James Orr.

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advanced by Radiger m 1782 ; and in his track followed, with more or less sncccsa
— collecting, comparing, or arranging new and old linguistic materials— Qrcllman,
Alter, Seetiwn, rottinger, Hoylund, Puchmayer, Oaseley, Danilowicz, Bischoffi,

uuu iiiijiu vxiKMvwvy X ivB^uvi, JUiiwiv/Bii^u, A^uiiu>T, Aiciaiiu, oiiinii, uuu v>iu&iuu. x»nr

taillard wrote on the iiistory of the Q. without discussing specially their language.

This their language, then— a daughter of the old Sancrlt — has, besides givmg the
only real clue to their origin, also shed some rays over the dark period between their
flrat emigration and their appearance in Europe. Originally the distinct mode of
speech of a single and special border tribe of Northern India, it iias, during the
many wanderings of the race, appropriated words from every country through which
tlioy passed : while, on the other hand, it lost many of its own words, and t-tiU more
of its own inherent power and elegance, and much also of its resemblance to its
motiier and sisters. These adopted foreign words, their respective number, and their
more or less corrupted state, point plainly to the gypsies having passed first into
Persia, to their having remained there for a considerable time, to their having then

wended their way to some Greek country, pcrhauo Asia Minor (the designations for

" 8 nnd 9 being still Greek), and to their descent thence into Hungary, Cyprus, &c

But their language also (Romany Tt^chib), thongh split into different dialects, has

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remained almost tlie onTv tfe which binds the w'dely-Bciiftered nomnd mcmbcrt

<rrtc:li oil

iiiixhif» ii
€>€ tlie


wUicti t


at a Ter
'Cxoin th
and fliid
ki owe vol

for ccMitnrlett hav
ileineiilij in Ihe o

ourfo with
unld be lu-

cli olher at once oy cerium wurJs and for-
fhe whole nice. The outward appearance
■td by competent writers to be one of the
FomedeKree accord' ' *'-"-—*? nndef
am. Tlulr cliief (
of hkiij ; slightly p
or nud hi8ire of c«
I of a dazzling whiiL-in;r», eiui

)\\ ever,
► e**, ex-
cs"!* and

Biid trcs

ll-proporHoncd, ofieu elegant bnild. Their
litu young, hut they U»hc I heir good-looks
>f the gquulor of their habit*, and partly
Like chiioreu. they are fond of tiipwy
nj Ihcniwlves with even dubiouft trinkew
eay ; but they always arninge their clothed,
■ 'e?, tlieir uiuniierH and cubioius.

.)ther qualities', iii«Ti. mil. I.. v-.-«. ,

are, Pupjiosed to be n»\\aidly. revenge! ni»
kes to be iscd :•» »pieB; are the a'"'"<^'"V,«
Of; roblHTr and thievi-n; and that their uonien, cluu-t«' thenn«L'lvei», ply ull •P'^'"
of ouesliouuble »iadft«. chiefly Belling poi^on^ and nr'ing as ^o-be»weeut«. U ?»
fur:her B.iid ih;.t tlu ir lanirnage has no word for Cod. iniuioruiliiy, h>u\— tliai "»
fact, Iheyliavc no religiun wh.itevrr; th.it their inariiagef, contracted ^^'j >'*'*'{';«
are nntbindii g: that tliev were, or are. wont to cat ibtir pareuis ; and ih:'t, Y" J^
»ire alto«:elhcr u very criujlnal nice. How much of all thene cbar^eH'\>» n.on- fou""
on I;.ci llian thrlr Intercourse with diiuonei. lor which thry have "^■**'' .^^n
<lrtis|ardly Planght« red in former d;iyj«, we arc not uhle to t^^'*«^*"' ?vl \>f
it lf«, however, that th.lr ethical c(;de difTt re o.oHt et'tTiitlally «'""» \V,^. ,ii,t\
other p.ople (Uorgiu), whom tirev de«jii?e on : ceouul of tlu-ir cbihl.ph c'i'<»"";> „jr-
brutal I rni'ltv. '1 liey have prove<I them^elven on Jjoverul ot ca»*ions l)old ami ^*' ,, ,-,-;
nv pivfer runninjr ;iway to fight iiiK tin- tmtiUt'Ot Uu: ''"•*'■.'•: ^^ lii-
I on all hand!* tl;at ll»e\ a-e pae'Hioiialcly atlacbid to \'",,.,\, UB
' f.itallHts. aud have a MJit ol ft tlchij^m ur \mn11;eiMn, \»""^t tU^

e>er iHin revtaled by !h( ni lo :.iiy inqui.-'itiYe
>ng outwardly to the feliginu of cyt'iy i-ouutry "



wlt\i a vW-^^/

>die.» sounding over th<-wido Hnn.^rxrian P"**»'*''V'' t,i 1 1 »/'!'!

theBtroetsof .Ja««.y,arr not « n.-i1y t^^YOlteu. Son '^^^^ *o

the much vnhied pn»perly of otl»or »»-»'»"''"\ *;^,;;^ ' f tl.<-ir ^'^ *'5*
operas. No Icj's woruhr|-nl U tite ^'raee «iu\ ^JV ' '" :; \rcy^\tiTyS,

idty. Tl:e n...l truth abcuf tl.c-ni, tl.eir tradition*, ai

_ he fyp-i
MsRood-naturei. r < J/'dy in>i!*» have Ih»<-i>

xvoiktMl ui>p»'

increase of |M>|)ali.ft \ vm*. il* • v ow

b of cuIliir-J

all over Europe, aro


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Oyptom ^ 7 fi

ajrromanof 1

worst eDemies. Their forests are cat down, their heaths enclosed, the houses are
pushed right into their commons ; and the easj and rcmnnerative belief iu their
secret arts is waning more and more. It is donbtfui, Indeed, whether they will, as
a separate race, snnrive many more ceiitnries in Europe. 1'neir numbers at this
moment are stated so very differently, that we wontd fain cantlou the reader
against an Implicit belief in the following figares>, which wo extract from the com-
pamtively most reliable authorities: in Hungary, 140,000; in Tronsylvania and the
Principalities, 163,000 ; Spain, 40,000 ; England and Scotland, 18.000 (their chief
families iu these countries l>eing the Roval Lees, tlic Stanleys, Coopers, Hernes,
Smi t lis, Lo veils, &c); Poland, 2000 ; Russia, 10,000 ; Germany, Prance, ond Italy,
40.000 ; Norway, 1500. Altogether, inclndine those in Turkey and In Asia and
Africa (their soionrn in Mexico is questionable), they are computed at al>ont five
millions (Rlenzl). A smoll portion only of these occupies as a lK>dy fixed habita-
tions in Hungary and Transylvania, where they are agriculturists and goldwashers ;
and in the Principalities, where they live in a kind of serfdom, and are divided into
four different classes— Rudari or Aurari (gold-seekers), Ursari (bear-leaders), Lin-
gurari (manufacturers of and dealers in wooden spoons, mouse-traps, &c.) ; and
LatessI (masons, smiths, thikers, &c.). All the rest lead a roamincr life, live iu ken-
nels and under tents from one end of the year to the otlier, gaining their scanty
livelihood, like their forefatliers, as best they can. fearing und detesting nothing so
much as a fixed and continuous occupation, which would take them sway from
*' their free mountains, their plains and woods, the sun, the stars, and the

The following is a specimen of their language iu the form of a short improvised

Poraqnel Inchlpen abnjo •

Abillela nn baIichor6,


Ustilame Calord.

There runs a swine down yonder hOl

As fast as e*er he can,

And as he runs, he crieth still :

" Come steal me, gypsy man."
GYPSUM, a mineral consisting essentially of sulphate of lime and water, the
proportions of its constituents l)eing lime, 82*56 : sulphuric acid, 46*61 ; water, 80.93.
It is very widely diffused, occurs in great nbundanco in manv parts of the world,
and is found in rocks and strata geologically very different, asm transition rocks, in
secondary and in tertiary formations. It often occurs in nests or kidney-shaped
masses iu clay or marL It Is found above chalk in many places, and laige quanti-
ties of it are quarried In some parts of England from the red marl immediatelv
above the great bed of rock-salt It sometimes occurs iu beds many feet thick. It
is transparent or opaque, white, yellowish-white or gray, or even yellow, red, brown,
or black, according to its purity of chemical composition or the quanti^ and nature
of impurities present. It is also compact, fibrous, foliated, or earthy ; sometimes
crystallised iu six-sided prisms or in lenses. Twin crystals are frequent. It is
easily broken, scratched, and cut. Before the blow-pipe, it becomes opaque, if not
already so, and fuses Into a white enamel. The water which it con-
tains is driven off by a heat of about 87S<> F., and it is then easily
reduced to powder, in which state it is well known as Plaala- of Paris,
Unbomed G. is tough, and not easily reduced to powder. Q. is soluble in cold
water, to the extent of about one part in 461, and is a frequent ingredient
in the wat«r of springs ; it is scarcely more soluble in boiling water or in acids. To
this solubility in water, although so slight, must be ascribed the value of G. as a
manure; the further diemical explanation of which, however, still remains to be
ascertained, although theories have been proposed by Sir Humphry Davy and by
Llebig, the former snppoting the G. to act chiefly by itself, becoming tlie uutrimenc
of the crops to which it is most beneficially applied ; the latter supposing it to act
ohiefiy by fixing the ammonia of the atmosphere and conveying it to their roots. As
a manure, G. is more extensively used iu some parts of the coutiueut of Europe

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and of North America than of Britain. In North Amorlco, It la reduced to a flno
powder by mills, in order to bo u^ed us a manure, for much of its yalne depends
ou the flaeness of tritaration. To clover cro|M«t tlie application of Q. is particninrly
beneflcittl« and althongh it docs not produce mnch t>eneflt in its direct uppUcatlou to

K-ain crups. yet in on aJtrmotiou of wlieat and clover, the crop of wheat Is larger
•canseof ttie liberal sappiv of tills .mineral manure to the clover. An excess of 0.«
however, is preiadicial, as has 1)een found in some parts of England, where tiie euh
■ * • hlybi • * • • •

soil coiitainiDf(it in great quantity has l)een rnshfy broogiit up by t lie plow.— G.,
deprived of its water by burning, and reduced to powdor^ forms a paste wliich al-
most immediately •eU^ or becomes firm and solid, when mixed witli its own buliv of
water ; lience the great use of Planter €/ Parin for making casts and cornices. Bat

if the G. is bnrneffat too great a iicat, it refuses to set, aud the powder of the min-
eral called Anhydrite, winch is an anhydrous sulphate of lime, has not the property
of setting.— One of the finest varieties of uncrystalllsed and untranspareut G. i's
Alabaster (q. v.).— «9a<fn Spar is a beautiful fibrous variety of G., exhibiting a fine
play of light, and employed for necklaces, inlaid-work, and other ornamental pur-
poaess but having the disadvantage of being easily scratched.

GYPSY- WORT {Lycopua EuropctM), a perennial plant of the natural order X/fl-
biaUx, with stem about two foot high ; opposite, ovato-lauccolate, scai*cely stalked,
almost pinnatifid. wriukled loaves; and dense whorls of small whitish flowers with
purple dots, the limb of the corolla 4-cloft and nearly equal ; only two stamens per-
fect. It grows in ditches and wet places, in Britain and on the continent of Europe.
It is a febrifuge. The juice stains cloth a permanent black color, aud gypsies are
*8aJd to use it to give a dark hno to their sklu, whence the Englhih name gypsy-wort,
and the French Herbe det Bohnnitn$,

GYRA'TION, Centre of. See Centbe of Gtiia"1piok.

GYR-FALCON, or Jcr-Falcon (Faleo m/r-falco Or F, lalandietu), a spedos of
Falcon <q. v.) of large size, the female, which is the largest, being about two feet in
entire length ; the plumage almost brown when the bird is young, but gradually
changing To white as it advances in acre, the white margin of eochfeather encroach-
ing ou its brown centre, nntil aged birds are almost pure white. It is rarely, seen
in Britain, and very rarely In the soulhem parts of the it>Iand, but inhabits all the
verj cold northern parts of the world. It was formerly in high esteem for falconry,
and was procured at great expense from Iceland and Norway. It is somcUmes
called Iceland Falcon, and sometimes Greenland Falcon.

GYKI'NUS, a Linnffian genus of coleopterous insecta, now constituting a family,
Oyrinidm, closely allied to Vjftiscidce, or water Beetles (see Dttiscus). out differ-
ing in having the antennte very short, the two fore-legs long and stretching forward
like arms, the other legs very short and comparatively broad. The eyes are divided
by horiiv processeSj>so that each of ihem almost becomes two. The body is oval, as
in the Dyti9eida. The Oyrinidce are very generally characterised by metallic bril-
liancv of color. Tliey are mostly small insects. They fly well, swim and dive well,
spend the winter in the mud at the bottom of ponds, and in spring and summer may
be seen swimming very actively on the surface of the water, ready to dive on the
slightest alarm. In diving, they carrv down with them a bright babble of air. They
generally swim in little parties, seeming to chase each other in circles, whence their
French name, TowmiqueUy and their English name, Whirligiga. They feed on
smaller aqmitic animals, which they seize in their gyrations. They deposit their ^
eggs on the leaves of aquatic plants. Their larvae are aquatic, having their bodies
composed of thirt(*en deeply divided rings, of which three bear the feet, and the rest ;
bear filaments probably serving as organs of respiration. The mostcommon Britisii '
apecies is Oyrinus natatoff a smooth shining blackish insect, three Ihiea long.

GY'HOMANCY {apro», a circle, and wonteia, prophecy) was a method of divina^
tlon by means of a circle, and was generally penormed in the following manner :
tne soothsaver described a circle, and marked it all round with letters ; then be
commenced to walk round the circle, repeating his incantations, and at the places
where he stopped the letters were carefully noted, and by the interpretation pat
upon these leuers, the answer of the god was obtained.

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Gfrophora Q9A

arnl* ^-^

GYRO'PHORA. See Tripe dp Roche.

QT'ROSCOPE, ftn Inetrumeut iiiv.'nted by M. Foncanlt to render palpable to the
eye the earUi'y rouitioii. Its BnccosH dep^Mid^ on the principle, that if a uinm be
pet In rotation freely in npace, it will, unless dii*(nrbed or couettraiued, preserve ab-'
solutely Die pUnic of It^ rotation, and U'lll, to effect this, even overcome i<ll$;ht
ubsiacles. In the gyroscope, a heavy rins of nietui is almost freol3r snspciidcd by
niechanic.-il contrivances, after having coinmnn!c:iled to it a very rapid motion, and
t J maintain itself in the plane of it« rotation, while the ecrth in revolvinirou its
nx]-<tnrii<< round the whole mechanism, It causes a gpraduated slip to movu round
nndor a telescope placed in position, and so renders the earth's motion palpable to
thv? eye. See Qyboscope.

OY'ROSCOPE (Greek) Is the name given to an Instmmeut for the oxhlbittou of
various properties or rotation and the composition of rotations. It differs from a
top in having both ends of its axis supportiid. 'I'he invention Is pix)balily French or
Oornmn^ and In some of its forms il <lates fi*om alioul the end of last renturv; but
no ei^rtam infonuutiou can be obtained ou these points. We will consider uuly two
of iis many applications.

Fir»t, if a mass bo s^'t in rotation alwut Its principal axis of inertia cif greatest
or least moment. It will conllnne to nrvolve al>out ii ; and, unless extraueOHS force
be a})plied. the direction of the axis will remain unchanged. Such, for instance,
wonlcl Ik* the case with the earth, were It not for the disturbances (see Nutation
and PRECEd«»TON) prodncetl by the sun and moon : the direction of the axis would
ivtnain ftxetl in space (i. o., thtt i>ole-sfar would be always the same s*lar), in spite of
the e-trth'rt motion in its annual orbit. It is for this very rca*on that modern
artillery is rifled, sj that tlie projectile revolves about its axis. If, then, a mass of
metal, us, for ini«t.tnce, a circular disc, lo:ide«l at the rim, and revolving in its own
jMaue, be made to rotate rapidly about Its axis of greatest moment of inertia, and
if it be freely supported (in gimbals, lllce the box of a compass), the direction of its
axis will b J tlie same so lonjj as tho rotation lasts. It will therefore couj^tantJy
point to the suni<; star, and m »y, of course, be employed to shew that the apparent
rotation of the stars about tho e.irth is duo to a real rotation of the enrth itself in
the opposite direction. Tliia application wa^ made by Foncanlt shortly after his cele-
brateil Pendulum (q v.)exp."rlment, and lie Is jjenerallv looki^d upon as thelnvontor.
The •* Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts," however, shew tliat this
applie4iti()n of the oryroscope was made many yeai-s b.'fore (March 18.%), by Mr. K.
Sang. C.E. It is, in practice, by no means so perfect a mode of proving the earth's
rotation as the Foucuilt ]>'ndnlum ; but this arises solely from unavoidable defects
of workmanship and materials— tho mas^ of the gimbals, and the friction on the
pivots. Professor Smyth, the Scottish Astronomur-Royjil, has recently applied
this pro|>erty of the gyroscopis to the improvement of our means of making as-
tronomical observations at sea. A telescope, mounted on the same support as the
endsof the axis of the gyroscope, will, of coursi', Iw almost unaliered in posiilon
by the rolling or pitching of a vessel; and* a steady horizon, for S(>xiant observa-
tions of altltndu', is procured by atrachlng a mirror lo the supnort of the gyroscope*
and setting it once for all by means of spirit-levels. The mechanical dltnculties of
construct Ion have not yet iieen quite got over, but tliore seems to be little doubt
that this application will some day l>o of very groat practical value.

But the most singular pheno:nena shewn by tlio gyroscop ? are those depending
on iXweompoitilion ot rotations. We have already seen (Rotation) that any motion
whatever of a Iwdy which has one point fixed is of the nature of a rotation about an
axis passing through that point. Hence, simultaneous rotations about any two or
more axes, i)<'ing n motion fif some kind, are equivalent to a rotsition about a single
axis. The eff% ct, then, of impressing upon the frame in wh!ch the axis of the g>'ro-
Bcope Is suspended a tendency to rotate about some axis, is to give the whole in-
strnment a rotiition about an inteiinediate axis ; and this will coincide more nearly
with that of the ^roscope itself, as the rate of its rotation is great*'r. It Is hardly
possible to explain to the non-mathematical reader theexact nature of the coraponnd
motion, which consists in the roiing of an imaginary cone llxed in the gyroscope
upon another flxed in space ; but the rotation of the axis of a top round the vei-tical
(when it is not *' sleeping" in an uprigiit positioiOi and the prcces.sion of the

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321 gJSS""*

eertb^ axis, «re preciMy rimllnr plicnomenn. Thns wlion tl»o O7ro8copc In spinning,
lis axes lieius borizontiil, a we'glit attnched to thy fnnnework at one tMid of the axTn
makes the whole rotate ttlx)nt tne Vfrtlcnl ; nitiiched to the other end, the rotntlon
takes place hi the opposite direction. And tlie framework niny In; liftetl by a Btring
attached near cue end of thu axis without tlin ^yro!»coiie'8 fallin''. Its axle Ptill pro-
jectaborisson tally from the string, bat It revo'vct* asa wholeroni.d the ^trin^'. Various
other Piutfiibirezperlrociits may b'* made wiih thin apparalne: and others, even more
carioii>>. with the ^ryroptat of W. Thon^son (q. v.), which is Bininly a jryruficopp en-
closed iu a rigid Ciise, by which the eiKU *ii its axis are ^npportvU. When a gyrof^lat
)a tunde the bob of a pendnlnm under cerloin couditionis, tlie phnie of vil>ruti(in of
the peudnluin innip, oit id Foucault'3 celebrated experiniout, but in gcnmral at a
mnch greater rate.

GYT'LA. a town of Hnnpary. in the county of Bekc?, Is sitnnted on tlie White
KCrOis whieli dividoR \\ Into the Genuun and MDn:;anan qnarten*. 80 miles north ot
the town of Arud. The trade ia chiefly lu cattle. Top. (1869) 1S,49S.

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Habakkitk 322


H, the eighth letter In the English alphabet, belongs to the ordtT of {rnttnrnis
and is a mere attenuation of the sound indicated by the Oreek j^ aud the German
(iiud Scotcli) eh. The tendency of guttnral sonnds to become ligliter and lighter,
and at laHt dipappear, Is ^trikiucly seen in traciuf; the hii^tory of the letter h. The
form of the chniac;er (^rresponds to tlie Phoenician or Hcbrow cheth and the Greek
eta (H. probably at one time prouonnced heta), which denoted originally the ftylldbU
che. The Greeicp drooped the guttnral part of the sonud, aud took the chanicier to
mark the vowel i. while in the Latin alpliabet it was taken lo mark the (faiut aspi-
rated) cuttnral. That thi? sonnd of h iu Latin mjist have been faint, is i>rove«l by
the fact, that many words were written Indifferently with or wltJiont an n ; as Aon-
usttis or onuaht$; atienfim or ahieus. In the languages derived from the Latin, the
force of h has almost disappeared. It Is retained In French as a character, but is
scarcely heard In pronunciation. The Italian langnagc altogether igiionw the char-
acter. In Spani!*h, It haa taken the place In many cases of the Latin /, as hijo »Lat.
filiiuif a son ; humow '^futnosna, smoky.

In the langua^jes of the Gothic stocky h often represents the hard guttnral sound
of hove. See letter C. This substitution, aud the «nbseqnent disappearing of II,
especially before r aud ^ have completely disguised the relailousltip of many words
which are yet of the same root: e. g., £ng. raw; Ang.-Sax. hreato ; LaL eru-or
blood, ertt-du!>, bloody, raw.

The natural tendency in English, as In other tongues, is to attenuate the soand of
h, and altogether eliminate it. This tendency is strongest among the illiterate, who
are uiu'estralncd by the presence of the wriiten character ; aud accordingly ** to drop
one's A's " (e. g., am for ham) Is a sinn of the want of education aud of vulgarity.
The perversity of putting h where It ought not to I>c (e. g., Itegga for e^g*)^ is not
easily accounted for.

Tfne Germans use the letter H, in their musical notation, for the same note which
we call B, while they call our B flat simply B ; possibly from the flat seventh l>eing
more nearly related to C, as a fnndameutal note, than B natural the aliarp seventh
is, which they designate H.

HAA'RLKM, the chief town of a district of the same name iu the province of
North Holland, is a clean, well-built city, lying on the shores of the Spaaru, IS miles
west of Amsterdam, and intersected, like most Dntch towns, with canals aud ave-
nues of trees. Pop. (1875) 33,364. II. is the seat of government for the province,
and the see of a Catholic bishop. Among its 13 churches, tb« principal is that
known as the Great or St Bavo*s Eerk. which was built in the 16th c, fs one of tlie
largest in Holland, and specially noted for Its lofty tower and famous organ, con-
structed by MQIIer of Amsterdam, which, till recently, was the largest of its kind,
having 60)0 pipes, 60 stops, and 4 rows of keys. Before the church stauds a statue
of Laurens Coster (q. v.), to whom his countrymen ascribe the invention of printing.
Among the buildings worthy of note are the to\vn-haU, with its flue carvings, for^
merly the residence of the Counts of Holland ; Uio palace of the states-eeneral ; the
prison ; aud the Teyler Institution, richly endowed to defend the Christian religion
and promote science and the fine arts. It haa also a handsome bulldine occupied by
84 poor old women, and lias nameroos scientiflc aud antiquarian collections. U.

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has a good gTinnasloni, nnrocrons ocndemlcal, BcienHflc, and benevolent icBtitntioiiB,
and also n uatioual uonnal echool for trainine teachers. Although H. is no louger
celebrated, as in former times, for its flonrieliiug trade, it still possesses ezteusive
refineries of salt, taDnericB, foQudries for type, various manufactories of silk, linen.
and thread, and an extensive trade in flowon<, aeuding its tulips, hyacinths, and
other bn lbs, to the value. In 1874. of X37,500, to every part of Europe. H. wna a
flourishing town as early as the 12th c., when it took au important part in tite wnrs
between tlie Hollanders and West Frisians. At the close of the 15th c, it lo«t its
privileges, a^d puffered severely doting the revolt of the peasantrj*: and dming the

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 62 of 196)