James Orr.

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hoyo.— 2. The bay which receives the river, stretches in s. lat. between 1° and 4°, and
in w. long, between 80« and 81°. it receives also the Daule and the Tumbcz.— 3.
The department extends from thtkPaclfic on the west to the departments of Quito
and Assnay on the east, comprising a much wider belt of low and level land thnu
is generally found further to the eouth, between the Andes and the sea.— 4. The
city, the capital of the department, sinnds on the right bank of the river, at the dis-
tance of 40 miles from its mouth. It is divided into two parts, the old and the new.
The houses are mostly of wood ; the principal are the caihednil, the two hospitals,
and the two colleges, the last of which l:ave faculti«'8 of tluology, pliilosophv, and
law. G. powe^ses the best, perhaps the only really good harbor on the Paciflc
shores of South America, the naturally deep chnuuel b<'lng aided by a tide which
sometimes rises and falls 24 feet. Occnpyini; such a position, and being In lat. 2"»
11' s., the place is necessarily unhealthy. Still it has a population of 26,000, and
carries on an extensive trade. In 18T8 (I)e8ide8 the steaui-packets), 128 vessels, of
113.084 tons, entered, and 1 18, of 110,662 tons, clearetl the port. In 1870 the Imports
amounted to je760.600, the exports to £188,000. In 1809, tlie imports were jC406,200 ;
the exports, X594,600. In 1876 the exiwrts were £673,925. The chief articles
of import are cottons ^more than a quarter of the whole), woollens, wine?,
Fpiriis, grocery, soap, &c., metals, flour, and linens ; and of exi)ort, cocoa, straw-
hats, timber, bark, hides, orchilla, tobacco, sarsapariUa, canes, india-rubber, and

GUAT'KA, La, the principal sea-port of Venezuela, In South America, stands ou
a narrow strip of land between the mountains and the sen, and is about 6 miles from
Ciiracca^ of which it is the port. The to\vn, which is strongly defended, hasapopn-
larlon of about 7000. The harbor is an open roadstead ot the Caribbean Sea, and
the anchorage is unsafe ; but the trade of the port, which is entcrcil annually by
about 200 vessels, is extensive. The imports in 1874 wt^ro \'alned at about jC786,000.
The chief exports of G. are coffee, cotton, cocoa, and hides. The principal imports
are woollens, calicoes, guns, cutlery, and china-ware from Great Britain ; wines
from France and Germany ; flour, wheat, petroleum, machinery, and cotton goods
from the U. 8. of America.a

GC'BBIO (ancient Iguvium or Eugubium)^ an interesting city in Central Italy,
Ib beaatif oily sitoatcd on the south' western declivity of the Apeuniucs, in the pro-

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viDce of Urbloo, and ftbont 87 miles south of tho city of that naine. Pop. 6350. It
contains several floe edifices of importance. On the most elevated point of the city,
wliere the ancient fortress stood, is the duutl palace, so call from liavinK been ercciecl
and inhabited by the Dulces of Urbino, >viio also governed Gubhio. The innuicipal
palace is a noble old pile of building, erected in 1332 by Mattco di Giauncllo, a native
nrchitect. In the palaces Biaucaieone and Beni are valnnble plctarc^, coIlcctiou!« of
Eirtiscau and other antiquities. G. possesses several fine churches, and some ex-
cellttnt public establishments for Minitary and educational puri)Oses. The most im-
portant ancient remains are the ruins of a theatre, supposed to have been destroyed
i>y the Lou^tMirds, a temple of Mars, and an Etruscan sepulchre of ^nt antiquity.
At a short distanoe from O. are tho ruins of the famous temple of Jupiter Apunui-
ous ; and here, in 1444, were discovered the famous*£ugubine TabU>s (q. v.).

OU'BBN, a manufacturing town and river-port of Prusslat in the province of
Brandeuberg, Is charmingly situated on the Neissc— tlie banks of which are here
planted with vines — at its confluence with tho Lubst S3 miles sonth-soath-<*D8t of
Frankfurt. Except its gymnasium, It has no notable buildings. The principal
maufactarefi are woollen goods ai»d tobacco. The shipping- trade of the Nelsse Is of
some Importance ; ship-building is also carried on. On the neighboring heights,
frnit-ti'oes and vines are cnltivated. The red wine produced here Is esteemed one
of the finest grown in the eastern portion of the kiugdo.n. Poix (1871) 21,488.

GUDGEON ((7o6td), a genus of fishes of the family Cyprinidct^ having a short dor-
sal fiu.a short anal fin.and no strong serratetl ray in either,llie body covered with rather
large scales, and barbnles at the angles of the mouth. Tiie Common G.((?.>lMt)tatiZi«) is
abundant in many of the rivers of England, particularly in such as have gravoDy
bottoms, and occasional pools and rapids. It seldom exceeds eight iiichea in length ;
the depth is not one-fifth of the length. The tail is forked. The eye is placed high
up on the side of the head. Tho upper parts are olive brown, spotted with l»lack ;
tho under parts white. Gudgeons swim in shoals. They feed on worms, molluscs,
and other small animals, and are extremely road]^tobite nta bait, which is commonly
a small piece of a red worm. Great immbers are often taken oven by young anglers,
and the readiness with which the Q. Is lured has become proverbial. The G. is
much esteemed for the tabic. Many are t^ikeu with castinir-nets in shallow wiUer,
and kept in well-boats till wanted. Pishmon'^er.x also keep them in tinkn. coitstanily
supplied with fresh cold water. They tluive well in ponds supplied with fresh wuter
by brooks.

Tho G. is usually one of tho first objects of the juvenile angler's ambition ; and
with a cro«)ked pin uud thre:id, with a fraijmeut of a worm for bait, the angler often
imbibes his first love of the art while caichiii«' his flrj*l endgeon. The G. is very
ca'^ily captured. Sivlmmiug in lar;»e shoals at ilie l)ottoin, it watches with incessant
industry for every trifiing matter brought down by the stream. A small red wonn
is bv far the best bait for the G. ; next to It, perliaps, a magirot or gentle. A small
hook and a light float are required. A (mgment of worm is fixed on the hook, neat-
noj»sin baiting not being n desideratum, for Ihc same bait, without much alteration,
will often t:»ke t«»n or a dozen gudgeons in succession. The bait should drug or
Irip along the bottom ; and if there be gudgeons about. It will hardly filil to attract
Ihera. Ground-bait is not required for Q. ; but if the auglor will, with a large rake
or any other heavy matter, disturb the gravel, and r.ike a clear briglit spot, a yartl
In width, and two or tlireein length, the gudgeons, attracted by the dislodged pnrtl-
rles. will swarm up to the spot hi great numbers in search of food: ann thus it is
no uncommon thlnK to take, by one or two rakinjrs, fn»m five or six to ten or twelve
ilozen of gudgeons in one spot There Is no art required in the angling, as they
bite very boldly, and the angler can hardly miss catching them.

GUDIN, Jean-Antoine-Th6odorc, French ]andf<cape and marine painter, was
horn at Paris, 15th Aujjust ISOi, and studied for some time under Girodet-Trioson, but
soon abandoned the style of this artist, and ranked himself with tlie Romanticists,
on the side of G6ricauit and Dehicrolx. He first attracted notice by his picture,
•• Brick en D6tn'sse," exhibited in 1S28. Most of his marine pictures appeon^ at
the Paris fixhihition of 1856. Between 1S3S and 1848. G. painted more than eighty
of fuch pieces for tho Museum of Versailles. Sluce 1855 he has exhibited many ueir

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OUB'BRBS, Obebres, Oftbres, GbaTree (Turk. Ohtaur or Ghaur\ the follou'em
of the aiMdejit Pcrsiau relk'ion as reformed and couaolidated bv Zerdni>lit
(Zoroaster). Thii^ uninc, Quuorefl, which is ooramouly, but nffainat all lliigu site
biwst derived from tlie Arabic Kafir (a word applied to all uoD-Mohummodau^f nud
supposed to have been first bestowed apou this sect by their Arabic conqnerorH in
7th c), is ovidenti^HOtliiug bat an nncleutpmper name taken from some nre-emin on t
tribe or locality, siucc the Talmud (Jebam. ftS b., Qitt. IT a. &c.) already knows ilieni
only by this name (Oheber); audOri^^eu ('* Contra Celt*." vi. 291) speniss of Knhira
or Persians, assertiug that Christianity has adopted nothing from them. They are
also called AtMh Perettt, or fl re- worshippers ; ParteeSf or people of Pars or Fjus— i.
e., Persia; MaiijooH^ from their priests the Hagi; and by themselves Deli-JHii,
** Those of the excellent belief ;" or M(udaasnan^ worshippers of Ormuzd. For
the origin, uatare, aud early iiistory of fbis religion, sec Zoiioaster, Zeni>-avx&ta,
SuK-woBSHiP. When tho Persian empire became subject to the Mohammedan
rale, tiie ereat mass of ttie inhabitants were converted to the religion uf lelam. A
rcry small number still clinging to the ancient religion, fled into'tlie wilderness of
Khorassan, or the island of Hormuz ; but even this remnant was for many centuries
the victim of constiuit oppression. Mabmond the Qhizuevide, 8hah Abbas, aud
otbera, are aouspicnous by their antiring persecution of them; and the manner in
which they were hold ap to general detestation is l>06t shown by the po&illou as-
Biii;ned them in most popular Mohammedan tales as sorcerers and criroiDats. At tliis
presont moment, there are, according to the very latest native iuformatiou, about
8600 Qaobres scattered over the vast dominions of their ancestors, chiefly in Ye«l
and twenty-four surronudin? villagea. Tliere are a few at Teheron, a few nt Ispa-
han, at Shiraz, and some at Baku, near the great naphtha mountain, bat all plunged
Sn the depths of ignorance, and, with verv few exceptions, of poverty. They linvo
A high repuiatioo for honor, probity, ol>eaience to the law, chastity, and endaranct* .
Another portion, after various migraUons— which are told at length in the *' Kiusult-
i-fionjon," written by Bebram (16W a. d.)— reached India, wliere they are now soltled
under the name of Parsees, chiefly iu Bombay, where they aru very numeronf,
forming a population of above 60,000, or about 8 per cent, of the whole population.

GFBBWILLER (Gcr. Oebu>ei!er),tL to^n In the province of Alsaco-Loiralnc, 15
miles s. a. w. of Colmar, on the right bank of the Lanch, at the foot of tho Bnllon do
Gnebwiller. The town ts well built, has two handsome churches, one built in tho
11th, and thoother In tlie middle of last century. There arc manufiactnrcBof ioik h,
ribbons, cottons, woollen cloths, glovce, nails, and refined sugar ; there is al»-o nu
extensive nHurafnctnre of spinning machinery. In the vicinity are coal-niinea
and slate^narries ; good white wine is abundantly produced in the district Pop.
(1871) 11.838.

GUELDBR ItOSE, or Qaeldrea Hose, a cultlvnted variety of the Wot^r-Eldor
( Vibumwm Opniu*-~»ee V ibitrnum}, in which the flowers are all barren, and instead
of forming fhit cymes, as In the wila plant, form much larger globose corymlni. It
is sometimes called the 8Now-BAUi Treb. When abounding In flowers, it Is a very
ornamental shrub, and Is therefore very often planted.

GUE'LDERLAND. See Geldbbulko.

GUE'I.PniC ORDER, nn order of knighthoo<l for Hanover, instiluted by Goorgo
IV., when Prince iicgent, on the 12th August 1815. It Is both a military ond civil
ordiT, unlimited in njimber, and consisted originally of three classes— Knights Grand
Cross, Commanders, and Knights— to which the revised statutes of l&ll have added
another class of »Implo members. The Grand Mastership is vested in the crowi: of
Hanover. The bodue of the order is a gold cross, surmounted by tho Hanoverian
crown- between eacli division of the cross Is a Hon pnssant gardant. In tho cent ro
is the horse courant of Hauover, surrounded by a blue circle, aud the motto, Sec
aepera terrenU

GUELPH8 AND GniBELLTNES. the names of two great parties, the conflict of
which moy almost bo said to make up the history of Iialy aud Germany from tho
nth tin tho 141 h centnry. The origin of these names was formerly tho subject cf
moch speculation : but antiquarians are now agreed in trnciug them respectively «"
tfae two families, W/tiblinger and Welf, which, in tho 12th c, were at the head of

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two rival parties tn the German empire, and whotoe fends came to be Identifled hls-
toHcally with the respectivu principles for which tl)e»e parties contended. The
actual origin of the assumption of the unmes Is commonly fixed at the great battle
of Weiusberg, in Snabla, 1140 a.d., in which the two rival claimants for the empire.
Conrad of Holienstaufen, Dnke of Franconia, and Henry the Lion, of the House or
Welf, Duke of Saxony, mllied their followers by tlie respective wa^-crie^ " Hie
Waiblini^n t '^ **Hio Welf I" but it h» certain that the names were in nso from an
earlier date, although, probably, rather as representing the family fend, than the
political principles which the two families afterwards severally supported. As the
chief theatre of the conflict of these parties was Italy, the original names took the
Italian form of GhiheUini and Ouel/i. The former may. In general, be described as
tlie supporters of tliu imperial authority in Italv, the lntt(>r, as the opponents of
the emperors ; and as the opposition to" imperial authority in Italy arose from
two distinct parties, which, for the most part^ made common caosc with each other
—from the church, which asscNix^ its own spiritual independence, and from the
minor principalities and free cities, which maintained their provincial or muoiclpid
rights and liberties — the history of the struggle is involved in mnch confusion, and
is variously related, and its merits variously appreciated, according to the point of
view from which it is regarded. To the churchman, it Is the struggle of the church
against the state ; t^ the friend of popular principleii. It Is the conflict of liberty
again!«tabsolniisinand centrallsatfou. The same individual— as, for example, the
poet Dante— is found to change Rides in tlie struggle. For the mdfet part, however,
the Interests of the church in these medieval contests, although regarded by Protes-
tants as excessive in degree, must be confessed to have fallen in with the claims of
political and personal freedom. Five great crises In the strife of the Guelph and
Gliibelllue parties are commonly noted by historians: under Henry IV., in 1056; under
Henry the Proud, in 1127; under Henry the Lion, in 1140; under Frederick Barbar-
oesa, In 1169; ana In the pontificate of the great champion of chnrchnianship. Inno-
cent III. The cities of Xortlieni Italy were divided between the two parties— Flor-
ence, Bologna, Milan, ond other cities, as a general rule, taking the side of the
Gnelphs ; while Pisa, Verona, and Arezzo, were Ghibelllne. The great Italian fam-
ilies, in like manner, took opposite sides; but the policy of each Tarally frequently
varied from one generation to another. In general, it may l>e said that the nobles
of the more northern provinces of Italy inclined to the Ghlbelliuo side, while those of
the central and southern provinces wore Guelph. By degrees, however, ospecUilly
after the downfall of the preponderance of the German emperors In Italy, t»»e con-
test ceased to l)e a strife of principles, and degenerated Into a mere strugKie of rival
factious, availing themselves of trio prestige of ancient names and traditional or
hereditary prejudices. Even in 127«, Gregory X. could with truth reproach the
Italians with their sanguinary animosities for the sake of what were but names, the
meaning of which few of them could understand or explain ; and In the following
centurv, in 1334, Benedkt XIL practically disallows altogether the reality of the
grounds of division between the {Mirties, by prescribing, under pain of the censures
of the church, the further use of those once-stirring names, which had long been
the rallying words of a sanguinary warfare. From the Uth c. we read little more
of Onelphs or GlilbelllneSj :is actually cxi«tiug parties ; but in the sense already ex-
plained, the conflict of pnnclples which they represent Is found in every period of
political history.

GUERA'RA, orGerrara,a town of Algeria, In the district of the Beul-M'zab,
stands on the left bank of a river called the Zigrhir or Zcgerin, In laU 32® 45' n.,
long. 6*» c., and about 40 miles north-east of Ghardnia. It Is a walled town, has
three gates, and Is a favorite commercial rendezvous for all the neighboring tribes,
who frequent this place for the purchase or disjmsal of horses, asses, sheep, ivory,
gold-dust, ostrich feathers, cotton, silk, cutlery, &c The market of G. is supplied
chiefly from Tnnla and Algiers. The pop. is about 12,000.

GUERCINO, ** tlio squint-eyed," properly Gian-Fbakosbco Barbiebi, a cele-
brated master of the Bologncse school of painting, was bom In 1690 at Cento, a
Eretty town not far from Bologna. G. cave early proof of his intuitive love of art.
y sketching with the roughest materials on the house-door a Virgin eo full of
artistic promise, that his father, In spite of the straitened circumstances of the
family, took inimf^diate measures for training the boy*s talcntp, by securing for him

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the best tuition in drawing which the placo afforded. In 1616 he opened uu acadcinj
at Cento, to which pupilB flocked from all quarter?. From 1610 to 1623 he visited
different cities of Italy, particularly Rome and Venice, to improve himself by the
study of the worlds of other emincul painters. In 1642 he went to live at Bologna,
where he died in 1666. Some of (he earlv paintings of G. bear perceptible traces of
bis admiration of Curavagglo's stvlc, l)oth \\\ their powerful effects oc deep coloring
and strong fidelity to naltu^ while they much surpass those of the great realist iu
dignity and refinement of tone. They are deficient, liowover, in accaracy of design.
His works, which are too unmeroos for notice, are to be found in the galleries of
Rome, Bologna, Parma, Hodeua, Perugia^ nnd Paris. His master-nieces are con-
sidered to be the fresco of *• Aurora," which decorates Uie ceiling of one of the cas-
inos of the Roman villa Ludovisi ; the famous '* Persian Sibyl," and ** Saint Petron-
llla," both in the Cnpitoline Gallery at Rome. At Cento, the artist's house, Casa di
QitereinOy is carefully preserved, witli its fine paintings and fresco decorations', and
i»tbe chief object of Interest to those who visit the phice. The church of Cento also
contains several fine works of this ma-ster, who hud an intense love for his birth-

GUERICKE, '^^tto von, a celebrated physicist, was bom at Magdeburg, in Pms-
siou Saxony, 20ih^ovember 1602. His pei-sonal history contains nothing of inter-
est. As a natural philosopher, lie is chiefly known by his dincoveries regarding the
nature and effects of air. The experiments of Galileo and Pnscal on the weight of
air led G. to attempt the creation of a vacuum. His first expedment was made by
flillug a stout barrel with water, and then pamping out the water ; but it was found
that no sooner was a vacuum produced iu the barrel tlian the air forced its way
through. He now took a globe cf copper, with an opening at the bottom into which
a pump was fitted, provided with a stop-cock. and to his astonishment found that
lliepuuiD extracted the air quite as wcU as the water; tlicu. on opening the cock,
theair w'as heard rushing in with a whistling noise. ITils, the first air-pump, was
invented about 1660. G.'s invention soon became famous, and in 1654 lie wus sum-
moned to the presence of the Emperor Ferdinand III. of Germany at Ratisbon, at
which time he made the famous experiment commonly known as the Magdeburg
Hemispheres (q. v.). He died at Hamburg, 11th May 1686.

GU^RIN, Pierre Narcisae, Baron, one of the most eminent historical painters of
the French classic school, wuh born at Poris, 13th May 1774, and first attracted no-
tice by his " Corps de Bnitus rapports ji Rome " (1796). Some of his pieces are re-
garded as masterpieces of the French classic scliool. The few portraits executed
by 6. are admiraole. Among others may 1)0 mentioned one of Henri de la Roche-
Jacquelin storming an intrenchment. In 1829 he was raised to the rank of baron,
nnd died at Rome, 16th July 1833. Purity of desigii, dignity of style, taste in group-
ing, and harmony of color will be generally conceded to G., but the coldness which
marks the cUissic school of painters is as visible iu him as iu others.

GUBRITE, a small kwpholed turret in the wall of a fortress, from which aaculry
may command a view and fire over the ditch.

GUE'RNSEY, the second In bItc of the Channel Islonds (q. v.). Is situated In lat.
between 49<» 24' and 49° 80* n., and in long, between 2° 83' and 2® iV w.; is distant
09 miles south-east from Start Point, In the south of Devonshire— the nearest point
of the English coast : and is about 46 miles south-west from Cherbourg-, In France.
Its length is 9 mllen, its greatest breadth about 6, and its circumference 81 miles. In
16TI it had a population of 80,698. The coast Is of difficult approach, owing to the
number of rocks and the rapidity of currents around the island. The northern part
of the island Is fiat, the sontliem more elevated, but intersected by deep valleys and

frleus, and with a lofty and abrupt coast St Peter's, on the southeast coast of the
sland, Is the only town. For particulars about the climate, soil, productions, trade,
&c.. see Jebset.

GUERRAZZI, F. D.. a patriotic Italian statesman and brilliant writer, was bom
at Leghorn In 1805, and. educated for the legal profession, won a great reputation
among his countrymen ny his political fictions, which are said to have exercised an
immense Influence on contemporary Italian events by their exalted strain of patri-
otic enthusiasm and abhorrence of despotism. G.'s own words are, " he wrote a
book when impotent to fight a battle." On the eve of the definite breach between

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tbe people acd the Grand Bnke of Tripcany. In 1849. 0. was indnced to accept office
in the miuistry. On the flight of the Grand Duko, he was proclaimed member ol
the provisional goverumenU and i^ubseqncntly dictator. Durine this crisis of the
state he energetically refnsed his adhesion to ** the sabntitntion of repnblicanism for
monarchy," and presetTed the strict anfouomy of Tuscany nutil the return of the
Grand Ducnl rule, when ho was Immediately seized and imprisoned on tlie grounds
of having neglectfd due measures of repression when the revolution llr^t gathered
strength duruig his ministry. His defence, entitled *' Apologia dellu vita Politica di
P. D. Gnernizzl," or •* Juatlflcation of the Political Career of P. D. QnerraMl," is a
maeterpiece. After an Imprisonment of tlireo yoai-s, he was condemne<l for lifa to
the galleys, but was sulwequently permitted to select Corsica as the refuge of his
perpetual nanishment. Itestored to liberty and action by later events, G. sal in the
parliament of Turin in 1S63 and 18«5. He died in Sept. 1878.

His chief works of Action are ** L'.\Bsedio dl ^irenzc " (the Siege of Florence),
a magiiificent hif«torical novel, treating of the downfall of tlic republic of Florence :
** La Battaglla dl Benevento.*' remarkable for exquisite expression and beantiful
poetic imagery ; *' Beatrice Oeucl ;'' ** Isabella Orsinl ;" ** L'Asino ;" and varloat
other writings, which have mu through innumerable editions and traoslatkms.

GtJEKRI'LLAS (diminutive of Sp. guirna, ** war," literally ♦'petty "or "par-
tisan wars," or " partisan warriors **)♦ the name given In Spain to the armed bands,
composed of peasants and shepherds, who, on occa-oion of foreign invasion or civil
wars, carrv on an Irregular warfare on their own account. From 1808 to 1814 tliey
>vere regularly organised against the French, and being favored by the character of
the country, were successful on manv occasions, especiallv at the commencement of
the war, under Kinj)eciuado, the Pastor Merino, MIna, and other leaders. The conn-

signal service as regnlar troops. In all the recent civil virars of Spain, the
pnerlllas, especially those of the Basqne provinces, acted a prominent part on the
Oarilst side.

GUESCLIN, Bertrand du. Count of Longuevllle, Constable of Prance, the most
eminent French general of the 14th c. ^vt\s^ born of an ancient family in the district

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 49 of 196)