James Orr.

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menade. G. baa a college, a threod-factonr, aud several tanneries. Pop. (1872)

OUIPU'SCOA, the amallest, but the most densely peopled of the Basque Prov-
inces (q.T.).

GUl'SBOROUOH, a market-town of the NorUi Riding of Yorkshire, 6 miles
from the noooth of tbe Tees, and 40 miles north of York. It is connected with the
Stockton and Darlington branch of the North-eastern Hallway. The town lies at
tbe foot of ibe Cleveland Hills, consists chiefly of one main street of good houses,
has several chorcbee, grammar aud other schools, almshouses, and market-house.

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The earliest alntn-works in Bngland were eetablislied here abont the year 1600. Theva
is a ti*ade In wool. Kope-makiiig, brick audtile makint:, aud tanning are carried on.
The recent development of (he Iron-atone roiuiug in the nofffhborhood haa hrooght
A large nnraber of mtncra and others to reside in and abont the town, so that, since
1801, the population has greatly increased. A rich monastery once stood herp, of
which a small part still remainii, bnilt in 1119 by Uobertde Brn^ lord of the town.
At the time of the Reformation, thiawas one of the wealthiest and most magntllceut
monastic institntions in the kingdom. Recent czcavatlons hare bronght to light
many iutereating antiqnities. Among other objects, the workmen came upon the
remains of an oak cofQu, containing a skeleton, which was found to mcaaore feet
8 inches in length. Pop. (1871) 5902.

OUISCARD, Robert, Duke of Apulia and Calabria, the sixth in order of seniority
of the twelve sons of Tuncred de Hautcvillc. was bom in the year lOlSw Tancred*8
estates in Lower Normandy being insufficient to snnport such a numerous farailv
bis three eldest eons, William, Dagobert, nnd Humphrey, determined to seek their
fortunes in the wars of Italy. By good-fortune, courage, and wiles, WHlIam gained
possession of Apulia; aud Robert, desirons of sharing his brothers' fortnnef, fol-
lowed them to Italy with a small band of adventurers. Here he distincuished him-
self 80 highly in various battles, that, after the death of William and Humphrey, he
was procmimed Coimt of Apulia. G. next conquered Calabria, iu the possession of
Which he was couflrnied by Pope Nicholas II., who. but a short lime before, had ex-
commuulcated him on account of his many acts ot violence. G.,from motives of
gratitude, bound himself to pay an annual tribute to the Roman see. The feudal
superiority still claimed by the papal see over Naples dates from this period. Q.
now despatched his youngest brother Roger, at the bead of 900 warriors, to con-
auer Sicily, the possession of which had been promised to him by the pope,
Roger, in 1060, took Messina, and iu the following year the two brothers defeated
the Saracens at Enna. Roger eventually couqnereid the whole island, nnd became
QratCouutof Sicily. Meanwhile, Robert gradually galne<l possession of the towna
that btill rcmuiucd iu the hands of the Saracens, among others, Salerno and Bori,
RuU thus established what was till 1860 the kingdom of Naples. He would have car-
ried his victorious standard iu other directions, had he not been excommunicated
by Gregory VII., en account of his inroad into Beneventnm. Haviug liecome in-
volved HI the affairs of Greece by the marriage of his daughter Helena with Con-
atantlue Ducas, son aud heir of Michael VII., he despatched his son Bohemoud to
undertake the conquest of Corf n, while he himself hastened to Dnrazzo, and before
the walls of that city gaiued a brilliant victory over the Greek emperor. Alexins
Comnenus. He now marched through Eplrus to Thesaalonica, and had nearir
reached Constantinople, when he received informatlou that the Emperor Henry Iv.
bad made an inroad into Italy. He immediately hastened bock, after intrusting the
chief command to Bohemoaci, compelled Henry to retreat, and liberated* the pope,
who %va8 besieged In the caatle of St Augelo. He then returned to ^iras. defeated
the Greeks In several engagements, took possesaion of some iakmda in the Archi-
pelago, and was on the point of advancing a second time to Conatantiuople. when
lie dlea at Uephalonia, lilh July 1085. His remains were tMriod at Vonnsa ; bisaona
Bohemoud and Roger inherited his possessions: the former received Tarentam;
the latter, Apulia, 6. was not only a hero and a conqueror, but a patron of the aria
aud sciences. Compare Quultier d'Arc, *^ Histoiro des Conqudtea doa Normanda en
Italie, en Sicile, et en Gr6ca " (Paris, 1B30).

GUISE, the name of a branch of the dncul family of Lorraine, distinguiahed in
the history of Prance and Europe during two centuries. It derives its name from
tlie little town of OniHe, in the depariment of Aisnc (situated on the Oise.) The
following arc its most remarkable members :

CiiAUDB or LoBBAiNB, flrst Duke of Guise, Peer of France, Grand Huntsman,
Count d'Aumale, Marquis of Mayenue nnd Elbeuf, Baron of Jolnvllle, &c, was the
fifth son of Rene II., Duke of Lorraine, nnd was bom at the ch&tcau of Cond6,
October 20, 1496. He left Lorraine on account of a quarrel with hla elder brother,
accompanied Francis L to Italy, aud received twenty-two wounds .nt the battle of
Maricnan, 1515. Eight j'ears later, he drove the Germans from Champagne. In
1542 be fought In Flaudera under the Duke of Orleans. He was favored by the king.

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for his valor find Ulcnt. He married Antotneite of Boarboo, by whom he had
tvrelvo childrcu, of whom eight were fobs. His daughter If ary waa tlio wile of
Jamea V. of Scot laud, and mother of Mary, Qaeeu of Qcots. He la reported to have
died of pohsou, April 1560.

F&AI1901B or LORRAiKS, second Duke of O., sou of the preceding, was bom
Febinary 17, 1619. Aa a geueral, he acquired European renown. Be distinguished
bimaelf at Montraedy (164S), Lendredes (1543), St Dialer (1544). Boulogne (1545),
and ttttracted the nttpntiou of France by his defence of Metz, uet>ie);ed for two
months by Chnriea V., wiio, after flrtnff 11,0(H) balls, and losiui; 80,000 men, was
obliged (o raise the siege (1553). He added to his reputation at lieuti (1654), and in
166fftook command of the expedition against Naples. This expedition failed tlirongh
trcachety : but t!>e diike, having been made Ueuteuant-gcneral of France, retrieved
his reputation 1)y taking Calais, Guincs, and Ham, wtiicti were in possession of the
English, ond w«*re cMisidercd .mpr^nablo. His military successes were endc^ by
tlic peace of 1659. His niece, Maij Stuart, being tlie wife of Francis H. he became
the highest power in the state, and the bead of the Catholic party. Tlie death of the
king, and a stroug'^party against him, drove him from the court, but be was soon re-
called, to take the command against the Huguenots, who had taken several Import-
ant towns, and were committing great ravages. Ha retook Rouen, and conquered at
Breux <16«S). Mar6c1ia1 St Andre wae killed, the Prince of CondA and the ConsUble
taken prisoners. O.. the greatest of hit name, was assassinated before Orieana,
February 24, 1568. He hsa ataste for literature, and hla memoirs, written by him-
self, have much historic interest

HsNBi I. o^ LonBAiMV, third Duke of Q., was bom December 81, 1550. The
death of his father placed him at the head of the Catholic partv. Ambition and
vengeance botli sUmnlated him to action. At the age of 16, he distiugnisbed him-
seli in flghtiug antinat the Turks in Hungary. Three years later, lie fought with
tho Huguenots at Jaroac (March 1669) and Moncootour (October 1669), and in the
same year forced Coligny to raise tlie siege of Poilicrs. He aapired to the hand of
Marguerite of Valols, but, to appease the anger of tlie king, married Cathefine of
Cl^es, 1670. Disflosted with toe favors granted to Protestants at the court, he re-
tired, but retumeoTand was encaged in the massacre of Si Bartholomew, August 24,
1672, in which he saw the dead body of Ck>ligny thrown from a window into the
courtyard at his feet. In 1576, fighting with the Hugurnots, he was wounded iu the
face, whence he received the name of Bala/rd (scarred), s designation bora also by
Ws father from a similar circamstance.. He formed the famous League— ostensibly
for the defence of the church, really to raise himself to the throne of Charlemagne.
The king coqicltcd with both parties. O. conquered Henri of Navarre, but the king
refused him entrance to Paris. The people rosetn his favor, and he might have
been king, but he negotiated. He was promised all the powers which he demanded.
bat the king canaed him to be massacred in the palace, and is said to have kicked
his lifeless body. His brother the caidinal was also killed. Their bodies were
burned, and the asliea scattered to the winds, December 28, 1568.

Hjemri II. or LoBRAiKV, fifth Duke of G., was born April 4, 1614. He was des-
tined for the ciiurcb, and at the sge of twelve possessed nine abbeys; at fifteen, he was
Archbishop of Reims, boi on the death of his elder brother he quitted a calling he
detested, and ancoeeaed to the dukedom. Handsome, cblvalrlc, brave, he was a
tme specimen of the ancient palodin, and celebrated for his numerous gallantries.
Loved by Anne de Gosague, princess of Mantua, he capriciously abandoned her,
joined theparty of the (^mte de Soiasons, and married the widow of the Comte de
Bosent. Having joined the league against Richelieu, he was condemned by the par-
liament of Paris to capital punishment, but took refuge iu Germany. On the death
of Lonis XIII., he retomed to France disgusted with his wife, whose fortune he
had spent, and proposed to marry Mademoiselle do Pons, one of the queen's maids
of honor. He fought in the campaigns of 1644 and 1646 as a volunteer, and then
repaired to Home to get a divorce, but failed. Hearing of the revolt of Naples
ai^iinst Spain, under Maseauiello, he set off for that city, in the true spirit of knight-
errantry, to conquer a kingdom with his sword for the bride he still hoped to gain.
Paasiog in a felucca through the Spanish fleet, O. entered Naples in December 1647,
and was received with the atmoat enthusiasm ; bat hla gallantries, the envy of the

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GalM 272

nobles, «Dd jealonsy of France, caused him to he betrayed, In Afuril 1448, to the
Bpairiarde, and lie waa carried a priaoner to Spain. Demanded by Coud«, he
was aet at liberty in 16S2, and joined, with Condd, the enemies of the
court and of Mazariu at Bordeaux. Two mouths later, he had betrayed his
alHea, and was at Paris with the king, bat misfortane stUI followed hfm, and he
fonnd that hta mistrew, for whom he had endnrod so mnch, was false, and that with
his own eeqaire. Finding himself an object of ridicaie at Paris, be attempted
to retnrn to Naples, bnt failed ; returned to Paris, was made grand ehamb<H'iain,
there dli^ected the magnificent fdtes of Louis XIY., and died without children in \WL

GUISE, a town of the deportment of Alsnc, France, situated on the left bank of
the Disc, 37 miles north 'U or ih-east from Soissoua. It is walled, and otherwise forti-
fied. It Is an ancient town, and was of much consequence in the carlyVars of
France. Within the town are the ruins of a castle, from which the famous Dukes
of Ouise (q. y.) derived their title. G. is now a phicc of coufidcnihlc commercial
and iuduBtrial activity ; has linen and cotton manufactures, tanneries, A;c., weekly
markets, and eight annual fairs. Pop. (1872) 5402.

QUITA'B, a muBical stringed instrument^ somewhat like the lute, particularly well
adapted for accompanying the human voice, and much esteemed in Spain and Italv.
It haa aix strtuga, and the sound is produced by the fingers of the right hand twitch-
ing the strings, while the fingers of the left hand make tlie notes of tlie music on
the finger-board, which has frets across it like the Iyi«. The three highest strings
of the guitar arc always of gut. and the three lowest are of ailk spun over with
silvered wire. The greatest virtuosi on the guitar were Guiliaui, 3or, Zoechi, Stoll,
and Horetxsky.

GUIZOT, Francois Pierre Galllanmc, a French atatesman and historian, was
bom at Klmes, October 4, 1787. His parents were Proteatants; his fatlier, who
was an advocate, perished on the scaffold, April 8, 17M, and his mother soon after-
wards went, with her two aoufs to Geneva, where G. received hia edocation. In
1806, >ie went to Paris, and devoted himself to literature. His first work, tlie
** Nouvean Dictionnuire Unlversel des Synonymesde la Laugne Vran^aise ** (2 vols.;
4th ed. Paris, 1848), appeared in 1809; tlie introduction reveals a very metltodical
mind. The next seven years were apent in laborious literary activity^ After the
second Restoration, he became general secretary to the Ministry of the Interior,
afterwm'ds to tiie Ministry of Justice. On the retirement of Barb6-Marbois, G.
tendered his resignation, and was first appointed maitre det regukee, ufterwarda
councillor of state. Q. contributed to the dissolution of the Cha-mbre IntroxivabUt
bv writing a memorial which was placed in the hands of Louis XVIII. by Decazes.
iHio latter committed to him tbe^eneral direction of the udminlBtnition of the earn-
munes and departtrrunU (1819). His writings from 1890 to 1882 are entitled ** Du Gonv-
emcment de la France depnis la Kestauration et du Minist^re Acrnel " (1821). ** His-
toire des Origiues du'Gonvemement Repr^sentatif ," containing his lectures at the 8oiv
bonne (where ho hei(l the position of lectnrer on history) of IMO— 1822 (new ed. 1852).
Govenimcnt forbade his Vecturee in 1824. aud G. again betook himself to literature.
In conjunction with several other men of InttRrii, ho published the important *' Col-
lection dee M6moircs Relatifs & I'Histoire de France, depnis la Fondation de la
Monarchic jnsqn'au 18in« Slftcle'* (81 vols., Paris i8SS-183S); and the **Cotk)etion
des Mdmoires Kelatifs k PHistoIre de la Revolution d' Angleterpo " (26 vote., Paris
1828). He likcwif^e edited several works of other authors, witli introductions, anno-
tations, and additions, such as Letoumeur's translation of Shakspeare(12vols:. Paris
IStl), Hallam's " History of Bugland," and MaMv's "Observations anr I'Histoire de
France,'' followed by the ''Essalssur THistoire de France." In addition to all these,
he published his " Hietoire de la R6volutlon d'Angleterre " (9 vols., Paris. 182« ; 4tii
ed. 1845), nnd edited the ** Encyclopddie Progressive," and the ••Revne Prao^aiae."
In tiic following year, the Maitignnc minisny granted him iiermission to reaunM*
his course of lectures on history. Tho.*e were attended by a large and enthusiastic
andtenco, and gave rise to several historical works of great value, published under
the collective title of *' Cours d'HIstolro Modeme " (1W8— 1880) ; among otitera, the
^'Distoire de la Civilisation en France depnts la Chute de I'Bmplre Roraain juaqn'i
la Revolution Fran^nise " (6 vols., Paris, 1828—1880; 6th od. 1846), and the '*Hia-
toire Generate de la Civilisation en Europe," &Q,, which serves as on introduction

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to tbe former >«ork. On the Ist March 1880 he again took his place hi the couicil of
Blate, and In Janaary 1880 was elected bj the town of Liaienx, which he contiuued to
represent In the chamber.

After the Jnly rcTolotioo, 6. became ancceasirely Miaiater of Public Instruc-
tion and Miuieter of the Interior, an office which he held, with two intermptiones
tin 1836. In this capacity be did macb for the improvement of educational ioatitu-
tiona, particularly the primary schools. Ou the breaking out of the Eastern
diaturlMincQS in the b^iuuius of the year 1840, under Soult'^ admlnistratlou* G. waa
sent aa ambassador to Loudon. After Sonlt's rctii-cmeut, in September 1847, he
bacaaie the oflk^iai leader of the cabinet, which maintained its eround, as the organ
of Louis Philippe's policy, till tlie February revolution of 1B48, and by its condnct
both in home and foreign Hffahrs, did much to bring constitutional government iijto
dtorepute, and to iiasteu the overthrow of the Orleans monarchy. As u statesman,
G. in carrying out his systematic and repressive line of policv, proved himself stifL
one-sided, and latterly obdurate ; from tucse qualities, as well as from his cold and
disagreeaole manner, he was always unpopular to the last degree with the nation.
As a man of rectitude aud austere morals, be never enriched nimself at the public
eoat : but neverthelees, from political motives, he allowed others to do so during his
administration, in the most flagrant manner. After having effected his escape from
Parte, lie retired to London, where ho was received with great respect. In April
1840, he published a circulur ^' Guieot 4 sea Amis," in wiiich he offered his services
to the electors of France, but iueffectnaily. In the following November, he returned
to Paris, where he continued to labor in conjunction with tlio heads of the mon-
archical portiea. After a short visit to Louis Philippe in Buglaud in June 1850, he
came forward in Paris as the main promoter of the fusion, and wrote
ttkewise in the **Aseambl6o Nationale." The coup d^eUU of lUe 2d December 1861 pot
an eml tothiscareor; and G. returned to England. By founding the **Comit6s His-
toriques," by bringing about the publication of important historical documents, and
by his owa Avritiugs and lectures, he did umch to extend a taste for historical studies
in France. In 18S7, he was iutxusled by the government of tlie United States with
the task of writiug a history of Washington. His work, published under the title
** Vie, Correspondancc, et Ecrita de Whshingl^D " (S vols., Paris, I839-1S40,) pro-
cured him tlie honor of bavins bis portrait placed in the Chamber of Representatives
at Washington. After. Uie February lisvolution, G. published several political
treatises, more or leas important, some of which at least are very interesting to
Englishmen, such as *' Revolution d*Angleterre," and *' Monk, Chute de la Repiib-
fiqoe.'' He likewiao wrote '* Mentations et Etudes Morales sur hi Religion, la Phll-
otopbic," Ac (1862): '*Cornellle et son Temps" 1862); "Shakespeare et ton
Temps" (IBM). In 1858, appeared his " Mdmoires ponr servir h THlstoire de mon
Temps." His publication, in 1861, defending the temporal power of the pope, was a
strange one for a Pi-otestant Among the most important of his later works are
*« Meditations sur I'Etat Actuel do la Religion Chretienne " (IS66) ; " Melanges Bio-
graphiquea et litteraires " (1868) ; ** Kehiuges Polltiques et Historiqnes" 0869), &c,
G. waa thrice married; his first two wivea were accomplished women, and not
unknown in literature. He died SepL IS, 1874. After his death was published
^ L'Histoiro dt; France depnis les Temps les plus recules jusqu'eu 1789; racontee &
mes Petits-Enfants." HisBon,MAi7iiiOE Quiixjluice, has shewn by his "Mcnandre,
Etude Hiatoriaue sur hi Oomedie et hi Societe Grecques " (1355), that he isnotdcsti-
tote of ids father's genius.


GUJERAT, or Guzerat, a walled town of the Punjab, stands on the right side
of the Cbenab, and is a phico of some military and politicalimportance, being on
the great route between Attock and Lahore. Here, in 18M. a Sikh army of £0.000
men was utteriy defeated by a much lees numerous British force. Pop. (Io08)
16,907.— For the territory called Guzbkat, see under that heading.


GULES (Fr. giuules^ the month and throat, hence red. Other origins are given,
sach as the Persian o&ttZ, a rose or rose-cx)lor, which seems more probable than the
Hebrew guluds^ a piece of red cloth, from which Mackenzie derives it ; it being

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Qiiiir Stream 274

scarcely likelj that It camo from a Semitic aoaroe), tho term bj which tiie color red
19 kuown ill henUdrY. In engravlDg^, it ia marked by perpeodicolar liuea traced from
the top of tho shield to the bottom. See Heraldry. It is siippoeed to iudlcate
valor, magnanimity, and the like, and i« regarded aa the moat uouorable heraldic

GULP STREAM and OCEAN-CURRENTS. The most Important and best
known of the great ocean -cnrrfiitfl derives its name from the Gnlf of Mexico, ont oC
which it flows, Dctwceu the const of Florida on the one side, and Cuba and the Ba-
hama Islauds and shoals on the other. With a breadth of nbont 60 miles in Its naz^
rowest portion, It has a velocity at times of five miles an hoar, ponrinc along like
an immense torrent This gi-cat ocean-river flows In a north-easterly direction
along the American coast, gradually widening its current and diminishing its veloe-
i^, until it reaches the island and mnks of Newfoundland, when it sweeps across
the Atlantic, and divides iutp two portions, one of whicli turns eastward towards
the Azores and coast of Marocco, while the other la\'ee the shores of the British I»-
hinds and Norway, and can he perceived on the soatheru borders of Iceland and
Spitzbergen, nenrly as far cast as Nova Zcmbla.

The waters of the Gulf Stream arc of a deep Indigo blue, with boundaries sharply
defined against the light green of the seas through which it passes in Its early coarse.
It abounds in mosses of sca-wced, torn from the coral rocks of the strait tbroogh
which It posses when It has Its greatest power and velocity; while in its warm cur-
rent may be seen myriads of fi^h and or anlmalcnlie. As this great stream poors
ont of the Gulf of Mexico, it has a warmth of 84^ in summer, being 4P higher than
that of the ocean at the equator. In mid-Atlantic, opposite Nova Sc^ia, it has fallen
at all seasons only about 14° ; while the British Islands and north-western coasts of
Europe, nt a distance of 4000 miles from the Gulf, are bathed with waters heated under
a tropical sun, and have their temperatures raised in winter about 80* above the norw
mal temperature of the latitudes. In mid-winter, off the indemeut coasts of Amer-
ica, between Cape Hattcras and Newfoundland, ships beaten back from their
harbors by fierce north-westers, until loaded down with Ice and in danger of foun-
dering, turn their prows to the east, and seek relief and comfort in tlie Gulf Stream.
A baiik of fog rising like a wall, caused by the condensation of warm vapors meeting
a colder atmosphere, marks the edge of the stream. The water suddenly changes
from green to bine, the climate from winter to summery and tliis chans?e Is so
sudden, that when a ship is crossing the line, a difference of 80« of temperature has
been marked between the bow and the stem.

l^e great differences of temperature between the western shores of Europe and
the eastern shores of America have been attributed, too largely, perhaps, to the in-
fluence of the Gulf Stream. There Is no doubt that such an Immense body of
heated water In the North-eastern Atlantic must raise the temperature of the atnioA-
phere, and that to this importation of the effects of tropical sunshine by sea is due.
to a certain extent, Ireland's perpetual green, the soft moist climate of England and
Scotland, and the fart that the harbors of the western and northern coasts of Nor-
way^as far cast as Va ranger Fjord, remain open, when the Baltic, much farther
sonth, is a sheet of Ice, England, clothed ki perennial verdure, and Scotland, where
the grass grows during eleven months of the year, are iu tho same latitude as tho
frozen and horrible coast of Labrador. Norway Is opposite Greenland ; and Lis-
bon, where frost Is scarcely known. Is In the same latitude as Wasliington, where
the Potomac river, a mileiu breadth, sometimes freezes over in a sinsle night. This
difference Is to be ascribed, not to tho Gulf Stream alone, but to that In conjunction
with the prevailing sonth-westerly winds. The Mediterranean, exposed to no cold
currents from the arctic regions, bearing bergs and fields of ice, is a constant re-
ceiver and distributor of heat, and modifies tho temperature of adjacent regions.
North America, on the contrary, Is exposed along its eastern sliore to a great cur-
rent from tlic Polar Sens, running Inside and counter to the'Galf Stream, and cont-
ing loaded with ice from the northern regions : and while the continent narrows
toward the tropics, it grows broad in the polar regiona, from which como the cold
north-westers, the prevailing winds during the wintry season.

The effect of the Gulf Stream upon temperature has been nowhere more strik-
ingly observed than in high northern latitudes. Where the warm stream from tbe

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 53 of 196)