James Orr.

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of Rennes, sometime between 1314 and 1820. As a boy, he was remarkably dull, and
could never Ihj taught either to read or %vrito, bnt exhibited a passion for military
exercises. In his 17th year he bore away the prize at a tournament at Rennes, au5
from this time vraa always successful in snch fnconnters. In tlic contests between
Charles de Blols and Jean de Moutfort for the dukedom of Brlltaijy, he took part
with the former. After King John had been taken prisoner by the Black Prince at
the battle of Poitiers, in 185«, G. rendered important services to the Dauphin, afteiv.
wards Charles V. He took Melnn and several other fortified towns, freed the Seine
from the Biigllih, and on Charleses ascension to the throne, in 1BA4. \raa created
governor of Pontorson. In May of the same year he gained the-batlle of Cochcrel,
and was rewarded by the tiUe of Count of Longueville and Marshal of Normandy.
On the 29th September he was defeated and taken prisoner bv the English, under Sir
John Cliaudos, at the liattlo of Auruy, but ]tl>erated on payment uf a ransom of
100,000 llvrea, paid by the king, the pope, and several oth6r princes. He now sup-
ported Henry, Count of Trasiainare, against Pedro the Cruel, lilng of Castile, but
was defeated and taken prisoner by the Black Prince. Being again ransomed on
payment of a large sura, to which even the enemy contributed from feelings of re-
spect, G. renewed the contest, and in 13fl9 defeated and slew Pedro, and placed tlie
crown ot Castile on the head of Henry of Trastam'rre. As an acknowledgement of
his services, Henrv created G. Count of Buigos, Poke of Molina, and Constable of
Castile. He was, however, soon recalled l)y Charles V. of France, at that time hard
pressed by the Bnglisb, and raised by that monarch to the dignity of Constable of
France. In the year 1870, G. opened his campaigns against the English, and in a
short time the whole of their possessions were In the hands of the French, with the
exception of a few fortified towns. While assisting his friend Saucerre in the siege
of Chftteannenf de Randon, in Laugn»-doc, G. was taken 111, and died July 8, 1880.
Charles V. caused him to l>e interred with great pcmp beside liis own bnrial-



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^^^ Guiana

vaalt at St Denyg.— Compare Guyard do Benrillc, '' Hletoirc de Bcrtraod du Qae»-
cUo"(Pari8|lWT).

GUEUX, or ** Ttie Befrgarv,^' tlie nnme asBnmod liy tho confederatoti noblcfl and
other malcontentA who opposed the tymnnical policy of Philip II. of Spain in tho
Low Countries. Philip haviuf^ cienVuiiie inquialtora to thnt couutry to put into ex-
ecution the decrees of the Council of Trent, provoked by this net the bitter resent-
ment of the Protestants, as yveW as of the Catlioiics and nobility, who saw In it an
attempt to curtail their aucteut liberties. A party of opposition was tliiis formed,
and, headed by Counts Louis of Nassoa and Uenry de Brederode, declared in an act
caHed the *' CompromiM." which was remitted (ftih April 1660) to the Regent Mar-
gftret. their fixea determination to iKuore nlterly the anthortty of the iuquiaiiors.
Oil tne admission of a deputation frem them to an audience, the recent seemed
somewhat unnerved by their bold front, and inclined to yiekl to their demands ;
wlicn one of her council approached her, and whik»pQrcd tliat she ** need not be
afraid of tliese gatherings of beggai-s." The remark having been ovei'heard by
some Gi. the deputation, the abusive epithet was assumed as tlie Utie of their asso-
ciatloo. As a sign of fraternity, eucti of the '* Iteirgars" wore a raedul called the
*' beggar's denier/' made of gold or silver, and stamped on the obverse with the
image of Philip II., and the inscription, **In everything faithful to the king;" and
on the reverse with a wallet, sach as the medicaut monlu carried, held in two hands,
with the words, ** even to the carrying of the wdlet." The ** begsars" luaintaioea
a long and ▼igoronv contest against the despotic proceedings of Philip and his ad-
visers, but were ultimately compelled to snocninb to superior force. A branch of
them, '^ the Beggars of the Sea," under the bold leadership of the savage Count de
la Marck, were luinost uniformly sncceMful in their vnterpripos : they several timet
defeated the BpaniUi fleet, captured transports with supplies for Alva's army, cap*
tared several fortresses, and succored l)esieged places along the coast.

GUQLIELMI, Pletro, a celebrated mnpiclnn and compoper, wns bom at Mnssa
di Carrara m 1727. From his father, who was Maestro di Cappella in the ducal
chapel of Modena, be acquired the ciemcots of music. His first opem, composed at
the age of 28, was performed at Turin, and wns jrreetal with enthurfa}«m. Previous
to sming out on a continental tour bo vihited the chief cities of Italy, and was
everywhere successful. After a residence of Fome mouths at Dresden, Vienna, and
various otlier towns, G. passed over to Loudon, where he remained five years, as-



B



[ppella
tlctely to have engrossed him. He died at Rome in 1804. The characteristics of
lis style arc pre-eminently simplicity, purity, and precision, and these qualities he
inexorably demanded from tho exponents of his inspiration— ** Sing my music and
not youra 1 " His best known operas are — ** La CiPmenza dl Tito : " ** Artapcrpe ; "
** La Dldonc ; " ** Enca e Lavinin ; " "La Morto dl Olofeme ; " ** Debora e Slsera ; '»
and the comic operas ♦* La Virtuosa dl Mcrgelllna ; " *' I due Gemelle ; " " La Serva
Innamorata ; " ** LzwPastorclla Noblle ; " *• La Bella Pescatrlce."

GTJIA'N.A, British (Fr. Ouyane^ Sp. Oxtayana^ Port OwMimia), a section of tho
extensive tract forming the north-eastern portion of South America, lying between
8° 4/V n. and Z^ W. s., and between tho meridians of 60<* and 68° w. Tiie greatest
length of this tract, from Cape North to the conilneuce of the river Xie with the
river Negro, is calculated at 1090 miles ; its prealcst breadth, between Punta Bariina,
at the emI)oachure of the river Orinoco, and the confluence of the river Negro with
the river Amazon, at 710 miles. It is at present politicilly divided into Venezuelan,
British. Dutch. French, and Brnzilhin Guiana, llie name G. is nsuaUy sup-
posed to liave been applied by tlie Dutch to the whole country from the name of a
small river Wai-ini, a tributary of the Orinoco, on which stands a smaU town, called
Guayana Vicija.

The limits of the British possessions have never yet been accurately determined.
If wo adopt the idea of Sir Robert Schomburglc tlie latest authority upon the snb-
iect, aud asaame tho natural indications to be tho proper guide to the geographical
bonndariee, we siiail Include all the regions drained by the waters falling into the
river Baaeqaibo ; aud taking tho river Corentyu as the aduiowledged fine of de-



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marcation bettr^en British ood Dutch G., we arrive at an area of 76,000 sgaaro
miles, a territory much larger than Bnelaud and Wales. If, ou the other band, tbe
claims of the Yeaeinolao and Brazilian soTemmeuU respectively are to be ad-
mitted, the British partion will be reduced to Bometliins above 18,000 miles, and
become the smallest of the European colonies ioitbis region.

Tbe coast-line of the British territory consists of an allnvial flat, composed of a
bine clay impregnated with marine salts, and mixed with decayed vegetable ipatter.
which, iu its decomposed state, forms a rich and highly productive soil. The inland
depth of this fertile coast varies from ten to f ortv miles, where it is bonnded by a
rauge oC sand-hUlii, varying iu beight from 30 to 180 feet In tbe fifth purallel n.
lat occurs a chain of monntainC composed of granite, gneiss, and trappean rocks,
with their various ir.odiflcatious, and ft has been conjectured that it was tbe ancienC
boundary of tlie Atlantic ocean. A peculiar feature of the interior is the savannaa
extending between the rivers Demerara and Corentyn, and at the river Berbice
closelv approaching the setirshore. There is another series of such savannas further
Inland, and the geological structure of tbe region indicates that it was once the bod



of an inland luke, which, by some great elamcutal disturbance, burst its barriers, and
forced for its waters a passage to the Athuitic. This supposition may throw light
upon the origin of the tradition of tlie White Sea and the city of tlie gold-besprinkled



Mauoa, which inflamed the ardor of the chivalric Raleigh, and led him to the pur»ait
of those discoveries by which his name has been io\mortalised.

The fluvial system of British G. consists malntv of four great and seven smaller
streams, the whole of the first named and six of tbe latter pouring their waters
directly into the Atlantic The four great rivers ore the Eesequibo (q. v.), the
Demerara (q. v.), the Berbice (q. v.), and tlie Corentyn (q. v.). Tbe smaller streams
are tbe Porooroou, the Moruca, and the Wal-ini, between tbe Orinoco and the £»«<>-
qnibo ; the Mahoica, the Mahaicony, and the Albany, between tlie Demerara and
tbe Berbice : and the Canje, which joins the latter immudiately before it falls into
tbe ocean. In addition to the foregoing, there are numerous creeks of considerable
size, formed by the surplus waters of the savannas behind the scA'COOst.

Ail these streams are continually bringing down quantities of detritus ; the coast
outline is conseqsontly undergoing perpetutu changes : iu one place, ^he draina^
of the estates is blocked up bv bauKs of drift mud ; in another, incessant exertion 1ft
required to repel the encroachments of the sea.

CUmaU.^VhB climate of G. is genial and equable, and for a tropical country
comparatively healthy. The thermumoter ranges from 90' to TS*" P., the roeam
temperature boiug 81°*226. Tbe barometric pressure— highest, 30*05 Iu. ; (oweet«
20 74; mean, 29'916; average niinfall at Georgetown, lOt* JOin.

HUtory. — Whether Christopher Columbus himself ever nctnally lauded on th«
shores of G. seems not to be positively ascertained. It I^, however, certain tlint tbe
Hpauiords must have settled in the neighboring countries early In tbe 10th c, as in
1580, when the Dutch began tu establinh themselves on the banks of the Pomeroon
and other rivers, they were speedily driven out by the Spaniards, nor was it nutil
1602 that they succeeded iu obtaining a footing on tlic river Essequibo. During the
ITlb and tbe early part of tbe 18th centnnes, Ibe Dutch were frequently harassed by .
incursions of the French and by internal Insurrections : three distinct colonies were
constituted, until, in 1T89, those of Bssequibo and Demerara were united. Berbice
remained a separate colony until 1831, when the three were constituted into the
colony of British G., consisting of the couuties of Demerara, Kssequibo, and
Berbice.

Towards tbe close of the 18tli c, tlie feelings of the Inhabitants had become
stronglv influenced by a desire to place themselves under British sovereignty, and in
1796 effect was given to that desire by the cession of the cokinies to an expedition
under Major-general Whyte. At the peace of Amiens, In 180S, however, the coki-
uies were restored to the then ** Batavian republic," to be again surrendered to
Great Britain in 1803, which was Anally conflruied nt the peace of ISli.

Chvemment. — Tlie political constitution of the colony baa nnden^one but little
modiflcatlon since its afiCairs were administered by tbe Dutch. It retains peculiari-
ties which distinguish It from thnt of any other colonial dependency ; the principal
variations introduced have been the division of tbe colony into electoral districts: a
new defluition of the qualification for holding the electoral franchise, and opoa u^



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stead of secret TOtfog. The electors retam members of two distinct bodies ;
oaeis termed the •♦college of electors." seven iu nnrober, who hold office for b'fe,
voless they qalt the colouj; the specttil f miction of this body will l>e explaiued
Iieresfter. The other elected body Is termed the ^ college of financial representa-
tivrti,** and consists of six members. The legislative body comprtsee ten members,
five of whom, inclnding the governor, who personally pre^^ides over Its deliberations,
aru uomioated by the crowu, and hold office under it, the remaining five are
elioceo as vacancies occur, bv the existing members of the conrt from a double
nomination sent op by the college of electors above described. Once in each year,
what is called the ** combined conrt " holds a session for the purpose of agreeing
upon the annual expenditure, and determining the nature and amount of the taxes
to be levied. This court, which is also presided over by the governor in person,
coDsistsof the court of policy ^* combined" with the college of financial reprcaen-
tatives, and its leidslative functions are confined to passing the annual tax ordi"
nance. Practically, in the legislative body, or court of policy, the governor is able
to carry any measure ho desnres, possessing, as ho constitutionally does, a double
vote ; but it is hardly necessary to add that inis power has been very epuringiv re
aorted to, and tlie same may be said of the power of vetoing any proposition
brought forward either iu tiiat or the combined court, should he deem it objection-
aUe. The direct responsibility of the governor to the crown for any and all of his
acts, has been foona in practice an ample safeguard against any abuse of these
large prerogative powers. Another privilege reserved to the governor Is that of
orisnnating all money votes ; and while the majority in the combined court may
redTOe, they are prohibited from increasing the amount of any item of the public
expenditure as annually settled.

The jndichU system of the colony continued until a comparatively recent period
to be as it was established by the Dutch ; and the Roman code is still the baris of
the administration of justice in civil matters. lYial by jury In such caseti, at the
option of either parly, was introduced in 1844; and in criminal casef, trial by jury
was established by law iu 1846, and the Engllah criminal code was adopted as the
kw of the colony.

Besides the supreme and inferior courts, presided over by judges, there are police
and stipendiary magistrates iu each town and dittrict, with trie ordinary powers of
summary jurisdiction; a jail In each county, and a penal settlement for the more
heinous classes of criminals, situated on the banks of the river HassarnnI, about 70
miles from Georgetown. The stipendiary police consists of about 800 men, and
there is a strong body of rural constables throughout the colony, consisting nsnally
of the most trusiwortliy men ou the estates, audiu the villages, without distinction
of races.

There nre but two towns, properly so called. In the colony— Georgetown (q. v.)
and New Amsterdam (q. v.).

The cultivated portion of the colony is confined to the sea-coast, and to a short dis-
tance op each of the rlrers Berbice and Bemerara. The estates were laid out by the
Butch m the shape of a parallelogram as nearly as circumstances would permit, and
the staples were sugar, rum. and molasses, cotton and coffee. In 1747, two schoon-
ers suiliced to carry to :^nTOpo tlie crop of 559 hulf-hogsheads of sugar; in
1758, tl>e culture of cotton and coffee commenced. Immediately after the conqnest
by the British In 1796, a great impetus was given to agricultural operations; since
that period the fluctuations, arising from various causes at different times, have been
consfderabJo, of which some idea maybe perhaps arrived at by glancing at the grad-
ual decrease of the numbers of estates in cultivation. In 1S81, there were altogether
8S2; thirty years later there were not more than 160. Cotton and coffee have ceased
to be exported ; the former Is not cultivated, the latter to a very trifling extent All
available resources have been concentrated upon the production of sugar and rum ;
molasses have much dimiuisbed In quantity, owing to the Improvement in the mau'*
nfactnre of sugar. By the introduction of improved machinery, and an acces*
siou of labor by means of Immigration, the produce of many estates has been in-
creased from 50 to 100 percent. The timber trade has become of importance, and
for this the colony is mainly indebted to the interest excited iu lis natural resourcea
bv the Grea^ Exhibitions at London in 1851, and Paris iu 1855, at which much
Cfniana produce was exhibited.



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. It bas been atcerUlned that the population of the colony in the year 18T4amoaDtod
to 218,1N)9, iQcluBive of the aborigiuos and the troops in irarriaon. Aa the iucreaao
flhice 1851 is raoru than accounted for by the net reralts of immigratiom during that
period^ it eeema to follow that the Creole population haa rather receded than ad-
Tauced—a circumatunce which, eapeclally aa it la believed to be borne out by the ex-
perience of some of the amaller Weat India inaular colonies where inmigraUou haa
hod little or no influence, is matter of aeriona concern. It ia, however, to be re-
membered, that in the iutprval the colony haa been viaited by epidemic cholera and
Binall-pox, both extensively fatal, oapecially to the aged and the young.

The population Ls of a divcrsifled character; the aooriglual Indiana who, rapidlv
becoming extinct, are supposed to number from 7000 to 10,000. within ttie Britiau
torriiory; the Creole negro; the mixed race ; tite immigrants from Madeira, from
the Bust Indies, and from China ; with a aprinkliug of £uropoauB, chleAy Britiali,
French and Dutch. Tiie immigrants of all races mtrodnced from isn to 1874 in-
clusive, were 27,810. Ou theSlst Dec. 1874, there were Si.JMW Indian cooliea under
indenture : and U.653 worldug aa ordinary laborers on the estates; 14,868, not in-
dentured, Deing otherwise employed.

For eccleidasiicui purposes, the colony is divided into 17 pariahes of which seven
belong exclusively to the Church of Scotland, and eieht exclualvely to the Chnich
of England, while Georgetown, in Deuierara, and New Amsterdam, Berbice, have
ministers of each church appointed to tlieni. The ministers of both chnrchea, with
those of the Roman Catholic Church and the Wc^leyau Church, are nisintained by
saltiries from the Colonial lYeaaury, secured by law tor a term of yeara. There are
also iudept-ndent missionaries seal ti'red throughout the colony, who are supported
cxclns'lvely by the voluntary contributiona of their flocks. In 1874, the charge for
religion uaounted to £19,5d5, 19s. 6)^d. In the same year public education coat
jBlO.525, 1S«. Id., ajid was reported by the inspector to be in an unsatisfactory atato.

Tiie position of tliis importtmt dependency may be descri1>ed as one of advanc-
ing prosperity, but until a more ample aupply of available lalwr liidncea a greater
influx ot capital, it omuot be asserted that its condition is positively satisfactor-



Like the uthcr sugar-producing colonies of Oreut Britain, it ha^ had to strns
against great diflkulties— partly, at least, arising from imperial leglslnlion; and it
has still to contend with an expensive system of recruiting the deflbient labor mar-
ket from distant regioua.

The statistics of the years 1861 and 1874 shew the steady progress of the colony.
In 1861, the revenue was £301,761 ; tlie cxpeudifure, je326,U82; in 1874 they were rtv
spectively £603,790. 8s. Sd.. and £613.798, 16s. lOd. The pnblic debt has decreaaed
from £576.499 to £347,264, 4s. lOd., with ample security. In 1861, the imports were
valued at £1,3.HJ,713; in 1874, £1,873,219, 9s. In these two years, the exporU were
valued at £1,538.649 and £«,761,887. Sugar, rum, and molasses are the chief ex-
ports, and in 1S74 hud a value of £2.579,846. The trade in valuable native woods—
ciiiefly greenheart— is enlarging, being, in 1871, worth £3900, and in 1874, £89,418.
The imports cuustst mainly of flour, dried salt flsh, rice, malt liquor, brandy, ma-
chinery, oiia, lumb«r, pork, and manufactured eoods. There are 184 sugar estates,
65 plantain (provision) estates, 78 cattle farms, 16 coffee and 9 oocoapuut estates. la
1874, there were exported 908,887 hogslieads of sugar, 876,606 puncheons of rum, and
179.686 puncheons of molasses. During the same year, 7616 immigrants from the
East and West Indies were a<1ded to the coolie population. The criminal statistics
for 1874 shew a large amount of crime. Out of a population of 218,909, titere were
89^965 apurehensions and summonses; and of those convicted there were 17 for
murder, 88 for manslaughter, and 7 for attempt of murder.

OUIANA, Dutch, or Suriua'm, lies between British and French Quiana, and is
separated from the former by the Corentyn, which forms its western boundary,
while the Mnrony semirates it from the territories of the latter, and constitutes Its
eastern boundary. To the n. it Is bounded by the Atlantic, and s. by the Acarai
mountain-ranire, which divides it from Brazil It extends from 8*^ to 6'' n. lat., and
from about 63® to at)ont 67* w. long., and bos an area of 4.5,000 square mll<»8. Pop.
(Ist Jan. 1875) 61.884, of whom 713 were Europeans, 464 Chinese, and808S E. Indian
coolies. The birlhs (in 1874) were 1648; tlie deaths, S8M.

Although the physical character, climate, and productions are very nearly the
same as those of British Gumna (q. v.), the natural advantages of the colony are not



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■o fully deveioped, nnd in tbo W\j districts In the Interior and Bontb, which nre lield
1>3r the Maroooa, or ranaway slAve^, the lands are wholly uiiciiitivated. 'J'he rivers
All fall ioto ibe Atlaufic, and the most considenible is the Sarinamf which has a
coarse of nearly 800 miles, bat is not navleable for lai-ge ships many miles nbovu
Paramaribo (q. ▼.)? the capita), which is bnlit abont lU miles from its month. Dutch
iawB are io force, and the ^uage, weights, and measures of the mother-country
are geuerully used. The government of the colony is adminibtered by a govenior-
gfucral (nominated by the klue of the Netherlands) and a general council of native
treeboiden;. AH religions arc tolerated, and the Jews have pynagognes in difft'reiit
parts of the coiony. 'I1ie Moravian mlBsionarics serve 194 plautttions, and had, in
tS75. S8,&7« peraous enrolled.

The principal exports are sngar, coffee, cacao, mm, niolaspes, many sorts of
Ta]nal))e wood, gnms, balsams, and drugs. In 1874, the goods imported were
valued at iSSOS,'^, and the exports at jC«18,06T. Cleared inward, 804 vessels
laeasuring 26,479 tons; outward, 812, with a tonnace of 27.508. Among the ox-
ports were S4,lft5,508 lbs. sngar. 8,485,488 \\y». cacao. 127,4M lbs. cotton, 67,549
Iba. qnasaia-wood, 10S9 lbs. coffee, 801.780 gallons of rnm,aud 278,159 gallons of
molasses.

There were hi all 290 plantations with abont 80,000 acres in cnlUvation. The
chief product is sugar; then, in order, cacao, cotton, coffw. The llve^stotk w*ro
8515 head of cattle, 808 horses, 88 mules, 260 asses, 1184 sheep, 428 goatn, and 1733
swine. The revenne (1874) amounted to £101,984, ami the expenditure to the same.
The letters by nnail were 39,114 ; newspapers and circulars, 89,651. A bill for the
ereaocipatlon or the slavea was passed 8th Angnst 1868, and came into force Ist July
1868. The compensaUou given was X25 for each slave.

Tbe Datcb, who were the first £aropean settlers in 6., organised trading sta-
tioos on the coast »k early as the year 1680, from which i)eriod till 1790, when
Demerara andB8Scquil)o fell into the bauds of the English, they retained possefsion
of most of Gulnua. The present liiuits of Butch G. were settled by the Congress u£
Vienna.

GUIANA, Freodi, inclodes the districts lying between %^ and 6' n. lat. and &l^o
aBd54)^c>w. long., and is boauded on the n. by tbe Atlantic; on tbe w. by the
Marouy River, which separates it from Dutch Guiana, and by the little-known dis-
tricts lying bevoud tbe Kio-Branco : and on the s. anu e. by the river Oyapock and
tbe range of the Tamncamaque Mountains, which separate it from the empire of
BrasiU Tbe area, according to tiie l>e8t French anthorilies (Block. &c.), is 18,000
square leagnee, but the boundary-line of French G. is not well defined, and has
l(mg bcei; a subject of discussion with the BrajsUian and Dutch governments. Pop.
(1878) 84,171. In addition to Uie continental districts, French G. comprises several



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