James Orr.

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Common Pleas till Cromwell's death, but refused to have his commission renewed
by Kichard Cromwell, aud then entered parliament. On the Restoration, he was
made Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer ; and after eleven years, was transferred
to the Chief-jn9ticeRhip of the Court of Qn^t^'f* Bench. He was reckoned the beet
judge of ills time, being acnte, learned, aud sensible, and set his face against bribery,
one of tbe vices of the age. John Bunyan was brou};ht before him, and convicted
of frequenting conventicles; and when Banyan's wife afterwards moved for her
busband's discnurge, she was politelv dismis<)ed without redress. H. also sentenced
some women, convicted of witchcraft, to be execuU'd, avowing his full ftiitli, in the
delation of ibat uge, that this was a grave and dangeroas offence. During his career
as a jndge, H. led an austere and scholarly lif& leaning to the side of the Puritans.
He made a friend of Richard Baxter, and has left a great reputation for piety. He
wrote some le^al works, which are still of the higliest authority, and lie bequenthed
severable valuable legal MSS. to Lincoln's Inn, which are stiil treasured there.
He resigned his office from ill health in 1676, and died on Christmas-day of that

HALE, Sarah Josepha, American antlioress, was bom at Newport, New Harop-
ahire, 1795 ; her maiden name was Buell. Married to David Hale, an eminent law-
yer, about 1814, she pursued with him a regular course od study nntil his death In
1888, when she devoted herself to authorship, and produced her earliest work, **Tho
Genius of Oblivion, and other Poems " (Concord, N. H., 1883;, followed by '* North-

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Hales OKA

Halibut OO^

wood, a Tale of New England" (Boston. 1887). In 1888. she removed to Boston, and
edito.l the ^* Ladies' MogMzhie, " monthly, niilil 18S7, when it was nuited with the
'• Ladies' Book," Philadelphia, In whicli city she has since resided. Besides her
labors m^ editor, she hns wriiten *' Sketches of American Cliaracter ; " ** Traits of
American Life; " *• Flora's Interpreter;" *'Good Housekeeping ; " **Oro8venor,
a 1'rug<Hly " (founded ou the story of Colonel Hayne, a martyr of the Rcvolation) ;
" Tlic Judse, a Drama of American Life : " three metrical romances (entitled **Alic«
Itjy ; " " Three Hours or Tlie Vigil of Love ; " and *' Harry Grav ") ; and her niOf«t
importint work. '* Woman's Record," or sketches of all disiingulBbcd women from
the creation to ISM (2d edition. New York, 1866). All her workn are characterised by
good tasie, and Iter tales and poems by vivid description and strong pathos.

HALES, Stephen, an £ngnsh natural philosopher, was liora nt Beckpsbonm, hi
Kent, in 167T, and died at Teddiugtou, in Middlesex, in 1761. He entered Benet
(now known as Corpus Christi) College, Cnmt)ridge« in 16»6, was elected PcUow in
1702. and having taken holy orders, was presented about 1710 2o the perpetual curacy
of Teddington, where the remainder of hi* life seems to have been spenL

His flrnt important publication was *' Vcigctuble Staticks, or an Account of soma
Statical Bzperiraents on the Sap of Vegetables " (1727), which rapidlv acquired s«
his;h a reputation as to be translated into French, German, Dutch, and Ttillan, and
which may be considered the starting-point of our true knowledge of vegetable phy-
siology. A second part of this work, under the title *» Hsemastaticks," and treating
of the circulation of the blood, appeared in 1733. Besides other independent morks.
he contributed numerous memoirs to the *♦ Philosophical Transactions " on Ventil-
ation, on the Methods of keeping Water Fresh, on Electricity, on the Analysis of
the Air, Ac. His ventilating machines were introduced into the London prisoner
and were found most efiicacTous in diminishing mortality among tlie prisoners. His
system was also adopted in France with similar good results.

His improvements in the mode of collecting gases did much to facilitate the sab-
sequent labors of Black, Pilestly, and Lavoisier.

• • HALfi'VY, Jacques Francois Fromental, a French composor, was born atParlij
of Jewish par<!ntfl^o. May 27, 17M. He studied under Berton and Cliembini, auq
afterwards at Uome. The first work of H.'s that brought him aiiv considerable repn*
tation was '* La Jnive," produced at the Grand Op^ra in 1836. Tite most important
of Ills sul)Sf*quent pieces (of a serious character) were — '* La Heine de Chvpre,**
♦' Charles VI.,^' *' Le Juif Errant," and •* La Mofflclenne," Those executed for the
Opera Comique are regarded as his most succeauni ; the principal are — ^* Les Moos-
qnetalres" <probablyliis masterpiece), "L'Eclalr," and **Le Val d'Andorre." He
was a great favorite with his countrymen^ but his style was so purely national that,
ill spite of bis great dramatic power, he did not euiov a great celebrity out of France.
H. died in Hanch 1862.

HALF-BLOOD, I. e., persons related through one parent only. When two per-
sons have tlie same father, but not the same mother, they are called brothers or
brother and sister consanguincan ; when they have the some mother only, they are
called brothers, ^., uterine. In the succession to real or landed property in Eng-
land, the half-blood relations by the father's side succeed after the full -blood rela-
tions; and next, but at a considerable interval, the hslf-blood relations bv the
mother's side. In Scotland, nlso, the hnlf-blood consangninean succeed to heritable
estate in the same way, though not in identically the same order; but the half-Ulood
uterine never succeed in any event. In England, as regards personal estate, the
half-blood on both sides sncceed indiscrlminntely, and share equally with the full
bloo<l. But in Scotland, the half blood only succeed to movable estate after all the
full-blood and their descendants are exhausted, and then the half-blood by the father^
side sncceed In exclusion of the half-blood by the mother's side, who do not come
in until the succession readies a distant point, vi«., where the nearest relations are
uncles and aunts paternal, or their descendants, in which case only the half-blood
uterine after the mother's death take half the property, and the paternal relatives the
oUier half. See Paterson's ** Comp. of E. and S. Law."

HALF-PAT, an allowance given In the British army and navy to commissioned
officers not actively eraploved In thp rank to which the half-pay has reference. It
corresponds to the French dsmi-^olde^ or pay of rum-aetiviU. It has long been a

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disputed point whether half-pny Is e\ren to officers as n relalnlns; fee, to keep them
ftt hand for the time when their services may be ngafn required, or on award on ac-
coaut of services ulreadj rendered; bat whatever the? terms of tite original gnuit,
there can be little donbt that, niider tlie nrcseut regnIntioni<, half-pay, except wlieu
distinctly named retired half-pav, is In the nature of a retaining fee. This allow-
ance is on qnlte a different footii]«r hi the navy and army.

In the royal navy of Great Britain, officers are menly appointed to serve during
the period a certain ship is in commission; when I liis expires, ttieir employment
cenfes, and they revert to a state of non-activity. As llien; arc always many more
naval officers tiian appointments for ihem to fill, a con»!demble nnmbt r are at all
times on the non-effective list These are pluccd on Iialf-pny until again called
npon to serve; tlie amonnt of snch half-pay being usually about (0 per cent, of the
fnll pay of eiicb grade. Haif>pay is thus In the navy a recognised condition for all
officers not immediately wanted afloat.

In the British army, the case is different ; there, an officer, on joining, is posted
to a particular raiment, with which, in theory, he is supposed to serve until re-
moved from it on attahiing the rank of genfral. Consequently, no fund like the
naval half-pay list is in any decree admitted. Army half-pay Ih of two nalnres-—
temporary half-puy, and (so-called) permanent half-pay. The former is limited to
officers incapacitated by casual sickness, to those who are without occupation, in
consequence of any reduction of the torim in which they were serving, and to those
serving in certain staff appointments.

Permavent half- pay can be demande<l by any officer who has served for 26 years :
it is also given to majors and lieuteu.mt-colonels who alter sorvins for five years
with a re^hnent in those ranks, are not re-emploved. Since the aT)olition of pur-
chase and sale of commisfeloiis, this last clttss mny be expected, for the sake of pro-
motion in the^owor nink-s to increase considerably. The cost of lialf-pay is alreudy
very great ; in 1877—1878, it was X3:6,500 for the army. Till lately, a large propor-
tion of the redpieuts were officers phiced on the list at the great reduction after the
peace of 1815. The vote for naval lialf-pny in 1S77 —1878 was 746,841.

The first grant of army half-pay wus made in 1608 by William III.

HALIBURTON, Thomas Chandler, ex-colonial judge, author, and politician,
was bom at^ Windsor, in Nova Scotia, in 1796. His father, the Hon. Mr Justice Hal-
ibnrtoo, of Nova Scotia, was do'ccndcd from an ancient Scottish family. H. re-
ceived his education at King's College in Nova Scotia, afterwards practised as a
barrister, and became a member of the House of Assemblv. He was raised to tlie
bench of the Common Pleas of the colonv in 1829, ai:d in 1840 became judge of the
Supremo Court In 1850, he retired from the bench, and took up his residence in Eng-
land, which lie bad always regarded as his motiier-country. In 1868, he received the
degree of D.C.L. from Uie university of Oxford, and in 1859 took his seat on the
Conservati'^e benches of the House of Commons as M.P. for Launceston. which he
represented until his death. H. is l>e8t known as the author of **Sam Slick," the
name of a Yankee clock maker and pe<ller. a sort of American Sam Wcller, whose

auaint drollery, unsoniih>ticatcd wit, knowledge of human nature, and aptitude la
le use of what he calls '* toU sawder," have given him a fair chance of immortality.
In a sut>seqncnt series, the author brings Sam Slick to England ns an attachd of the
United States legation, and is thus enabled to offer many shrewd aud humurotis ob-
servations on the aspects of British society, especially in regard to the upper classes
and their pampered servants. *' Sara Slick " has been almost universally reiid hi the
United States, where its extravangances are keenly relished. It has enjoyed a wide
popularity in England, nnd lias also been translated into many continen til langn-
aees. H. is also author of the "I/?tter-bng of the Grent Western," "Wise Shws
ana Modern Instances," ^'Nature and Human Niiture," "Bubbles of Canada,"
•' Rnle and Misrule of the English In America," and ** A History of Nova Scotia."
He died in August 1865. having attained a place and fame difficult to acquire at all
times— that of a man whose humor was nurtured in one country, and became nat-
uralised in another; for humor is the least exotic of the gifts of genius.

HA'LIBUT, or Holibut {HippogUmus vulgarU), one of the hirgeet kinds of flat-
fish (Ptsftroneetida). in form more elongated than the fionnder or the turhot, the
eyes on the right side, the upper surface smooth, aud coverect with small soft oval

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Halifax 000

scales, the color brown, of different shades, the under surface perfectly smooth and
white. The U., although esteemed for the table, is net to be compared iu quality
wiih turbot ; its flesh is white aud firm, but dry, and has little flavor. It is common
ou the British coasts, but more abundant in the north than iu the south ; asid great
u ambers are tiiken by the Orkney fishermen. It is not found iu the Baltic, but is
plentirni ou the coasts of Norway, Iceland, and Oreeuland, aud large quantities aro
taken ou tlie northern parts of the American Atlantic coast It is a fi>*h of great
▼aUie to the Greeulanders, who preserve it for winter use by cutting it into long slips
and drying: it iu the air. Oil is obtained from it in considerable aunndauce. It at-
tains a great size ; specimens have been cuughi weighing nearly weighing five hun-
dred pounds. Other species of the same genus occur iu the seas or other parts of
the world.

HALICARNA'SSUS (originally called Zephyria) was one of the Greek cities of
Asia Minor situated on tiie Ceramic Qulf. It was founded by a colony from Tros-
eene, and was one of the cities of the so-called Doric UezupoHs, from which con-
federacy, however, it was eventually excluded. U. was the largest mid most powerful
of the cities of Caria, and by its situation tmd the inaccessible position of its citadel,
was reputed a place of great strengtii ; but the people, owing to the enervating influ-
ence of Uic climate, were oC n weak and effeminate character ; and during the Per-
sian conquest*, readily yielded to the dominion of the conquerors. During this pe-
riod (about 500 B.o.)i however, u domestic tyraul, Lygdamis, rose to supreme power
as a vassal of Persia; and under his descendants tne city, without forfeiting the
Oreek character, or ceasing to cultivate the Greek literature aud arts, remained
faithful to the Persian interest. Artemisia, the daughter and successor of I^gdamls,
actually commanded a naval squadron in the fleet ot Xerxes, at the battle ot Salamis.
Alexander the Great, provoked by the obstinacy with which tiiecity holdout against
him, commanded that it should be destroyed by flre ; but the inhahitanis took ref nee
iu the citadel, which successfully resisted his lu-ms. The cliy was afterwards rebuilt,
but it never recovered its ancient importance or prosperity. In the days Of tbeKomau
empire, it liad suuk into compai-ative political iusigniflcance, its only tiUo to consid-
eration at that time being the celdbratixi Mausoleum, erected iu memory of one of
ttie rulers, named MausolUH, by^ his sister (who had also beeu his wife aud snccessor)
Artemisia. H. Mas the birthplace of two of the most cmiueiit of the Greek his-
toriaus, Herodotus and Diouysius. Th ^ situ of the city is occupied by tlie modern
Boudroum. For au account of the discovery of the ancient remains of the city, aud
of the disentombment of the Mausoleum, see M4Usoleum.


HA'LICZ, a town of Anstiia, iu the crownland of Galicia, Is situated on the
Dniester, in a fruitful district in the administrative division of Stanislawow. about
14 miles north of the town of that name. There are here a convent o' *be Minor-
ites; A communitvof Jews of the sect of the Caraites, dlstinguisiied tor their in-
dustry nnd uprightness ; and on the rld^reofa hill in the vicinity, the ruins of tho
once strongly fortified castle of Ualicz, which has frequently been the witness of
bloody eucounters. H., from which Galicia has derived its name, is the oldest town
in that crownland. It was built iu the 121li c, and its castle was the residence o€
the rulers of what was formerly the grand principality and kingdom of Halicx.
Pop. (ISO^ 8142.

HA'LIDOIi UILL, situated about a mile to the north-west of the town of Ber-
wick, in Uiefork formed by the Whiuidder and the Tweed, was the scene of a bloody
conflict between the English and Scots, 19th July 1333. Edward III., havin!? de-
terniiucd to 8upiK)rt the claims of Edward Baliol to the crown of Scotland, advanced
to the borders with u large iirmy, and laid siege to Berwick, the governof of which
promised to surrender on the 20th of July» if not previously relieved. Ou tlie I9lh,
the acting regent of Scotl md, Archibald Douglas. Lord of Galloway, snmamed ** the
Tyneiuim," with a Isir^e force, came in sijjht of Berwick, and found the English
drawn upon the north side of Ilalidou Hill. Regardless of fatigue, tiie Scots im-
mediately advanced to the attack, but while crossing tho morass which skirts tho
base of the hill, suffered severely from the English archers. They ueverttielesa,
Itrnggled onwards, and mouuted tho hill, when the Euglisli, charging in a oompact

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body, threw tbem Into irretrievable coDfueion. A total rout war the immediate re«
fiolt, uDd the EDglish cavHiry aud Irioh auxiliariea committed a prodigiona ^laocbter
amoug the fugitives * ipwurds of 10,000 Hcots (according to Pome aotnoritieB. 14,000)
l>t-fi]g left on the field, among whom were Dongius tiie regeut, three of the Stuart
family, the Surle of Koos, bnthcrlaiid, Menteith, Lenuox, and Athole, and mauy
otitera of tlie nobility. The BngliBh lo8» was comparatively small. The town of
Berwick immediately enrrendered, and Edward Baiiol again for a short tim kept
pOBveeaion of the throne.

HA'LIFAX, the capital of Nora Scotia, stands on the sonth-cast or onter coa?t
of the peninsula, in lat. W> 8SK n., and long. fSP 37' w. Though it was founded only
in 1T49, yet so fuvonibly was it situated, tiutt in 1760 it supplanted Annapolis as the
Beat ot govemmeiiL The harUir of H. is oi.e of the finest in the world. It is eu'
tered from the sonth, extends northwards about 19 miles, and tenniuatee in a mug-
nificeut sheet of water < ailed Bidford B;tsin. is f*pacion» enough for the entire navy
of England, and offers all the year round easy access and safe anchornge to vensels
of any magnitude. The harbor has two entrances, made by M*Nab"s Island, of
which the western only is navigable for vesi^els of large tonnage. U., with ite sub-
urbs, extends along tlie slope oi a hill, and la over two miles in length, and about
three-quarters of a mile in width. The streets are well laid out. and a*. nyibX angles ;
and handt>oinc granite and freestone have superseded wood. The dockyard, cover-
ing 14 acres, in among ilie finest in the British colonies. The principal edifices are
the Province Building (which contains the covemment oflBces). Dalhonsio College,
Government House, mi>lta:y hospital, lunatic asylum, provincial iienitentiaiy, couit-
honse. exchauize, post-office, theatre, workhouse, jail, city market, assembly rooms,
Ac 11. also contains SI places of worship, and i» the feat of two bishops. It is an
important military i)Ot>t, being defended by stronir forts and batteries, one of which,
called the Citadel, stands on the summit of the hill on which U. is built, aud is said
to be, after Quebec, the strongest fortification in America. B. and Quebec are now
tbe only places in Canada where British troops are retained : the troops occupy ex-
tensive and handsome barracks overlooking the harbor. The head offices of the
Nova Scotia Railway, and the Nova Scclia Electric Telegraph Co., are situated here.
By means of the Intercolonial and the Windsor and Annapolis railways, it has com-
mnnication with Annapolis. Piclon. St Jolm, lYuro, and Windsor. The port en-
grosses nearly the whole of the foreign trade of the colony. In the year ending Jnne
80, 1878, the exporis amounted to $4,678,684, and the imports to $10,056,579. The
popnlation of Halifax at the census of 1871 was 89,582.

HALIFAX, a thriving market-town, municipal and parliamentary borough of
Bnghuid, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is situated principally on the right hank
of the river Hebble, a feeder of the Calder, on the slope of an eminence rii«ing
above the rivtT, and i» almost wholly surrounded by hills. It is 43 miles south-west
of York, and 817 miles north-north-west of London. Its situation is pleasing, and
its general appearance handsome; while Its ample supply of water-power and of ,
coaCits faciliiies for transport both bv water and by leawng lines of railway, and
Its |)OsItlon in proximity to many of the great to^ms* of thenorih of England,
contribute materially to its manufacturing and commercial importance. The eccle-
siastical architecture of H. strikes every visitor. The parish and Trinity churches,
** All Souls," an Episcopalian church completed in 1861 from designs by Sir George
Gilbert Scott, are flue specimens of Gothic The ** Sounre Church." belonging to
the Congregational body, erected In 1868; and another connected with the same
sect, built in 1867, are consplcuotu features. The towu-hall, opened by the Prince
of Wales in 1868, Is a very ornate erection. The Piece Hall, a large quadrangular
stone building, erected in 1779, ot a cost of X18,000, and comprising 815 apartments
or irarelionses for the reception and sale of manufactured goods ; and the assembiy
rooms, Mechanics' Institute, and theatre. Anjong the numerous public and private
edacational institutions of H. are the Heath Oramniar School— founded in 1685,
with an endowment of jC870 a yeor— and the Blue Coat School. In 1857, Mr F.
Croasley, M.P. for the West Riding, presented a magnificent park to the town. It
contains the largest carpet-works In tlie world. The manufactured gooda, besides
carpets, are chiefly shalloons, tammies, calamancoes, duroys, everlastings, moreens,
sbags, serges, meriuoee, as well as baises, narrow and broad cloths, kerseymeres,

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and bombaslns. Cottoo fabricsi wool-cnrds, and paper are manafactnred. There
Is also Bome trade in com, in mUl-machiziery, and in raisiDg coal and alate. Pop.
(ISTI) 65,510.

A strau'^e old local law, known as the Halifax Gibbet Law, was enacted here at
an early period of the woollen mannfacture. for the protection of tlie maoafac*
tarora aizainst the tliieviah propenBities of their hands, who were in the habit oC
robbing tlieir employers, by keeping to tbemseWes a portion of the material which
oaglit to hare gone lnt<j th« cloth, so that when mnnafactnred, the fa*>rlc was dis-
covered 10 be of Inferior weight and body. The Gibbet Law provided that all per-
sona within a certain circuit, who hud stoloi property of or al>ove the value of
13^/i., were to be tried by tlie f rith-bnr^l|ers witiiln the liberty, and If found gnilty,
were hai:ded over to the magistrates for panishment, and were executed on the flz%t
marlcel-day following by means of an instnuneut similar to the guillotine. The
stage or platform on which the executions took place is stiU to be seen, and the
axe is preserved in the old jail In Jail Lane.

HALIFAX, Charles Montnguc, Earl of, poet snd statesman, grandson of Henry,
first Bart of Manchester, and nephew of the famous Parliamentary general, was
Iwru at Hortou, in Northauiptonshire, leth April 1661. He was educated at West-
minster School and lYinity College, CAmbridge. A laudatory poem on Charles n.
first brought Montague into public notice. l\vo years later, appearc>d the parody on
Dryden's »* Ulnd and Panther." entitled *• The Town and Country Mouse," of which
ho was joint author with Matthew Prior ; but his poetry would hardly have made
his name remembered In the li^th century. Ue almost disappeared from the field of
literature after Uie appearance of his satire, save as the patron of Addison and other
men of letters. He had inteudt*d to cuter the church, as it afforded a regular in-
come, but tempted bv tlie offer of a seat in the House of Commons. \a
became member for Maiden in the Convention Parliament, where he voted for
the declaration That James II. had abdicated, and that the throne was thereby
vacant He retained his seat In William lll.'s first parliament, and was appointed
in 1092 a Commissioner of the Treasury. Ou the 15th Deceml)er of this year he pro-
posed. In the House of Commons, to raise a million sterling by way of loan. Wil-
liam required money for his warif— the moneyed classes were tired of bubble com-
panies, and knew not where to Invest safely, and the landowners were weary of
heavy taxation ; so the National Debt was established. In the spring of 16M,
money was again wanted, and Montague was ready to sunply it This time, he did
so by orlgiiiaTlug a national bank, a scheme for which had been laid before govern-
ment by William Paterson three years t)cfore. The capital was to be jC1v)M>0,000,
and the shareholders were to ba called the Governor and Company of the bank of
England. The bill for this was ultimately passed ; the result was immensely snc-
cesrtfnl, and Montague became chancellor of the exchequer. His next work was the
recoinage of 1695, which he carried out successfully, appointing Newton warden of
the Mint, and raising a tax ou windows to pay the expense, instead of tlie obnox-
ious impost called hearth-money. The interval between tiie last day on which the

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 69 of 196)