavery
was abolished by a decree of the French repnblic. The island was discovered by
Columbus in 1493. but it was not before 1635 that it was colonised by the French ;
and after repeatedly falling into the hands of England during her wars with France,
It was at length permanently ceded to the latter power in 1816.

OUADIA'NA (anc. Anaa), one of the longest but at the same time the narrowest



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OQQ Onadalajani

uo^ a-naiacvm

ftod poorest fn ^ame of tbe flT« great Spftuish rlrerf, rises on the western bonudiinr
of Harcia, abont 8 miles north-west of the town of Alcartz. From Its source it
flows north-west for abont 80 miles, after which it disappears among swamps ; flows
ondergroand In a westward direction for nearly 80 roiies; and rises airain at Dnr-
mieU after throwing np in irs snbterraneons coarae nnmeroos lakes cdled ho% ow%
(the cres) Am la Guadiana. From Daymiel it pursues a westward coarae through La
Mancba and the province of Eslreroadorat until, paesing the town of Badajox, it
bends southward, and flows in that direction, forming, for al)Out 85 miles, tbe
boundary between ^;>ain and Portugal. Near the town of Monsaraa it enters the
Portngnese territory, and flows through the eastern district of tlie province of
Alemteiow FlnaDy, turning eastward, and again forming the international boundary
for about SO miles, it enters the Atlantic below the town of Ayamonb*. It is about
690 miles in length, nnd is navi^ble only for about 86 miles. Its chief afllucntt are
the Oigaela on the right, and the Javalon and Ardila on the left

0X7X0)11 AS, a city of the United States of Columbia, is situated in that portion
of ttie republic which belongs to South America. It stands near the east or riplit
bank of the Macdalena, high among the Andes, and Is one of the mont elevated
towns on tbe globe, being 8700 feet above the level of tbe sco. It contains about
4000 inhabitants.

GUAIA'CITM, a genus of trees of the natural order ZygophyUoMm^ nalives of
the tropical parts of America, having abruptly pinnate leavefi, and axillary flowers ou
o&e-floweroa stalks, often in small clusters. The flowers have a 6-T)Mrtite calyx, five
petals, ten stamens, and a tapering style ; the fruit is a capsule, 6-angied, and
6-celled,or the cells by abortion fewer, one seed in each cell. The trees of this genus
are remarkable for the hardness and heaviness of their wood, generally known as
lAfpMKm ViUBj but sometimes as Ouaiaeum Wood ; and sometimes as Brazil Wood :
as well as for their peculiar resinous product, Ouaiaeum^ often but incorrectly called
OifiK Ouaiaeum, Tlie species to which the commercial Liirnum Vltie and Oualacnm
are commonly referred, is O. officinale^ a native of some of the West India islands,
and some of the continental parts of America ; a tree sometimes 80 or 40 feet high,
with two or three pairs of ovate, obtuse, and perfectly smooth leaflets, pale bine
flowers, a furrowed bark, and generally a crooked stem and knotty branches. It
seems probable, however, that other speciea, as well as this, snpplT part of the Q.
wood and resin of commerce. At present, they are obtained chiefly from Cuba,
Jamaica, and St Domingo. The wood is imported in billets about three feet long
and one foot In diameter, of a greenish-brown color. This Is the color of the heart-
wood, the sap-wood is pale yellow. Q. wood is remarkable for the direction of Its
fibres, each layer of which crosses the preceding diagonally ; annual t»dB" •ro
scarwly to bo observed, and the pith is extremely small. It f'"*;"
ha water. It is much valued, and used for many purposes, cbiefiy
by tamers; ships* bk>cks, rulers, pestles, and bowls (see Bowls) are among tuo
articles most commonly made of it. When rubbed or heated. It «"««■ *
faint disagreeable aromatic smell ; Its taste Is also pungent and aronnatic ^"^^Y."^
and raspings of the wood are bought by apothecaries for medicinal ^'^•..", * >ri
is also used in medicine on the continent of Europe, although not in Britain, i uo
virtues of both wood and bark depend chiefly on the resin which they contain, ana
which Is Itself used in powder, pill, and tincture. It is an acrid •tlm^^hiPii. ?«
been employed with advantage in chronic riieumatism, in chronic sklu o/^^f^ "*
certain cases of scanty and pafnf nl menstruation (and hence It is occask>nnUy an enec-
tnal remedy in cases of sterility), and in chronic catarrh. It has also been J»^»'»y
praised aa a prevenUve of gouL The resin is an ingredient of the '^©^h^S. ««nt« Jli^
mer'9 PHIm, In the lOth and 17th centnri^ G. was the remedy m<^ J" n^Jill - \i
syphilis. Tbe resin someUmes flows spontaneously, from the stem of the "•-«««•"
is sometimes obtained artlflciaUy. It is of a greenish-brown co'o»*» J*S? "" «*tiVAT
llant resinous fracture. It has scarcely any taste, but leaves a ^'>"?JSFhin« ni U-
in the month. One of Its most striking characteristics is, that «i »■ «^Sv2ISv rSSjw^^
oxidising ogents. It contoins auaiati^cuHd (HO,C i .HtOr), which closely n^mble«
beniolc add. and yields, on drsiillation, certain deinite coroponnda known as guaia -
e{iie, pyroguaiaeiMf and kydride ofguaiaeyU



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aoan 240

OUAK, or Tacoa (P^nelofM), a genoa of laise galHoaeeooa birds of the famDy
Cracidtje, They have a naked akf u on the throHt capable of being inflated or awolleu,
and a naked apace aroond each eve. Tlie name G. more particularly belongs
to Perulope erUUUa^ a spedes of which tlie entire length is about thirty inches. It
is a native of the forests of Brazil and Ouiana, and has been long donoesticated in
South A.merica. It has been foond to endure the climate of BritalQ and of Holland
so well, that hopes are entertained of its becoming common in the poultry-yards of
Borope. Its flesh is mnch esteemed.

OUANABACCA. See HAtAKif a.

GUANAHA'NI, or Cat Island, one of the Bahamas, Is generaUr regarded asCoI-
umbns^s first discovery in the New World, being presimied to be ideulical with the
San Salvador of the illnstrioos navigator. Recent criticism, however, appears to have
transferred this honor to Watllag Island (q. v.), which is about 60 miles to the east-
south-east.

GUANAJUA'TO, or Goanaznato, an inland state of Mexico, in lat. between W>
and S2<^ n., and long, between 99° 40' and lOS^ 40^ w., is bounded on the n. by the
states of San Luis Potosi. on the e. by Qneretaro, on the s. by HJchoacan, and
on the w. by Xallsco. It has an area of 11,400 square miles, and a population in
187S of 730,000. The surface, a portion of the lofty phiteau of Anahoac, has an
elevation of 6000 feet above sca^level, and is traversed by clialns of mountains,
among which those of Santo Rosa are porphyritic, and present elevations of 11,400
feet in heighL 'llie stote Is watered by no river of consequence. The soil is fer-
tile; maise, wheat, and frfjoles (beans) are the chief grain crops raised : tlie vine,
tlie chili Colorado^ or red pepper, and the olive, are also largely cultivated. Among
the valuable mineral products of the sute are silver, iron, lead, and copper, Uie
first in the greatest abundance. The manufactures are wooUens^^oottons, leather,
earthen- ware, and refined sugar. The climate is mild and pure. The popnlation of
the stat« divides itself into three races— 86 per oent of the whole being whites, 39
per cent. Indian, and 86 per cent mixed.

GUANAJUATO, or Santa F6 de Guanajuato, a city of Mexico, capital of the
stote of the name name, is irrcs^nlarlv built on an extremely uneven district, of hill
and valley, in lat. 81^ n., and long. 100** 50' w. The streeto are steep and tortnons.



but the houses are generally well built, and have gully painted outsiacs, ereen being
the favorite color. It contains many fine public bullaings, the cliief of which are
the cathedral, the monasteries (eight in number), the college, the gymnasium, the



leagne^ there are upwards of 100 mines. Pop. 68,000.

GUANAPA'RO, a river of Venezuela, in South America, rises in the department
of Caraccas, and after an easterly course of 830 miles, joins the Portugnesa, which
again, through the Apure, sends its tribute to the Orinoco.

GUANA'Rfi, a river of Venezuela, in South America, is an affluent of the Por-
tugnesa. See GuAHAPARo. On ito banks iire two towns, both of which derive
their names from it ; Guanarito, an inconsiderable place ; and Guanare, a city of
18,000 iohabitanto.

GUAKCABBLI'CA. See Huaxoatelioa.

GUATHNB, is a yellowish- white, amorphous substance, which derives ite name
from Ito being a constituent of gnauo ; it, however, also forms the chief coustitnent
of the excrement of spiders, ha^ been found attached to the scales of fishes— the
bleak, for example— and seems to be a normal constituent of the mammalian Uver
and pancreas.

G. belongs to that class of bodies which were formerly called bases, but which,
from their combining equally with acids, bases, or salts, are now often termed
amides or amide-like compounds.

By oxidation with permanganate of potash, it Is converted into urea, oxalic add,
and oxyguauiue, a substonce not yet sufllciently studied.

With regard to ito occurrence in gnano, as It has not been found in the recent
excrement of sea-birds, there is every reason to believe that it is formed by slow
oxidation (from atmospheric action) of the uric acid, much as uric acid can be made
to yield urea and oxalic acid. And in the pancreas and liver it probably represcuto



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241



Gnan
Grxxzno

one of those transitory rtagee of distintegrated nitroeenoas Ussne which tie flualiy
excreted by the kidueys iu ihe more highly oxidised lorm of area.

QU A'NO (derived from the Peruvian word huanoy dnng) is the excremeotltione
deposit oC certain sea-fowl, which occurred iu immense quantities on certain coasts
and islaoda where the climate is dry and free from rain. Although the use of guano
as a manure is comparatively recent iu this country and in Europe, its value in agri'
cnlture was well known to the Peruvians long before tliey were visited by the Span'
iards. We -learn from the '* Memorinles Rcftles '* of Garcilascode Iu Vega, published
in 1600, that in the times of the Incas no one was allowed, under pain of death, to
visit the guano islands during the breeding season, or, under any circumstances, to
kill the birds which yield this sulMtauce ; and that overseers were appointed by the
government to take charge of the guano districts, and to assign to each claimant his
due share of the precious material. Alexander von Humboldt first brought specimens
o£ ffuano to Burope in 1804, and sent them to Fonrcroy, Vanquelin, and Kleproth,
the best analytical chemists of the day.

Mr Nesbit, In a useful little pamphlet entitled *^The History and Properties of
the Different Varieties of Natural Guano,*' remarks that the quality ana value of
these manures, commercially, depend almost wholly upon the amount of decoinno-
sition to which they have oeeu sul)jpcted by the action of the atmosphere. The
f«cal matter of the flsh-eatlne birds, which, by its long accnmuhUton, forms the
guano deposits, consists essentially of nltrc^enous and phosphatic compounds, the
former being chiefly ammonia salts derived from the decomposition of tlio uric acid
and urates which exh»t in the fresh excrements of these birds. Ttie ammoniacal
portion of these deposits, and some of the phosphates, are tolerably soluble in
water, and are readily washed away by rain. The late Professor Johnston remarked
that ** a single day of English rain would disfolve out and carry into the sea a con-
sMerable portion of one of the largest accumulations, and uiat a single year of
Bnglish weather would cause many of them entirely to disappear. '' In dry chmates,
wliere very little rain fails, as in some parts of Bolivia and Peru, on the western
coast of South America, the dnng deposited suffers very little from the action of the
atmosphere, and retains nearly tihc whole of Its solnble nitrogenous and piio^nhatic
compounds. Guanos, on the other hand, found in regions where rain falls
freely, lose a great part of their soluble constituents, but remain rich iu
their less soluble constituents— the pliosphates of lime and magnesia. Mr
Kesbit divides guanos according to their composition, into three clashes:

1. Those which have suffered little by atmospheric action, and which retain nearly
the whole of tlieir original constituents, such as ti)e Angamos and Peruvian guanos.

2. Those which have Tost a considerable portion of their soluble constitnents, such
as the Ichat)oe, Bolivian, and Chilian guanos. 8. Those which have lost nearly oil
their ammonia, and contain but little more than the earthy phosphates of the ani-
mal deposit. Many of these are largely contaminated with sand. In this class wo
place the various African guanos (excepting that from Icha!>oe}, West Indian guano,
Koorta Mooria (islands off the coast of Arabia) guano, Sombrero guano, Patagoulau
goano, Shark's Bay gnano (from Australia), &(u

Tlie following table represents the mean of 78 samples of Peruvian guanos,
Analysed by Mr Way :

Moistnre 1867

Organic matter and salts of ammonia 6805

Earthy pliosphates 82-78

Alkaline salts containing 8-34 phosphoric acid, and equal to 6-89\ ^.^t

soluble phosphate of lime / ***

Sand, Ac •. 1-88

100*00

Ammon la, per cent 16 -es

Mo«t of the so-called Peruvian guano has been obtained from the Chlnf't.A
lalanda, which are three in number, and are situated about 12 miles off the coai^i of
Pern, 1>etween 13 and 14 degrees s. lat. Each of these islands is from 6 to 6 miles
In circumference, and consists of granite covered with guano, in some phiccs to a



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Onano



242



height of 200 feet, In successlye horlsontal strata, vatrlns In thicknew from three
luciiee to a foot, aud in color from a light to a dark browu. Somettuie^, however,
Is found a vertical snrfaoe of upwards of 100 feet of a perfectly uniform appearance.
If Humboldt's statement is correct, that "durliig 800 years the coast-birds have de-
posited guano only a few linos in thickness,*' (he extreme age of the lower strata
becomes at once obvious.

The followiupr, from Hnspratt's ** Chemistnr,** gives the mean of several
analyses of the inferior kinds of guano, the first four belonging to Ne^it's second
ciasts and the r<?maluiug three to Tils third claws ;





D*
9

f








1


F




1


Moisture


Earlier

cargoes

27-8

84-8
»>8
6-0

81

100
7-3


Recent

cargoes

20-0

24-4

20 4

6-2

290

100
60


20-4

13-6

81-0

7-8

227


10-0

21*6
61-5

14-1

27


25-0

18-8

440

21

IOC


18-1

12-4

42-7

4-2

4-1
18-5


20*0


Organic matters and

salta of ammonia

Earthy phosphates

Alkaline salts


14-9
66.4
68


CarlK)nate of lime

Sand. &c


20


Ammonia per cent


100
6-47


100-0
46


100-0
2S


100-0
2-05


100-0
1-47



The nitrogen in these analyses is calculated as amniouia for tiie purpose of comimr*
Ison. In reality, it exists in various forms of combination—via., as uric add, area
occasionally, urate, oxalate, hydrochlorate, phosphate, ^., of ammonia, other
urates, guanine (a. v.), aud undefined nitrogenous compounds. Hence, as may be
inferred, a complete analysis of guano is a work of very considerable labor; but
as its agricultural value depends mainly on the quantities of ammonia, soluble and
insoluble pbosphatea, and alkaline salts, wliich it contains, such analyses as those
we have given are suflicient for practical purposes, and they are easily made.

As good Peruvian guano sold long at from £\\ to £13. and latterly at about £14
per ton, there was a strong inducement to adulterate it. Umber, powdered stones,
various earths, partially decomposed sawdust, aud other suhstancea, were used for
this purpose, and specimens have been sold containing mere traces of the genuine
article. Hence it Is expedient that large purchasers should either send a sample to a
sood chemist for analysis, or should ork up and retain a small quantity In a bottle
for analysis, provided the crops to which he has applied his guano do not answer
reasonable expectation. A chemist is attached to moet agricultural societies aud
clubs, who performs such analyses for a moderate fee. The numerous analyses of
Professor Anderson, late ch<}mist to Highland Society, and of other chemists, have
had a very material effect in checking the sale of adulterated guano in Scotland.
Still, the adulteration of manures has for some time been rather more common in
Scotland than in England. True, guano Is not so often adulterated as some other
fertilisers ; but In England, the rigorous measures adopted by Dr Voelcker and the
Royal Agricultural Society to expose dealers in spurious articles, and to suppress
such traffic, have had a very beneficial effect In Scotland, the agricultural public
awakened to the magnitude of the question. Several district analytical associations
have been formed throughout the conntry. With all this machinery in full pUiy,
the fraudulent dealer will fortunately find bis avocation as stiff work in Scotland aa
be has latterly discovered it in England.



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243



Qimno



Soch fodHtles for analjtfs Trffl to a cooilderable ezteot rapeivede I he following
andent yet aimple modeci of testJne the quality of guano. A pretty good idea,
howerer, can be formed of the enperiority or otherwise of the aamplea of gnano by
these 1^48:

1- Test bf Dryinff.—U the gnano, as la generally the care with the PernTlan and
Chilian vartetiey, in a nnlfonn powder, weigh oat twoonncea. Bpread it on paper, and
let it lie two days in a dry and inodernteiy warm room. What it may then nave
lost in weight mnat be esteemed snperflnous water. Muny sorts of gaano are so
moist as to lose SO or 25 per cent of their weight by tliis gentle drying. If we wish
to determine the water with greater accnracy, a smaller quantity of guano should be
placed in a shallow piatinnm capsule, and moistened with a fiw drops of hydro-
chloric acid. A heat of 212° may then be applied without lo^s of ammoniiu

«. T^ bg Combttstion.— Pour half an ounce of tlie guano into an iron ladle, soch
as is used for cusiing ballets, and place it upon red-bot coals, until nothing but n
white or grayish Oinh is left, which mast be weighed after cooling. The best sortp of
PeraTiau gnano do not yield more than 80 or 83 per cent of ash, while inferior



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