James Orr.

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1, 2, 3, <l(c. on the line of loe. namlters, represent the logarithms of those nnmbera
—via., 0, -801, -477, &c,— taken from a scale of equal parts. The other lines are cou-
fttruoied ou an aualogood plau. Calling to mind that multiplication of numbers ia
effected by the addiilou of the loffarithms, diTision by their subtraction, InTolutlon
by their multiplication, and evoinUou by their division, we are able to perceive willi
wiiat ease many rovi^A problems In areas, heights, cubic conteuta, and other matters
may be performed through tlie agency of Quiiter*s Scale. i

QUNTU'R, atown In the presidency of Madras, stands about IS miles to the
south of the Kl8tna or Krishna, and about 30 to the west of the Ba^' of Bengal, la
lat. 81° 20' n., and lony. S<P 80' e. It contains about 20,000 inhabitants ; aud though
bndly built and much overcrowded, it Is yet unden-'tooa to be a healthy place. The
district of U. Is now* merged in the collectorate of Kislhna or Krishna.

GUNWALE, a term used on shipboard, rather vaguely, to deaiguate the upper
portion of the side of a ship or boat.

QURaAO'Nf a dlMrlct of the Punjab, in the coramlssloncrshlp of Delhi, stretches
in n. lat, from 27*> 40^ to 28® 80^, and in e. long, from T6 21' to Ts9 86', containing
2016 nq. ra., and CISOS) 6iN),M(( Inhabitants. Ita chief town, which bears the same
name, stands at the height of 817 feet above the rea. Ha monthly temperature
ranges between W F., the average of December, and 104°, the average of May.

« GURGES, or Gorges, a charge in Heraldry, meant to represent a whirlpool. It
takes up the whole field, and when borne proper, is azure aud urgent.

GUROI'NA BALSAM, a nnme of the balsamic liquid, also called Wood Ort, ob-
tained from the Gnrjuu Tree {Dipteroearpua tiwftinatfw). See Diptbbaoea aud
Wood Oil.

OURHWA'L, a district in the North-west Provinces, lies l>ct\vecu (he Dehra-
Doon and Soutli-wei»t Tibet, cxiondiug in n. lat. from 30* 2' to 31^ 20', and in e. long,
from 77" 55' to 79° 20'. It coutaius 650J sq. m., and (1S7I) 810,232 inhabltauta.
Being on ttie Bouthcrn Mopo of tlu* Himalaya, G. is litUe more than a mass of atu»

fcndous mouutuius, wliose elevation above ilie sea sometimes readies 23,000 feeL
t may be reptrded as the cradle of both the Juinua aud llie Ganges, attracting, In
spite of t^.e length aud rug«'ediiebs of the way, crowds of pilgrims to the peculiarly
sacred localilies of Jumuotri, Djvaprayaga, aud GaugotrL

QU'RKFELD, a town of Carniola, Austrian Empire, on the right bank of the
Save, 4d miles eust-by-soum from Laibach, at the base of a mountain-range. It is
supposed to occupy the site of the Rom?in Noviodunnm. The district produces
much wine. There ar<! ihermnl springs aud baths in the town. It contains a Capu-
chin monastery. Pop. (1869) 6000.

QU'RNARD {Triffla)^ a genua of acanlhoptcrons marine fishes of the family
Stilerogenidce, containing a considerable number of species, some of which are com-*
mon on the Brilislt coasts. The head in tiie gurnards is angular, and wholly covered
with bony plates ; the body is elongated, nearly round, and tapering ; there are two
dorsal fins ; Uie pectoral fins arc large ; the teeth are small aud numerous. Many of
the gurnurJa are distinguished by ncautv of color. They aio supposed to have re-
ceived the name G. from the sound which they sonietlmes emit, particularly when
newly taken out of the water, and which has obtained for one or two species tlie
local name Piper, A recent observer, M. Dufosso, ascribes tlie sound to tlie vibra-
tion of nni<4cles connected wltli the air-bladder, aud hasat^igned to the notes |iro-
duced by different species of garnards their particular places in the musical scale.
Most of the gurnards live generally near the bottom, and are caught either by the
trawl-net or by hook and line, a chining piece of a sand-eel being a very captivating
bait. Although not among the fluesl of fishes, tliey miv good for the table. One of
the most common British specie!^ is the Red G. {T.cucuhvi or T. pini) : sciilom
more thau 15 or 16 inches long ; of a roae-rud coloi', the body marked ou tlie upper



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a-tutarotf

part vrlth floe transTcne lateral rUgee; another, laiger and more Talnable, being
sometiiaes two feet long, Is the SAPPHiiinns Q. (7. Htrunctb), remarkable for tho
large else of Its poctonils and the blae of their inner surface ; and perfaapa the most
common of all is the Obat O. (P. Gumordus), generally of a grav color, more or
IcM cloaded or spotted with brown, black, and yellowish-white. There are several
other British species ; those of the Mediterranean are more unmerons. Garnards
are found also In the.seas of the southern hemisphere.

GURMUKTBSWA'R, atown of British India. In the district of Meerut, on the
route from the town of Meerut to Moradabad, ana 8t miles south-east of the former.
It is situated on the right bank of the Gatigets abont 4 miles below the reunion of
the Burba Gauga, or old course of the Ganges, with the present main channel,
whkh, a mile and a half above the town, is crossed by a much-frequented ferry,
on which 15 boats constantly ply. G. may be regarded as the port of Meerut and
the adjoining district of the I)oab. Pop. (1871) TMi.

GURNET, Joseph John, a )>hilantrophlc Quaker, bom at Earlbam Hail, near
Norwich, August % 1TB8, was educated privately at Oxford, and in 1818 became a
minister of the Society of Friends. His life was devoted to the prosecution of
benevolent enterprises. He died January 4, 1847. G. wrote a great nnmlier of
works; anMng others^'* Notes on Prison Discipline ** (Lond. 1819) : *' Observations
on the Religious Peculiarities of the Society of Friends ^ (1884) ; ^ A Winter in the
West Indies described in Familiar Letters to Henry Chiy of Kentucky " (1840).

GUSSET, a piece at first of chain, and afterwards of plate armor, intended as a
protection to the vuhicrable point where the defences of the arm and breast left a

Sap.— In Heraldry, the gusset is enumerated as CHie of the abatements or marks of
it>grace for unkniglitly conduct. It Is represented bv a straight line extending
diagonally from the dexter or sinister chief point one-third across the shiekl, and
then descending perpendicularly to the base. Heralds tell us that a gusset dexter
indicated adultery; a gusset sinister, drunkenness; and when both were borne
It was because the bearer was fanlty in both respects. Cowardice was indicated
by an abatement called the gore sinister (see Gobs), which, thongh somewhat sim-
ilar, we are told carefully to dlstlnsofsh from the gusset, and which consists of two
arched lines drawn, one from the sinister chief, the other from the middle base of the
escntcheon, meeting in the f ess point A gore like a gnsset represents a detached
part of- a garment; and according to Guiliim, gores and gussets** are things in
mso among women, especially semHcrs, and therefore are fit notes of .cowards and
womanish dispositlona."

QUSTA'VIA, the chief town of the small Swedish island of St Bartholomew, hi
the West Indies, stands on its south-west coast, has a good harbor, and tia^a popu-
lation of alxHit 1000.

GUSTAVXrs I., king of Sweden— known In history as GusTATtrs Vasa, but
designated before his accession to power, by himself and others, Gustatus Erics-
son— was born at Lindholm, in Sweden, on the 18th of Mav 14M, and died In Ism.
As the descendant of an ancient Swedish family, which haa given members to the
national diet for nearly two hundred years, and which bod been distinguished for
bstred of and opposition to Banlsli snpremacy, O. was involved at an early age in
the unfortunate qnarrels and domestic ware which distracted Sweden at that period,
and the first achievement of the ftiture king was to take an active part in the defence
made against Christian II. of Denmark, who, in 1617, in person commanded an as-
sault upon Stockholm, the ol^ect of which was to compel the' Swedish administrator,
Svaute Stnre, and his senate to acknowledge him as king of Sweden. When famine
compelled Christian to relinquish the i4ege, he had recourse to fraud ; and having
enticed a deputation from the senate, among whom was G., on board his ship,
he set sail, and treacherously carried his captives to Denmark, where G. spent a veur
in confinement in the custody of his maternal relative, Erich Baner, Lord of Kalloe,
In Jutland. While under confinement, G. heard such alarmiiif rumora of the expe-
dition wliich the king was preparing against Sweden, that irritated beyond endur-
ance, he broke his parole, and escaped Tu the disguise of a pilgrim, or according to
others, as a drover, and after encountering numerous dangers, reached Lubeck
(flepiember 1619% from which be was with difliCQlty couYeyed to Sweden, where b«



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landed. Id May 1590, noor Calmar, the on)r place of note, except Stockbohn, -i«»«t
atill hold out uisaliiBt the Danes. O. with dimcnitv made nis way Into the coaiti of
Calmar, which was defended by forulen mereeDaricg; bat as his adrooniiious to the
irarrisoii to chew more seal in their defence were met by threats of delivering him to
tlT6 Danes, he left Calmar, and took refnge aniou<^ his father's peasantry In Smaa-
laud. The Sinoaluiiders bad, however, already taken the oaths of allegiance to
tlie envoys who had been sent throagh the coauti'v by Christian II. to ascertain tlie
sentiments of tlie people, and O. was soon compelled to retreat to Dalecarlin, wliero
he wandered for scveml months In poverty and dWnise with a ]Mice set on his head,
and finally mad.* his way pennitem and almost naked, to the honse of his lirotlier-
In-law, Joachim Brahe, jast as the latter was preparing to obey the summons of
Christian II. to attend Ids coronation. Having failed to dlssoade Brahe from attend-
ing ttiis ceremony, which took place in November 1690, O. retired to his fathorhi
>ro))erty of RifsnAs, where he remained till he beard of the massacre known as the
Jlood-lMilh, which followed three days after the coronation, and in which, on the
plea of tlietrbcinz the enemies of the troe church, the irreater number of the nobles
and leaders of Sweden, inclnding Brahe himself and O.'s falluT, Brie Joliansaon,
were slaughtered in cold blood. O. next retreated to the loss frequented imrts of
Dalecarila, where for a time ho earned his livhig as a fleld-luborer, and more than
once owed his life nod safety to the generosity of the peawint women of the district.
Tills period of iiis life has been so long made the subject of traditionarv lore and
romance, tliat it la difflcnlt now to separate the troe from the false ; but the fame of
his f>appo9od advontnres still lives in the minds of the people of Sweden, who cherish
as gncred every spot associated with liis wanderings and dangers. His appeals to
the Dalccarliaus met with do Rncctiss until his account of the tyranny of the Danes
wus corro'wratcd by the testimony of several fugftlves from Stockholm, wlien a
reaction followed, the national (»ithu9iaRm was roused, and the men of Dalecarlia.
having cnllod together a diet at Mon>| proclaimed him head of their own and other
communes of Sweden.

This was the tnr.dng-point in his fife, for the peasantry now flocked around Irfm
from every side ; and before another year had passed, many of the strongest posts
of the enemy had fallen into his hands, and he was able to enter upon tl)e siege of
Stockliolm, whicli terminated in 1523, when Christian II. was compelled by his
enraged snbjects to resign the crown, and retire from Denmark. His forcible abdi-
cation l>rought the Scandinavian union to a sndd ;n close, after it had existed for a
Eeriod of 136 years; for when Frederick L, the 8ucc(>i»or of Christian, demanded
h* recognition in Sweden, comformably to the Union of Calmar, the Swedes
declared at the diet of StrengDaes that they would have no other king bat Qastavns
Bricsson. But although G. was at once recoenised as king, ho was not crowned till
two years later. In consequence of his unwillingness to receive the crown from the
hamls of the Romish bisuops. The king eariy shewed his determination to favor
the Lntborau doctrines, and to cripple the power of the Romish clergy, ou whom he
laid a kirge proportion of tlie heavy Impc^ts raised to meet the expenses of the
war ; and aHhoi^ his oi^nlous were for a long time not favonibiy received l^ the
people, he flimlly succeeded In establishing the Reformation in Sweden.

The disaffection of tlie peasantry, who threatened to destroy the nobility, and
the imprudence of the I^ntheran clergy, wlio tried to force the people to adopt the
reformed doctrines, combined to thwart many of Q.*s schemes for the Improvement
of the coimtry, while his latter yearn were disturbed and imhittered by the joalonf.y
and dissensions of his sons, Brie and John. Yet, not^vithstandiug these sources of
disqnietnde, O. effected more tiian any oUier Swedisli monarch has ever done for the
welfare of the people. He had found Sweden a wilderness, devoid of all cultivation,
and a prey to the turbulence of the iMople and the rapacity of the nobles ; and after
forty years' rule, he left it a peaceful and civilised realm, with a full exchequer, and
a weU-organised army of 15,000 men, and a good fleet, which were both his creations.
He promoted trade at l^eme and abroad. Bvery profession and trade received his
attention and fostering care, and scliools and colleges owed their revival, after the
decay of the older Roman Catholic histitutlons, to him. He made commercial trea*
ties with foreign nations, and established fairs for foreign traders. In his reign,
roads and bridges were made In eveiy part of the country, and canals 1>egun, one of
which has only recently been brooght io completion. In hb relations with hia sab-



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jpcto. O. waa Arm, and aometlmes aevere, bat aeldoin anjnat, except. 3n hia deallDpn
towarda the Komit*h clerey, wlioni he despoiled with poincihing like rfi|>ricity of aft
their kuida atid fanda. He did lUDch* however, to promote the cause of Lalhemnif>ii\



altboui^h be took care that the reformed clerKy nhuald be dcpondeitt on the crowu^
and etijoy only very moderate emolninents. 'i'o iiim the varlona triljes of Lnppa were
iudebtod for Uie diffuaioii of Chrietiauity among them by Lutherau miBBioiiaries :
while the Finun owed to him the first works of iiislruciiou, Bibles and hymii-booka
printed iu their own Inuguoj^e^ Q. was methodical, iaM, iiKiral, and nbftemious iii
his motle of life; an able administrator; and, wiUi the exception of a tendency to
avarice, poaaeasttl few qualities that are uuworlhy of esteem. He was three times
marrinl, and bad ten chiUlreu. The name of Vuso, which baa been supposed to bo
an ancient petj-oiiymic iu his family, but erroneously, since enmamcs were not in
nae among the Swedish nobility ontil a biler date, was adopted by him Bubsrqnently
to bis aoccsaion. and is conjeciured by the liistoiiau Oejer (q. v.) and others to imve
been probably derived from his arms, which bore orlfriually a black fascine used in
stormiug, and afterwards drawn liiie a vatte. but cbauffed by G. lo yellow, from
whence u came to be mistaken for a sheaf. By an act of t lie diet of 1544, at Wee't-
eraas, tbo crown was declared hereditary in the male de^cendanb* of G. ; iu con-*
formity with which, hia eldest sou Brie (q. v.) succeeded to tbo tbrouo on hia death
hi IMO.

GUSTAVUS II. (Adolplins) was bom at Stockholm, December 9, 15M, and
died in 108 on the field of battle nt LQbsen. He was the grandson of Gustaviia
Vara, by hie yonngest boo, Charies IX., at whoM death, in 1611, be succeeded to ihe
throne of Sweden. G. bad been atrictly brought np in the Latberan faith, and
carefully tmlned In habits of busineaa, and whs one of the moat accomplished
prlneef of his age. He was acqttalutcd with ei};ht languages, five of which he spoke
and MTOte flnently. was well read fn the cUtsics ana ancieot history, a proficient
in mnaic, and excelled in all warlike and manly exercises. At his accession to
power, be found the country involved in wars abroad, and disorders at home, arising
from the disputed aticcession of his father, who had been elected king on the exclu*
sioii of his nephew, Siglsmuud, King of Poland, the din>ct heir, whose profession
of the Roman Catholic religion made him obnoxious to the Swedish people, and vir-
tually annulled hia claims to tlie crown. The first act of G. was to secure the hearty
co-operation of the nobles, whose privil^es he confirmed, and made dependent upon
the performance of mililarv aervice to the crown, and thus laid the foundation of
an (>flseiitlally feudal or military form of government, in which the nobles held then*
i.nnds directly, and the peasantry indirectly, under the crown. In addition to these
two hodlef, which had formerly constituted tlie national diet, G. for the first time
admitted specitil delegates of the army into the assembly as arsesAors to the nobles.
Having thos organised the Internal government, and succeeded in levying heavy im-
posts and raising some companies of efficient troops, he inaugurated hta military
career ^ a war with Denmark, which at that time occnpicd the Baltic districts of
the Swedish territories, and thns completely cut off the Swedes from direct commu-
nication with the continent of Eastern Europe. Tlie war continued for a year, and
terminated in a peace between the two conntrics, by which G. renounced his
cinims on the Lappish districts and other disputed territory, and recovered pos-
session, under certain conditloDS, of Calraar, Oeland, Elfsborg, and the province of
Goftenborg.

Having thna gained an outlet on the Baltic, aecnrcd a peaceful ally in the king of
Denmark, and concluded an alliance with the Netherlands, G. turned his attention
to the Russian war, which, after finctuating success, was concluded In 1617, by tlie
treaty of Stollwva, by which Sweden obtained anpreme dominion over Ingcrmau-
land and Karelia, and part of Lifland, while Russia recovered Novogorod, and all
other conquests made by the Swedes. The iKiundary of the Swedish territory,
which then included the site of the future 8t Petersburg, was marked, after the
peace, by a stone which bore the three crowns of Sweden above a Latin inscription,
recording that it marked the limits of tlie ctominlons of G. A., king of Sweden.
The disputes with Poland still, however, remained undecide<l ; and In 16S1, war waa
openly declared between the two countries, and was continued, with occasional
Intermiaaionii^ ill'i 1689, when it terminated iu a aix years* truce, wbkh was settled



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bya treaty that secured reciprocity of trade and freedom of religion to the natlTSt
of l)Oth couutrie^ and left G. master of BlbiLg, Brannsbeiv. Pillan, aod Memei.

Tbia peace enabled the king to mature the pbma he hadloug cherished In regard
to Germuuy: and having made varions adrainistraflve reforms and availed himself
of the short intcrvul of peace to promote the material prosperity of I be country, he
remitted the charge of the government and the care of his Infant danglitcr Christina
to his chancellor Oxenstiern, and set sail, la the summer of 1680. witli an army of
a)K>nt 15,000 men, to aid the Protestants of Germany In their hard struggle against
the Catholic League, which was backed by the power of the empire.

Everything favored the success of the Swedes, who drove the imperialists from
Pomerania, and took Stettin. The childless Duke of Pomerauia engaged, in return
for Swedish aid, that the dukedom should, after his death, be given up to Sweden
until the expenses of the war were fully repaid ; whilst France, Uirongh Imtred of
the empire, agreed to furnish G. with a subsidy of 400,000 rix-dolhu« as hing as ho
maintained an army of 38,000 men. Wailcusiein had also retired from the service
of the emperor. But while the Swedes were besieging Spaiidan and K(ii>lrin, the
city of Magdeburg, which had applied to G. for assistance, was takeu in 1681 by the
Imperial geueral,^rilly, whose troops perpetrated the most terrible atrocities agaiust
the unfortunate inhabitants. Althongh G. could not save Magdebarsr, he soon after
its fall inflicted a defeat on the Imperialists at Breiteufeld, wluch exulted the respect
Snd fear of the Catholics, who thenceforward ceased to despise the '* snow-king and
hi^ body-gaard," as they designated G. and his small armr. The king now advanced
into Fraoconia, and after allowing his army to recruit their strength in tlie rich bish-
oprics of WQrzbnrg and Bamberg, took the Palatinate and Mains, where he held a
splendid court, surround«Mi by numerous princes and ambassadors. In the spring of
1632, the Swedes, in the face of Tilly's army, crosuwd the Danube, and gained a do-
cisive victory at lugolstadt, where Tillv was mortally wounded. From thence tlie
march to Munich was one continued trmmpb, and wherever G. appeared he was ro-
ceived by the populace us their guardian angel. The road to Vienna was now open
to him, and the rate of the empuror would have been sealed, had the latter not re*
called his general, Wallenstein, who, having accepted office on his own terms, ga-
thered together a large army, with which he advanood on Namben; ;
but after standing a desperate assault of the Swedes, he was ooliged to
retire into ThurlngTa. Tht» unfavorable season aod the bad roads hindered G.
from attacking the imperialists at the time he intended, but on November
6, 16S8. the two armies came finally face to face nt L&tzeu. As usual, the Swedes
bL>gan by singing Luther's hymn. **KUie feste Bnrz ist uu-ier Gott," and u hymn com-
parted by the king. G. now made an address to the army, and, swinging his sword
above his head, he gave the word of command, and witli the cry of ** Onwards !" he
rushed forward, followed by the easer troops, who were comnuuiddd conjointly by
himself and Bernhard of Saxe- Weimar. Victory was already on tlie side of the
Swedes, when a strong reinforcement of imperlalistn api>eart!d under the command
of Pappenhdm. G., seeiu!; that his troops wavered under this Ir^fsh attack, rodo
hastily forward, when, having come too near a squadrou of Croats, he received a
shot in his arm, and, as he was turning aside, another in th4 back, which caused
liim to fall from his horse. The sight oC the riderless animal caused dismay and
fury amons the Swedes ; but biifore they could alvance to hi^ rescue, a party of
Croats haa thrown themselves between the king and his army ; and It was not till
afier many hours' hard fightin:;, and when the field was strewn with 10,000 dead and
wounded, that they recovered the body of the klu2, which had been plundere<l,
stripped, and covered with wounds. Tlie artiilonr of the enemy foil into the haiida
of the Swedes, who remained masters of the field, after haviue fought with an liii-
peuoslty that uotliing could resi(>t A rumor long prevallea tliut the shot in the
back which caused the king to fall was from the hand of Albert, Duke of Saxe-
Lauu'uburg, but it appears that there was no just ground for the suspicion.

Although G. was eminently a warlike king, he made many salutary changes in
the Internal administration of hiscouiitry, and devoted his sliort Intervals of pciice
to the promotion of commeice and manufactures. He was pre-eminently religious,
and his success in battle is perhaps to be ascribed not only to a better mode of war-
fare, and the stricter diadpUue wliich he eoforceJ, but also still more to the moral



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Inllaenee which his deep-seated pletj and hlii personal character Inspired among his
soldiers. The spot where bo fell on the field of Liktzen was lonff nuirked hy the
Sekwedmstein^ or Swede's Stone, erected hy his serraut, Jacob lErlchsson, ou tUe
night after the battle. Its place nas now been taken by a noble monument erected
to DJs memory by the Qermau people ou tha occasion of the second centenary of the
batUe held in \m.

OU8TAVUS III., king of Sweden, was boni at Stockholm In 1746, and succeeded
his father, Adolphns Frederick, In 1771, at a period when the conLtry was distracted
by the intrigues of the rival poIitic:t1 parties of Horn and Uyllenborfr, known as the
'♦Hats'* and "ciipe." Finding that the people, who were thoronghly wearied with
the misrule of the nobles, were ready for any change. G. covenly fomented the



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 58 of 196)