James Orr.

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£l'i,671 for Imildiiig-* and machinery ; and £101,190 lor stores to l)e consumed in llio
manufacture of guns.

Much of the m;ichinery now used in the manufacture of guns \ta»» originally de-
veloiKil at the engineering and foundinir t!«t:il>lislMneiii of Sir William Arms-trong
& Co., at KIsw'ck, which was lor some time used as an auxiliary and snpj)lemenl to
the gun factory in Woolwicli arsenal, the guns being turned oat at a contriict pr cr,
payable alter they had i)a!»8ed a rigid inHpeciion. The coancctiou between the gov-
ern ment aiid the.Elswick ttrm cen^^d in 1SC8.

orNDAMU'K, a village of Afghanistan, claims notice merely In connection with
the fatal relrejit from Cabul in 1S42. It was here tluit the l:i»t remnant of the British
fore •.when within 23 mil<.'Sof tin; shelter of Jellalabad, was mas^'acred, to the num-
ber of H>0 soldiers and 300 canjp followern, only one man elfecting liis escape.

CiUNDlJ'K, a river of India, join« the Clanges fron» the h-ft or north side, oppo-
»ile to Patiin, alter a soulli-east eoht course of about 4D0 miles. It ih eiippohetl to
rii*e l)oyond the Himalaya, iu lat. 2^° 40' »., and lone. 83"^ 14' e., while its reiiiotest
source witldn that range is said to lie ai the foot of I)h\\ala;:in. Alter a course of
200 miles, it becomes practicable lor boats ot con^i(ler:ll)lt! t.urden. Near this point,
the river touches the British tcrriiory, dividing ii for 16mile>« from >«*< panl.

CiUNDULITScJI. I wan- the mo.-t celebrated Serbian poet of ezulier limes, was
the ton of Francis Gundulilsch the historian, and wan born 8tli Augiitt, 1588. iu
the town of liagusu. After he had complcltd his primary education and pliilo'-ophic
studies under the Je.'iuits, l:o betook biniselt, and at the at'e of 21, to the science of
pirispriideuce, in which he made such rapid advances, tlutt ill spile of Ids youtli, ho
was n»tru.*ted willi the first oftlees of the Kugu«an republic, lie died in 1638. On
th«r20tli December l.'iSS. the bicentenary anni\ersarv of his death, a grand requiem
was -ung in nuMnory of the poet, in the Academic Ohureli tjf Agiani.— G.'s poetical
works, lyric^d, drairiaiic, aud epical, an; a fnilhful mirror of the stirring time in
which tijey were compose<l. He was the earliest dramatic writer nf tlie Shivlc race,
and the theatre of Uagu.sa, on whieli ids pieces wore performed was the first Slavic
theatre. His greatest and most relet)ra ted work Ih an epic. "The Omanli." in 20
c.nntos in which liesiuL's the deeds of Osman IT., and the fame of ttie Poles and
Their king, Wladi?*law IV^, in the eainpaign of 1621. Thh* work was first published
At Hagnsn In 1<J2«: the latest e<litlon istTKit of <h\'] (.Agram. 1844). Of his Dramas,
may b« mentioned. •* Ariadne," ''The Kap". of Pro»;<'rplna," •Mialntea." ''Diana,"
*• Armida," ♦• The Sacrifice of Love," **Cereiii," ** tJleoputm," '• Adonis," and ** Tiie
Coral : " of his other poems, " Hynm on the (ireatnee.^ of (»od," and '"The Tears of
Uic afflicted Sod." G. also made several translations fmm the Italian poeta.

Cf UNMAKING, Gun-Trade. Although the terms gunnery and gun relate chiefly
to great guns or cannon, the word gunmaking is always applied to the manufacturo
of small-arms, conipri>ing mufkett*, nfle-;, pistols, anil cfirl>ines. In England, tho
great scat of this trade was formerly London, whose workmen stood unrivalled



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OomMrr ^*^0

tbrooghoat Europe for the ezceUenoe of their prodoction ; bat of late yeuie the gnn-
makers of Birmiugbam have ancceeded, from local advanta)?*^ iu UiniiDg oat onr-
rels of proved power, at auch a price as to defy competitiou. Since tlien, the
London makers have confined themselves to **iliilshiDg/' or potUuf together, an
artreqniriuff the ntniost nicety: and even in this, the f>kiUed labor of iTubliu and
Bdialrargh has now nearly cquttlied them. There ure^ therefore, several cent res now
in the United Kingdom whence flrsUrate arms are to be obtained. America and the
leading continental nations are great mtmnfacturers al»o, iiud each has its partico-
lar excellences. The chief continental gau-factorlesare at St £ticnue, Li^ge, Vienna,
and Sahl.

Machinery has been comparatively slow In being applied to the maunfactare of
small-arms, out during the Tai>t few years it has mude giant iitt rides; and now the
government manufactory at fiufleld, iu which numerous ingenious machines have
been introduced from the United States, is fitted with every mechanical aupliauce,
and can tarn out many thousand arms per aimum. eaqh of which so exactly corres-
ponds to pattern, that all the coustltucut pieces are interchangeable. BaiTels, in-
stead of being foived by the liand-hammer, are rolled at once with a uniform pres-
sure, and then welded at one heat. In the United States, barrels are at present made
of cast steel, first formed in the solid, aud then bored by a succession of borers of
increasing diameter. Tticse cast-steel barrels are rapidly superscdiog all oUiers— ut
least for sportiug purposes — in Grent Britain. France, and America. Another favor-
ite modern material for barrels is '* laminated steel." See Babbel. Barrels well
constructed of laminated steel, resist a bursting pressure of S2,000 lbs. on the sqnnre
Inch one-eighth of an inch tliick, whereas common ^* twist *' barre.s will only witb-
a(f>ud aboat 34.000 Ib^

When the barrel is fluiabed, however made, It Is proof er], under very heavy
onarges of powder. All non-government barrels made iu England must be proofed
at the proofing- houses of London or Birmingham ; government arms are teetod at

The portions of the lock (q.v.) are made some of iron and some of steel, cither
fOrged by hand, or, as in the great mannfaciories, stamped out bv a powerful
nuichino. The stock Is turned uy mncliinery from strong light wood. On all ac-
counts taken together, it is found that uo wood is so well ada)>ied as Italian walimU
The finishing or putting togetlier of guns is an art In Itself; the utmost attention
having to t)e devoted to everything tiiat will st^cnre solidity, lightness, and the most
luinuti^ accuracy of fittinr. Skillfd artificers In tht^ gan-lmde command excellent
wi»ees: rarely less than 40s.. nndoft«n as mucli as X4 a week.

In flttluj; and flnishins, London is generally adraiitiKl to stand unequalled: Paris,
however, making a goo I and near second. For Intrrels, BirmingliaHi, Sr Etienne,
and Lidge have the most repute. In all respcc.s, Toledo, once famed for ito blades,
holds a high character in regard to its guns, both for sporting and military purposes,
la the United States, Wind-sor and Hartford are the leading maimfactories, with
Harper's Perry for government arms; bnt tl»e quality of American workmansliip is
too often saciiAced to cheapness in the article turned out. The British export trade
in sinall-arma is VC17 great, the return for the year 1S75 shewing an exportation of
818,901 Htand of all kinds of the value of X655,l(».

GUNNEL (Guniullun MurcBoides), a genus of fishes of the Blenny (q. v.) family,
of more elongated form than the true bit iini<». The sp<*<'ies are pretty numerous,
but only one Is British, the Common or Spotted G. or Buttebvisu {O. tnUffariB),
often to be found in tide-pools on the sea f bore ; seldom more tlian six or seven
inches loni; ; of a deep olive color, with a row of dark iipots on the l>ack. remark-
able for the quantity and tiiickness of the mucous secretion with which it is
covered. It is seldom tised in Britain except for bait.

GUNNER, in tlie British army, Is the private soldier of the corps of artillery;
he re elves pay at the into of Is. S^d. per diem : his uniform consists of blue with
red facings, and red stripe on tne trousers; and his arms consist of a carbine and
sword-lMyonet.

At the present time, when artillery Is asf'd with the utmost skill and science, the
training a eunuer must undergo, to bocomu thoroughly efBcieiit, is long and
arduous. His eye must be sufflcieutiy acute to estimate distances instantly and



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proximately; and wtthtl, he most pofMM physlcaJrtrengtli capaMe of tastainlna
tlie exertious oeceaaary for the aerrice nf heavy goos and the removal of ahot ano
pooderona artillery stores.

MagUr-gunner* are peoidoned aergaanta of artillery, who arc placed fn charge
of tlie atorea In amall towers or forta ; they are dlvldtxl into three claat^s, of which
those in the first claae receive 6f., in the second, 8«. ^., and iu the third. 8tf. a day.
Master guunem are now borne In the Coaat Brijgade of Royal Artillery, but the offlca
has mach degenerated In importance ahoce it waa ilrat created, at least as early
as the time of Henry VIIL

Iu the navy, the ffunner rank? flrvt among the warrant- offlcers, and next In order
to the navigatiog aab-lieatenaut In regnrd to taking command of a f>hin. Hia pay
varies from 1M. u day for chief gonnera to 5a. 6d. n dnv for gnnuera of tbe 2A cliisa.
His antlorm consfsttt of a bine coat, bhie cap, and oflfcer's sword. A gnnner rlFca
from before the most by stcadhieaa, sobriety, and intelligence. On appointment,
he mast satisfy examiners onpoluted by the Admiralty that be fa In all respects
qualified. Hia dntiea are higDly important : he haa charge of all i)owder and artil>
Icry Btorea on board, and is bound to ace that the gnus arc always fnlly equipped for
action. In exercising \vith the guup, the gniiner Is histmctor of tlie pnllors, and-
undar tbe captain. Is responsible for their efficiency. The g%mner'4hfnate is nndst^nt
to thejgnnner, and stands second among the petty ofBcrro. To be confirmed in hia
rank, he must pass an examination In gnnnery on board H.M.S.£K<^//mt, at Ports-
mouth. His pay varies from £S9, 10«. lOd. a year to X84, 19a. Tcf. 8ea7nen-ipmMr$
are contiouons-aervlce Bailors, who are trained In gnnnery and great-gnn exercific.
One haa the direction of each gou, with ordinary seamen under him to perform the
heavy part of working It. A eeanian-gnnner. If in the Ist claaa, receives 4fd. a day
boy<^ hia pay as aeamau, and id. a day if In the td doaa.

OUKinniT. Ignorance of the laws of gravity and of other physical drcaro-
elancea affecting the fight of projactllea. prevented any correct theory of gnnnery
being arrived at In the earliest ages of artillery. The flrflt anthor professedly treat*
hig on tbe flight of cannon-«hot waa Nlcolaa Tartaglla, a diathigatalied Italian ma*>
thematldan, who, In 18t7. poMished his work, '* ul Nuova Sciintia." He liad no
practical acquaintance witn his tnbiect, btn bis gnesses were shrewd and often raar-
vellonsly near the truth. Among other thtags he ascertained that no portion of the
track dcecribed by a Iwll Is a right line, and aa a practloal aid to artJileriats, lie de-
villed the gnnner'a ** Quadrant " (q. v.V After Tartaglia, many phllosopfaera, aapecU
ally of Italy, theorised on the question, and various tablea of ranees, elevations,
clistgoa, Ac, hod been publlflhed, all more or less fallacious, when a irearer approach
to accuracy appeared iu Galileo's ** Dlalognes on Motion," printed in 1^. The
officers who had charge of artillery in ncfa&l use were too little gifted with scientfle
education to deduce theory from practice : and up the time o( Robins, who wrote
In 1749, but four workIi)ff>gnnuers— <^]lado, Browne, Bldred, and Alderaon, of
whom the three last were lujgllbhmeu— have left trentleesuf any vajoo on tha uaeof
their weapons.

Galileo, in hia contributions to pbvsica, had shewn that cannou-shot, or any
other proiectllea, being affected by tbe downward force of gravity, would tntvel in
tbe eurve of a parabola, nnleas affected by the resistance of the air. Tiie philosopher
pofuted out modes by which the diatnrbances caoaed by this resisting BMalum might
be ascertained ; but vubaequent writera, with the exception of Newton and Bemoo-
iUi, till the time of Robins, chose to aasame that the atmospherical resistance waa
but nominal, and boklly asaerted that all stMi described parabolaa iu their course,
la 174i, Mr Beniamin Robtna, who moat beconaidered tbe real fonndcrof the science,
pobllshed his ^ New Principles of Goimerv,'* a work the result of long and almost
extiaaatlve experlmenta. He treated of the atmospheric reaiatance, at the force of
ganpowder, of the affecta of varying length and weight hi guns, and of almost every-
thing which in any way related to the motion of projectilea, carrying the theory of
gunnery neany to perfection* Aa one result of hia experlmenta, Koblna estalUiahed
the law that common shot eneoantered a reaistance from ttie air during their pa^
sage, whieh Inoreaaed aa the square of the velocity, or very nearlv so ; and that their
eonncs differed widelv from narabolas. By meana of the BaUivric Pendulum (q. v).
ha maaaorad the speed of baUs at the very cannon's mouth. Baiar, in tho Jattar pari



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of the ISU) <L, added much to the knowledge of the enhject by his comioeDtaries on
the work of Robins; us did also the inathematiciau Hotton.

The theory of gunnery, po far as it can be deduced from the universal laws of
motion, witboat regard to the resistance of the air, fulls under the more creueral
head oi Projectiles (q. v.). But except in flring bombs, which from their low
velocity are not so much affected by the resistance of vlie air, the mere mathematical
theory is of little service. All the real practical rules have been deduced from
experiment. The following are a few of the more important i-esults thus arrived at.

For a given charge and weight of projectile, there is a certain length of bore that
gives the {greatest velocity ; the cause being, that with a less length some of tlie pow-
der isdiscTiarged andecomposed, and with agreater, the combut«tiou Is finished before
the ball Jeaves the muzzle, so that it has to contend with the friction of thegun with-
out rec«ilving addiUoual impulses. Increase of length, accompanied by propor-
tionate increase of charge, gives increased velocity ; but the greater velocity is onl^^
In proportion to the cube root of tho increased length.

Tlie resislaDce of the ah* does not arise merely from the proicctile having to dis-
place Its own bulk of it us it advances ; for in the case of a bony moving wuh great
Telocity, the air becomes condensed in front of it, while that behind is hfglily mnfled.
The displaced air behind does not return "freely to fill up the vacuum, until the ppeed
of Ihe ball is reduced to 1400 feet per second ; the maximum profitable velocity Is
calculated to be 1600 feet, and that, or any higher speed, is believed to be reduced to
1400 feet after a course of 4O0 feet.

The resistance offered to bodies by the air is as their snrfacos. i. e., !n the case
of round or cylindrical shot, aatlie squares of the diameters; whilst the power of the
bodies themselves to overcome resistance is as their weights, or as the cul)e8 of their
diameters. Of course balls of like size but diHerout density will produce >videly
different results. Hence the greater range of solid as compared to hollow shot.
Solid shot fired witli equal velocities and elevations, range as their weight, the
heavier overcoming atmospheric resistance better ttian the lighter. Shot of equal
weight and diameter will range according to their velocities ; bat not in direct pro-
pornoD, for the retarding power varies as the square of tlie velocity. Velocities of
shot of equal diameter are as the square roots of the charges.

TlM diminution in speed caosed by atmospheric resistance may bo judged of
from itie following table of the speed of a S2-pounder at different |>art8 of its course ;
it being premised that a body iu vacuo, once started, should move ad infinitum,
without deerease of velocity :

Initial Telocity, lAOO feet per secoDd.

Velocity 800 yards from gnn 112« "

" 1000 " 1000 ''

1600 " 608 "

" «000 " 465 "

>» 8500 " SttT "

Action and reaction being always equal and in opposite direction s, the explosion
of the gunpowder acts with equal force upon tlie oall and upon tlie canuen from
which it is discharged, the former demonstrating this in its range, and the latter by
its recoil. This recoil has to be guarded against as mnch as possible, either by the
weight of the gnn itself, or by its secure attachment to a ponderous carriage. The
momentum of the recoil, being the product of tho shot's weight and the velocity,
is readily calculated. The common charge of a 24-poQnder gnu, being one-third
the weight of the shot, or eight pounds, the momentum of both shot and gnu will
be 1600 <the initial velocity) X M- 38,400, which, divided by 6600; or the gun's
weight in pounds, gives about seven feet as the velocity per second ; if the gun is
attached to a carriage, ttie weight of the carriage must be added to that of the gun
for a divisor.

The following table exhibits tho effects of varying charge and elevation on dif-
ferent kinds of guns. The line of sight of a gnu is an imaginary line drawn through
Uie back-sight on tho breech and the f ore-stght, a notch iu the mussle ring, or on tbe
first re-inforce. The fore-sight is immovable, bnt the hack-night is so constructed
Qttt the notch shall be at a greater or leea height above the axis of the gun. When



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tbe Une Is parallod to the axis and horizontal, the di8chaT«» is '* point-blank; ^ bnt
when the back-sight i« ruiaed, the direction of the axis ofthe gnn will be lo a point
more eleviile<l than that to which the Hue of eight is directed, where the original im-
pulse received by tbe shot is upwards. Consequently, by raising the back-siglit, a
greater elevation, and, ordinarily, a greater range, is given to the piece. In retjmd
to point-blank discharge, Taf-taglia established the fundamental proposition tbattli€
time occupied by the ball in describing the wliolo trajectory or path is ihe same as it
would require to fall by gravity from the muzzle to the ground.



Nature.



IS-ponDder iron gnn .



12-potmdcr Armstrong.



28-poimder iron gtm.



40-poander ArmstiODg.,



68-poimder iron gtm.



llO-ponnder Armstrong. ,



ElevaUon. Charge. ^J^^^J"



Point-blank,
1 degree,
8 degrees,
6 •'

Point-blank,
1 degree,
3 degrees,
6 "
10 *'

Point-blank,
1 degree,
3 degrees,
6 "
12 "

Point-blank,
1 degree,
3 degrees,
6 "
12 •*

Point-blank,
1 degree,
8 degrees,

12 ♦*
Point-blank,
1 degree,
8 degrees,
6 "

12 *»



4 lbs.



1 lb. 8 oz.



10 lbs.



6 lbs.



20 lbs.



12 lbs.



300

700

1200

1800

330

700

1425

2440

3590

390

790

1500

2220

8060

860

730

1455

2506

4470

400

950

1715

2465

3400

3t6

«S0

1335

^m

4035



As regnrds penetration, It was found by experiments njrafnst a marlello tower at
Bastbonnie, \v:th a range of 1832 yards, that solid fhot from the 40-ponnder Arm-
strong penetrated into good masonry from 47 to 65 inches, and from an 80-
pounder Annstrong 61 to 90 inches. For other particulars relative to the art of
gunnery, the reader Is referred lo Loadino, Projectiles, Windaob, Ac. The
important point of the rotation of a ball or bolt will be considered under Riflbd
Pibeassis.

GITKNY B.\GS, are bags made of a coarse kind of cloth or sacking, manufac-
tured in India, and chiefly in Bengal, from which«they are largely exported to other
parts of the world. The fibre of whicli the cloth is made is chiefly that of tUe
name species of CorehoruHf which yield tbe jute (q. v.) of commerce. Tl»e cotton
of America is mostiv packed in gunny bags, of which the nnmber exported to
America from Bengal has increased from thousands in the year 1796 to millions in
1874. Great quantities are also exported to China, Australia, and other countries.
They are partly made up into bags in Bengal, partly exported as Gunny diuU or
^uUees^ pieces of size suitable for being immediately made into bags. The mauo^



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factnre of tboM fai the gnat domestic {ndastrr of all the popnlona eastern districts
of Lower Beugal. li pervades all classes, and gives oecnpatfou to men. women, and
chUdren. Boatmen employ themselves iu it In their spare moments, nasbandmen,
paianqnin-carriers, and domestic servants, being Hindaa, for MohamnKHlans spin
cotton only. It *' forms the never-failing resonrce of that rnnvt hamble, patient
and despised of created beings, the Hindu widow, saved by law from the pile, but
condemned t>y opinion and custom for tlie remninder of her days, literally to suck-
cloth nud ashes, and the lowest domestic dmdgery in tlie very household where
once, perhaps, uer will was law." (RoyleV " Fibrous Plants of Indiiu") Hence the
very low prices at which gunny ba^ are sold. There are few articles of commerce
so widely diffused over tl^ globe as the Indian gunny bag.

GUNPOWDER, a well-known explosive mixture composed of snlphur, nitre,
and charcoal. Of nae in several trades, its principal employment is in the discharge,
for war or sport, of projectiles from fire-ttrms, and in the processes of blasting dur-
iinr mining or quarrying. The history of gnnpowder has l>cen alrendv given nnder
FiBEABMs (q. v.), and it will therefore bo only necessary now to coiiamer the chem-
ical action which taices place when powder is ignited, and then to proceed to a short
description of the mtiuufucturc.

Extreme care is requisite in securing the purity of the ingredients entering into
the cora|)os{tion of gnnpowder. The principal imparity of nitre or saltpetre is chloride
of sodium, or common salt, whicii, m conseqaence of its tendency to ai)sorb raois*
turefrom the atmosphere, would have a very Injurions action on gunpowder by
weakening its power. The details of the process of pnriAcation of the nitre
wonld be out of place in this article. Tiie sulphur may be purified eitlier by fusion
(when the heavier Impurities sink, and the lighter ones may be removed by skim-
ming) or by distillation. The preparation of the charcoal is a most important
point It should be light and porous, should yield a very small amount of ash, es-
pecially of carbonate of potash and other deliquescent salts, and should contain lit-
tle moisture. The woods yield! us: the best cliarco:il for gunpowder are black alder,
poplar, spindle-tree, willow, and dogwood, the last uam^ giving off the largest vol-
ume ot gas when i^ited with a giveu weight of nitre, and odng on that account es-
pecially used for rifle powder.

A vast numlter of experiments have been made at different times, and by differ-
ent nations, to discover the proportions of nitre, sulphur, and chareoal best adapted
for the prcduction of different kinds of gunpowder ; and upon the whole there has
beeu groat uniformilv in the results, as may Ue seen from the following table of the
percentage composition of the powder of different nations:

Kind of Powder. Charcoal. Sulphur. Nitre. Authority.

Austrian war powder, . . . 18*1 11-8 75*6 Linck.

Bnglish ( WMltham Abbey) war powder, 13-T 101 Tfi-« Ure.

Knssiau war powder, .... 17-T 11*7 70 « Meyer.

Italian sporting powder, . . . IS-a 8*6 78*8 Prechtl.

Chinese gunpowder, .... SS-1 15*4 ei*ft Prechtl.

The chemical processes which occur in the Ignition of gunpowder are commonly
descrii>ed as follows : Wlieu the powder is Ignited, tlie oxyg'^u of the nitre combines
with the charcoal or carbon to form carbonic acid, tlie potassium combines with the
sulphur to form sulphide (or sulphuret) of potnssium, and the nitrosen is liberated ;
the reaction being shewn in the equation KO,N06+S+8C-^CO<-f N-f KS. Powder
consistinff of one equivalent each of nitre and sulphur, and three equivalents of car-
bon, would contain 74*8 percent, of nitre, ll*© per cont of sulphur, and 13-3 per
cent, of carbon or charcoal, which approximates very closely to the Austrian jpowder
In the above table. It Is easily shewn that one volume of such powder would yield
»« volumes of mixpd carbonic acid and nitrogen Kas«»s. after the ordinary reduction
for temperature and pressure, although from the intense hent developed at the
moment of explosion the actual dllatutton amounts to at least 1500 times the volume
of tiie powder employed. The only solid residue, supposing the above equation to
represent the true reaction. Is sulphide of potassium (KS), and part of this is vola-
tilised by the heat of the explosion, causing a whitish smoke by its combustion,



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 56 of 196)