James Orr.

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while, as the residence of the stadthoUlers, it was uatuniUy the centre of the num-
erous important negotiations of European diplomacy, with which they were asso-
ciated. The H. Is connected by a railway with Amsterdam, M miles north, and
Rotterdam, 18 miles south.

H AGUENAU, a town of the German empire, In the province of Alsace-Lorraine,
ceded by the French in the war of 1870—1871. is situated on the Moder, 18 miles n.
n. e. of Stmsbnrg. It had been a free town of Germany before it belonged to ^ance.
It was founded m 1164 by Frederick Barbarossa, and, as It was iutendea for the recep-
tion of the Imperial Insignia, it was strongly fortified. It successfully withstood
many sieges, especially during the Thirty Yeare' War; but on ita occupation in 1675
by tlio in)perlalists, its fortifications were destroyed. On the 17th Oct. and Md Dec.
1793, bloody battles took place here between the French and Anstrlans. H. is a place
of considerable manufacturing industry. The German spelling X&Hagenaxi. Fop.
(1875) 11,726.

HAHNE.MANN, Samuel, a celebrated German physician, was bom in April 1766,
at Meissen, a small town In tbe neighl>orhood of Dresden, the capital of Saxony.
His father— a painter of the ware known as Dresden china— intended his son to fol-
low his own occupation, but they boy displayed so ardent a love of letters that the
head-master of the college {FttrsUnschule) of Meissen afforded him gratuitously all
the advantages of that Institution, ind he remained at it till he was 20 years of age.
He then left Meissen, with 20 crowns as his whole fortune, and went to Leipsic, to
prosecute his medical studios. Here he maintained himself by translating works
ont of Latin. French, and English into German. By his industry and frugality, he
saved euongli of money to enable liim to visit Vlennn, where under the direction of
Dr Quarin, he pursued his studies, and after various vlcipsltndes of fortune, ho re-
turned to Saxony, and settled In Dresden In the year 1784. Here he discovered a
new salt of mercury, known by the name of Mereuriua Solubilis Hnhnemanni, and
still extensively employed bjr physicians in Germany. He also published a mono-
graph npon arsenical poisoning, which Is distinguished by such accuracy of observa-
tion and clearness of diction as to be quoted with approval by Cbrlstison and other
modern toxicologists. After spending four years In Dresden, where he had for a time
the direction of a large hospital, he returned in the year 1789 to Leipelc In the follow-
ing year, while transUitIng Cnllen's ** Materia Medlca " ont of English Into German,
his attention were arrested by the insufilclent explanations advanced la that work
of the cure of agne by cinchona bark. By way of experiment, betook a large doae

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of that Mibstance, to ascertalu ita action on the heattiy body. In the course of n few
days, be experienced the symptoma of a|;ne ; nnd it then occurred to liim that per
bape the reason why cinchona cures ague is because it iiaa the power to proaiice
ayiuptoroain a healthy person similar to those of ague. To ascertain the tnitli of
this con^cture, he ransacked the records of medicine for weli-atieated cures effccu d
by aingle remedies ; and findiue sufficient evidence of this fact, he advanced a e^tep
further, and proposed in an article puhlished in "Hufeland'e Journal,^ in the yi'ar
1797, to apply tins new principle to the discovery of the proper niedlclucs for every
form of disease. Soon afterwards, he published a case to illnstrutc hi?* method. It was
one of a very severe kind of colic cured by a strong dose of Veratrum album.
Before this substance gave relief to the patient, it excited a severe a^grnvatiou of
his symptoms. This induced H., instead of drops and groins, to give the fraction of
a drop or grain, nnd he thus introduced infinilenimal dofes. Some vcnrs later, he
applied his now principle in the treatment of acarlet fever ; and finding that bella-
donna cured the peculiar type of that disease which then prevailed in Gcrmnnv, lie
proposed to give this medicine as vl prophylactic, or preventive agaiupt scarlet fever.
From that time it has been extensively employed for this purpose. In the
year 1810, ho published his great work entitl^ **Organon of Medicine,"
which has been translated into all Enropean languages, as well as into
Arabic In this book he fully expounded his ntfw system, which he called
HomoeopatliT. See IIom(EOPatut. Ills next publication was a ** Materia Me<lica,**
consisting of a description of the efFecta,of medicines upon persons in health. Thcfo
works were publishea l)etween the years 1810 and 18S1, at Leipsic, where he founded
a school and was surrounded bv disciples. As his system involved the administration
of me<licine8, each separately by itself, and In doses infinitely minute, there was no
longer any need of tlie apothecary's intervention between the physician and the
Datlent. In consequence of this, the Apothecaries' Company brought to l>ear upon
H. an act forbidding phvHicians to dispense their own medicines, aud with sucli ef-
fect that he was obriged to leave Leipslc Tlie Grand Duke of Anhalt^KOthen ap-
pointed him his physician, nnd invited him to live at KOthen. Thither, accordingly,
be removed in the year 18S1, nnd tliere he prepared various new editions of his "T)r-
ganon " nnd new volumes of his ** Materia ModIca''for publication. In 1886, l»c
married a second time; his wife was a French lady of considerable position ; and in
the same year he left KOthen, and settled in Pnris, where he enjoyed a great reputation
till his death, which took plnce in the year 1843. On the centennry of hisbirth-yenr,
in 1855, a statue was erected to his honor ut Leipslc, at the expense of his disciples
In Germany, France, England, and other countries, with the concurrence of the
local aniboritiee, who supplied the site In one of the public places in their linndsome

n. la universally acknowledged to have displayed great genius, industry, nnd eru-
dition. Jean Paul Richter calls him •* a prodigy of philosophy and learning." He
was a roan of unblemished purity of morals, and his life, as well as his writings,
was characterised by strong natural piety. He left a numerous family of sons and

HAHN-HAHN, Ida, Countess, daughter of Earl Friedrlch, Count von Hahn, a
well-known authoress, was born at Iressow, in Meckleuburg-Schwerlu, 28d June
1805. At the age of 81. she married a relative of her own ; but the union proving

* avel,and

RoQoan Catholicism, and two years later, entered the mother-house of the Order of
the Good Shepherd ut Angers. Her writings, consisting of poems, novels, voyages,
&c., are voluminous, and are generally marked by morbid aenti mentality and aris-
tocratic prejudice. Sbe is sometimes clever, and even brilliant, but always superfi-
cial. Several of her novels have been translated into English.

HAI'DUCKS (i. e.. Drovers, from the Hungarian Hajdu, plural Uajduk), origi-
nally a designation of cattle-herds in Hungary. Afterwards, the word came to sig-
nify a class of mercenary foot-soldiers ready to accept pay from anv one who would
employ tholr aerrlces, but displaying great gallantry on tlie field of battle. The re-
maituible coottancy with which tliey stood i>y Bocskai throughout the war of the

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Hainborg 340 ' .

revolntioD, was rewarded by that priaco with a grant of a district as their own po»-
8 !H.^ioD. nud ut ttie Mime time witu the privileges of uobility. Tbis grant was made
inr n puulic decree of 12th December 1605, and was conflrincd l>v the diet iu 1613.
Kxcept the privilege of cxemptiou from taxes, which Cliarles lIL took away, the
lluidacks enjoy all the ri^lits of nobles to the present dny Their residence, the
liuiduck district, rcnuiiusiudependeut of the coauty authonlies, and is under the
direct administration of the national groverumcnt. The Ilaidnck district lies witliiu
tlie county of Nortli Bihar, between the Theiss and Transylvania, lias an area of
about 594 sq. m., and six principal Haidack towns. The capital of the district used
to be D0i«z3rm6ny. Tlie total pop. is aboat 68,000. all Magyars, and for the mo»<t
part belonging to the Beformed Church. In 1876, this district was incorporated
with portions of two adioiniug districta into a new administrative division (cnlUd
Haidukencomitat) with Uebrcczln for its capital. In course of the present century,
the name Haiducks has begun to be applied to tlie mncers of Hungarian courts and
the halberdiers of the Hungarian magnates; also to the lackeys and other attendants
to German courts.

HAIL, Hailstorm. The word hail, in English, Is unfortanately used to de-
note two phenomena of apparently difEerent origin. In French, we have the terms
^ra^e a*. id <7r^/ - the former of which is bail proper; the latter denotes the fine
grains, like small shot, which often fall in winter, much more rarely in summer,

observation, that even in calm weather different strata of tlie atmosphere have ex-
tremely different temperatures, a stratum far under the frecslug-pomt being often
observed l)etween two others comparatively warm.

Bat that true bail, though the process of its formation is not yet perfectly under-
stood, depends mainly upon the meeting of two nearly opposite currents of air-
one liot and saturnted with vapor, the other very cold— is rendered pretty certain by
such facts as the following : A hailstorm Is generally a merelv local phenomenon,
or at most, ravages a belt of land of no great breadth, though it may be of consid-
erable length. Hailstorms occur iu the greatest perfection Tu the warmest soaaou,
and at the warmest period of the day, and generally are mo»t severe in the most
tropical climates. A fall of hail generally prsced^s, sometimes accompanies, and
rarely, if ever, follows a tbunder«hower. A common idea, which tias found its way,
as many popular prejudices coutinnaliy do, into sdentiflc treatises, assigns elec-
tricity as the origin of baiL But all observation, rightly interpreted, aeema to shew
that electricity and hail are rssti/te of the same combination of caosea.

When a mass of air, saturated with vapor, rising to a higher level, meets a cold
one, there la, of course, instant cocdeusatlon of vapor into ice bv the cold due to
expansion ; at the same time, there is generally a rapid production of electrtcitv,
the effect of which upon such light masses as small hailstones is to give them in

general rapid motion in various directions successively. These motions are in addi-
on to the vortex motions or eddies, caused in the air by the meeting of the rising
and descending currents. The small ice-masses then moving in all directions im-
pinge upon each other sometimes with great force, producing that peculiar rattling
sound which almost invariably precedes a bail-shower. At the same time, by a wei^
known property of ice (Rboelation), the impinging masses are frozen together;
and this process continues until the weight of the accumulated mass enables it to
overcome the vortices and the electrical attractions, when it falls as a larger or smaller
hailstone. On examining such hailstones, which may liave any siza m)m that of a
pea to that of a walnut, or even an orange, we at once recognise the composite
character which might do expected from such a mode of aggregation. Hailstones
are reported to have fidlen iu tropical countries sometimes as large as a sheep,
sometimes as large as an ox, or even an elephant I But it is probable that the
aggregation in those cases was produced by regclation at the suriaco of the earth,
when a series of largo masses had Impinged on each other, having fallen succes-
sively on the same spot Whether this be the true explanation or no. it is certain
that in British India, at the warmest season, hailstones have remaUiedof consider-
able size for many days after their fall. A curious instance of the fall of hirge haii,
^r rather ice-masses, occurred on one of Her Majesty's ships off the Oape in JauiH

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• Hall


ary 18«0. Here the Ptoneg were the Pl«e of half-brlckn, aud beat feveral of the
crew oif the rigginz. doiiij; scrions itijnry.

We may conclnde by a description (taken from *• Mem. de 1* Acad, des Sciences,"
1790} of one of the most dlsaetroas hailstorms that has occurred in Europe fur mnny
yeare Imck. It illuplrates very h:ipplly the greater part of what we have said nlwnt
the orlfiu of this inutoor. This storm passed over parts of Holland and France in
July 1788. It travelled ttimxiltaneoxutly along two lines nearly parallel— the eastern
cue had a breadth of Jfrom half a league to five leagues, the western of from three to
flvc ieagues. The i*pacc bftwuen was visited only by heavy rain ; its breadth varied
from three to Ave and a half leagues. At thu outt»r border of each, there was alfo
hciry rain, but \vc are not told how far it extended. The general direction of the
meteor was from south-west to north-east. The length was at least a hundred
leagues ; but from other renorts, it may be gathered that it really extended to nearly
two hundred. It seems lo liuve originated near the Pyrenees, and to have travelled
at a mean rate of about sixteen t:nd a half leagues )>er hour towards the Baltic,
where It wr.e lost siijht of. The hail only fell for about seven and a half minutes at
anjr one phwc. The hailstones were generally of irregular fomi, tl>c heaviest
weighed about ci^flit Frencli ouncen. This Ftorm devastated 10.9 pnriphes in
France ulone, and an official Inquiry fixed the damage at about 24,600,000 franca—
nearly a udllion of English money.

HAIMII.\LDA'RE, an old Scotch law-term, meaning to recover one's goods and
bring lliem home a-^^ain — now dl>nscd.

HAl'iMSUCKEN, or Humesuckcn, a Scotch law-term, denoting Ihe offence of
fi'loinonsly asntiu.ting a man in his own honce or lodginjirs. This was an aggrava-
tion of I he ordinary offence of a5sault. It was not so fu England, where there is no
peculiar name to distinguish this from other assaults.

HAIMU'KA (Brythrinxut maerodon)^ a large fresh-water flsli of Ouiana, highly
esteemed for the table. It belongs to a small family of fishes, Erythrinidm, exhib-
iting relations to the herrfhg, salmon, and carp families. It is sometimes four feet
in length. Tlie teeth are large and so fonnldnole, that inslances are said to have oc-
curretl of a captnn'd H. biiiug off a man's hand. The H. abounds particularly in
the upper partd of the rivers of Guiana.

UAINA'N. a large island in the China Sea, conslltuling a department of the pro-
vince of Kwang-lung, is a1>ont 180 miles long and 100 broad, and is separated from
the mainland by a strait 16 miles wide, filled with sboals and reefs. lis principal
cliy, Kiung-chnn. in % *" V n. laL, and llO^ 15' e. long., Is the most southern of the
ports open for trade. The interior of the island is mountainous, and the inhabitants

five hut a pjirtial snbmi-sion to the Chinese. The population is about 1,500,000.
t^ protlucilons ore rice, sweet pola'oes, sugar, tobacco, fruits, tln»l>er. and wax.
Typhoons or cyclones are frequent off the coast during the summer months. Whal-
ing is pursued here iv'th success by Chinese fishermen.

UAINAUT, or Hainuult (Gor. Uemwgau\ a frontier province of Belgium, is
bomuleti on th<! e. by the province of Namnr, on then, by the provinces of 13ra-
biint and Easuand West Flanders. j»nd on the s.w. by France. Arejk, 1424 square
mile.'* ; jxip. (1874) 949.840. The surface consists in the north and west of flat and
fruit ful piains, the south is occupied by the Forest of Ardennes. IJills occur only
in the st.utli-east, and consequently the course of most of the rivers is towards tho
west mx\ nortli-west. The pr.ncipal rivers are the Ilalne— from which the ]»rovinco
has its name— the Scheldt, the Dendro, ai:d the Sambn-, the last a tributary of the
M'UT^e. The soil Is highly productive ; wheat and flax are verv extensively grown.
Exeell nt hreetls of horsfts, horned cattle, and sheep are reared. Toward tho west,
in file nii'.h!>orhoo<l of Mons, are verjf extensive co-il-fleld?. There are in this dis-
trict more than 200 eoal-pits, from whieh about 2,(i0;),000 tons of coal are annually
exported. Tronls.-l-o pr(')diic<-d in c<)n>Iderable Quantity, and marble, building
8tnn«", ajid limestone are qiiarriid. Linen, po:celain, and pens arc extensively

IIAINaUT, French. Si-e the French department of Ncbd.

UAl NBUIIG, or rialmbnrg, a small but old and Interesting town of Austria.
in ilie 'Tfnxti-hind of Lowt-r Austria, is sitnatid on the right bank of the Danube, sf

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gJnlch.n . 342

miles east-sonth-eaet of YieDOfl, and two miles from the Hnngorian frontier. It is
snrroQuded by old walls, pierced by two castellated gates, and contains au imperial
tobacco factory, the largest in the connlr^K an institution for cadets, and au intautry
school. Among its more notable edifices are tlie town-lioasc, with a Roman altar,
a tower, called tlie Roman tower, with the supposed statue of Attila. and ou the sum-
mil of the Cnstlu Hill the remains of an old castle, destroyed in 1696, wiien its pow-
der nmgaziue was struck by lightning. Pop. (1368) 4178.

Many consider H. the ancient Carminluniy once an important Roman stronghold
and the station of the Danubian fleet, and which rose to its highest prosperity dur-
ing the reign of M. Anrelins. However this may be, ic is certain that considerable
remains of the fortifications of tlie Caniuntum are found in tlie immediate* vicinity.
A Roman nqnednct still supplies the markt^t of H. with water. In the Nililutigenr-
lied, the castle of Uainburg is called Heimburc, the border fortress of the country
of the Huns. It was forcibly torn from the Hungarians in 1042 by the Smpcror
Henry HI., and afterwards it became a residence of the Austrian princes,

HAI'NICHEN, a town of Snxouv, 28 miles west-south-west of Dresden, on a
tributary ol the Mulde. Wool-epiuuing, weaving, and the manufacture of cloth are
carried on. Pop. (1871) 8331.

HAIR, including bristles, wool, fur, &c., is a modification of the Epidermis (q. ▼.)
and consists esdeniially of nucleated particles. Au ordinary hair consists of a
aka/t and a bulb. The shaft is that part which is fully formed, and projects beyond
the surface. If we trace it to the* skin we find it rooted in a follicle in the culls or
true skin, or even in the connective or cellular tissue beneath it This follicle is
bulbous at its deepest part, like the hair wliich it contains, and its sides are^
lined with a layer of cells continuous with tlie epidermis. The layer, according
to Todd and Bowman, " resembles the cuticle in the rounded form of its
deep cells, and the scaly character of the more superficial ones, which are here in
contact with the outside of tlie hair. The hair grows from the bottom of the
follicle, and the cells of the deepest stratum gradually enl^e as they mount in the
soft bnib of the hair, which owes its size to this circumstance. It the hair is to be
colored, the pigment cells are also here developed. It frequently happens that the
cells In the axis of the bulb become loaded with pigment at one period, and not at
another, so that, as they pass upwards in the shaft, a dark central tract is produced,
of greater or less length, and the hair appears here and there to be tubular. The shaft
is much narrower than the bulb, and is produced by the rather abrupt condensation
and elongation into hard fibres of the cells, both of those which contiiin pigments
and those which do not" If the tissue Is softened by acetic acid, and these fibres
may be readily seen under the microscope; they seem lo be united into a solid rod
by a material similar to that which cements the scales of the cuticle. The central
cells, when filled with pigment, have less tendency to become fibrous than those
lyinji more externally ; and hence some writers have described the centre as a
medulla, in distinction from the more fibrous part of the shaft, which they term the
cortex. (This tubular character is constant in the liair of many animals, out is very
variable in human hair, and even in the same hair at different parts of its length.)
The term cortex or bark is more correctly applied to the single outermost layer of
cells which overlap one another, and cause the sinuous transverse lines which are
seen on examining a hair under tlie microscope.

In some hairs, especially those which act as tactile organs in some of the lower
animals (as, for instance, in the whiskers of the various cats), a true papilla, fur-
nished with nerves and capillaries, projects into the hair-bulb, and an approach to
this papillary projection may often oe seen In human hairs.

The hairs, like epidermis, are thus seen to be oi^aniscd, and to maintain avltal.
Although not usually a vascular 'K>iincction with the body. The color of hair seems
to depend on the presence of a peculiar oil, which is of a sepia tint in dark hair,
blood- i*ed In red hair, and yellowish In fair hair. This oil may be extracted by al-
cohol or ether, and the hair is then left of a grayish-yellow tint. The chemical
composition of hair closely resembles that of horn, and will be described in the ar-
ticle Hornt Tissues.

Hair is extremely strong and clastic, and hence its nses for the construction of

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flahhv-Un^ the Btafflog of cafthious. balls, &c Amongst Its other physical pro-
perties, we may meotion that, when dry on a warm, It is casilv rendered electrical,
and that it is extremely hyKroscopical ; readily attracting moisture from the atmos-
phere, and no doubt from tne body ulso, and Yielding it a^aiu by evaporation wheo
the air is dry. Huirs elongate very considerably when moist— a properfv of which
SaoMnure availed lilmseif in the construction of his hygrometer, in which a human
hi;irby Its elongation and contraction, according as the atmospncre is moist or dry,
is made to turn a delicate index.

Hairs arc found on all parts of the surface of the human body except the palms
of the hands and the soles of the feet ; they differ, however, extremely in length,
thickness, shape and color, according to situat ion, age, sex or race. Tlie differences
dependent on situation, age and sex, are so obvious that we shall pass them over
without notice, and proceed to the most important differences dependent on race.
With respect to the quantity of hair that grows on the human body, there are groat
differences in different races. The Mongols, and otlier northcni Asiatics who are
similar to them, are noted for the deficiency oi their hair and for scanty beards, and
the same character is ascribed to all the Amerlcantuations ; while, on the other hand,
among the Avim, or in the Knrilian race, there are individuals who have tlie hair
growing down liie back and covering nearly the whole body. The northern Asiatics
and the Americans have generally straight lank hair, while Europeans have iteomc
times straight and flowing, and occasionally curled and crisped. Negroes present
every possible gradation, from a completely crisp, or what is termed woolly hair, to

merely curltfl, and ey<'n to flowing hair; and a similar observation holds regarding
the jiatives of the islands In the great Southern Ocean. As there is a generally di^
fused opinion that the head of the African is covered with aspecies of wool instead of
with true hair, we may mention that all true wools which have been examined micro-
Bcoplcoliy (us meiino wool, tlie wool of the tiger, rabbit, bear, seal, and wolf>d(^,
which were investigated by the late Mr Yonatt), present a more or less sharply ser-
rated or jaffged surface, wlule hairs present merely an imbricated appearance. Tliis
characterise of wool is shewn when represented bv a fibre of menno wool, viewed
as a transparent, and as an opaque oDJect ^^Ilairs of anegro, of a miilalto, of
Earopeaiis, and of some Abyseiniaus sent to me (says Dr Prichard) by M. d'Abbadie.
the celebrated traveller, were, together with the wool of a southdown fhcep, viewed
both as transparent and opaque bodies. The filament of wool had a very rougli and
irregular surface; tlie filament of negro's hair, which was extremely unlike Uiat of
wool and of all the other varieties mentioned, had tlie appearance of a cylinder, aiid
the coloring matter was apparently much mora abundant than in the others.*' It Is

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 66 of 196)