James Orr.

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are held by government. The men employed at the 8ult^sprin«s, and known as the
•♦ Ualloren," arc a distinct race, supposed by some to be of Wendisli, and by others
of Celtic descent, u'.io have reta1ne«i numerous ancient and diaracteristic peculiari-
«««. Pop. (1871) 62,039 ; (1875) 60,603.

H., nrieinully a itorder fortress against the Slavs, became in the 10th c. an ap-
panose of tbe Arciibisliops of Magdeliurg, and by the 12th c. was famous as a com-
mercial city. In the 12th and fsth centuries, U. was a powerful member of the
Hauseatic league, and waged war with neighboring potentates. Terribly impover-



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Ished daring the Thirty Yean' War, H. was incorporated with the dominion of the
Biector of Brandenborg at the peace of Weetphaau.

H ALLECK, Fitz-Qreeoe, au American poet, boru at Guilford, Conuecticnt. in 1796.
By his mother, Mary Eliot, he was descended from John Eliot, '* the apo»ile of the
ludians.*' He became a clerk in a bank iu New York iu 1813. iu which employ racnt he
remained for many years. He was afterwards for a considerable time the coufideu<
tial agent of Mr John Jacob Astor in his commercial aftilrs, and was appointed by
him one of the original trustees of the Astor Library in New York— a position
which be held to the end of his life. In 1S49, be retXrea from banking and mercan-
tile pursuits, and took up his residence in his native place, where he spent the re-
mainder of his days. From his Ixjyhood, H. wrote verses, some of wnidi he sent
to newspapers ; but tn his collected poems, he has included nothing published earlier
than his lines on '^ Twilight," which i^peared In a New York paper in 1818. Iu ihe
following year, he became associated with Joseph Kudman Drake in contrihntiug
the humorous series of **The Croaker Papers ** to the same jonrunl. The illness
of Drake soon put an end to these papers, and H. commemorated his friend's death
in a very beantifnl little poem. In 1849. H. wrote his lonirest poem, ** Fanny," a
satire on the literature, fashions, and politics of the time, m the measure of ** Don
Jnan.'' It is said to have occupied less than three weelcs in its composition, and de-
rived Its immediate and great populHrity rather from the pungency of its allusions
than from any higher merit. In 1822—1883, H. visited Europe ; and in 1827 published
an edition of his poems. In which were iucloded severafpieces suggested by the
scenes and associations of the Old World, anion^ which the lines on Ahiwlck Castle
and on Burns particularly commanded adinirat^n. H.'s style is spirited, flowing,
and n-aceful; his versification almost always very smooth and harmonious. Ills poems
display much geniality and tender feeling. Their humor is delicate and refined.
Few poets, and particularly few American poets, who have written well and acquired
populurily like H., have written so Uitle. Uis whole poems are Included in a 12mo
volume of very moderate size. H. died iu November 1867.

HALLECK, Henry Wager, an American general, bom In 1816, at WestemviTle,
in the Stale of New York. He entered West Point Mllitnry Academy In 1©5, grad-,
uated in 1839, and for about a year acted as Assistant Professor of Engineering.
During the Mexican war, he served on the lower coast of California, and, for his
gallant services, was breveted captain in 1847. From 1847 to 1849. he was Secretary
of State for California, under the military government of Kenrmy, Mason, and
Kiley ; and In 1849 was a member of the convention to form and draft tt»e state con-
stitution of that province. He became captain of engineers In 1853, left the service
in 1864, and for some time practised law In San Franci«tco. On the ontbrenk of the
civil war, he joined the Northern army In 1861 as major-general, and in November
of the same year was appointed Commander of the Department of the West In
1682, he became generai-lu-chiuf, resigning in 1864, and becoming Chief of the StnflL
As a general, he was able and successful. He died Iu Jan. 18T2. He wrote '* Ele-
ments of Military Art and Scic-ncc w (1846), " Mining Laws of Spain and Mexico," &c

HALLELU'IAH (Heb. PraUe t/s the Lord), one of the forms of doxology used
in the ancient church, derived from the Old T<*8lttment, end retained, even In the
Qreuk and Latin liturgies, In the original Hebrew. The singing of tliedoxology In
this form dates from the very earliest times ; but considerable diversity hiu#prc-
vaiied iu different churches and at differeut periods as to llietlinc of using it. In
general it may be said that, being In its own nature a canticle of g)adne^s and tri-
ttinpli, it was not iu»ed In the penitential seasouci, nor In scn-lcf s set apart for oc-
casions of sorrow or hninillatiou. Iu tho Hme of 8t Angu.«tlne, the African Church
used the Halleluiah only from the feast of Easter to that of Pentecost. In other
ctiurches, it was found In most of tl>e services thronghont the year, with the excep-
tion of the seasons of Lent and Advent and the vigils of the principal festivals. In
the Roman Catholic Church, the Hallehilali Is Introduced both into the mass and Into
the several hours of the public office, but it Is dlscoutinned from Septuageslma Sun-
day until Easter ; and ou the contrary, during the interval between Easter and Pen-
tecost, it is Introduced more frequently Inio the services and In circumstances of
greater solemnity. It is always omitted in the services for the dead, and on the
ember days, at the quarter tense, and on the principal vigila. In the Church of



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BaUM^

Bailar

Eoglatid, the first Prayer-book of Edward VL r^ained the HaHelniah in the original
Hebrew. In the present Pmyer-book, althon^b retained, it is found not in the
Hebrew, but in its English equivalent, PraUe yt tM Lord, See Binterim's ** Benk-
wurdlgkelten derChrlst-Kathol. Kirche."

HALLER, Albrecht tod, an eminent physiologist, was bom at Bern, October,
ITOS, and died in that city, December, 1777. Ixi early life, he was feeble and deli-
cate, being offected with rickets, a disease wiiich is not nufrequeutly accompanied
with cousmerablo intellectoal precocity. His father, Nicholas Emmanaei von Hal-
ter, who was an advocate, nua had the reputation of beius an able lawyer, intended
him for the church ; bai his own iuclinatious being in favor of medicine, he pro*
ceeded in 1723 (two years after Ills father's death) to the university of TQbingen,
where he became the pupil of the well-kuown anutomUt, Dnvemoy. In 1786 he re-
moved to Leyden, where he attended with much advantage the lectures of Boerhaave
and of Albiiins, ajpd obtained the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1787. He then
visited Loudon, whei-e he made the acquaintance of Sloane, Douglas, and Chesel-
deu ; whence lie proceeded to Oxford, and afterwards to Paris, where for tdx months
he studied anatomy and botany under Winslow and Dc Jussieu ; but one of his
ueietibors, wlio was annoyed by bis dissections, having threatened to denounce him
to tlie police, be made a rapid retreat to Basel, whore be became the pupil of John Ber-
noulli, the celebrated nuUhemat fcian. After seven years' Mudy In these different seats
of learning, he returned, in his 8Sd year, to his native city, and commenced practice as
aphy&ician. The professor of anatomy, Meig, having fallen ill, H. undertook the
duties of his class; he likewise devoted mnch of his time about this period to tiie
botany of the Alps; and also published a celebrated descriptive poem, entitled *'Die
Alpen ^ (The Al|)s). In 17S5, ne was appointed physician to the hospital, and shortly
afterwards, principal librarian and curator of the cabinet of medals; but these offices
lie did not hold long, for in 1736, George IL, wlsliing to establish a university at
GOttingeu, offered hini the professorship of medicine, anatomy, l>otany, and surgery,
which, after some lies«Itat!ou, he accepted. Prom this time, lie save up the practice
of his profession, and for the next 18 years he devoted himself wholly to teaching
and to origiunl research. He took an active part in the formation of the Royal
Academy of Sciences of GOttiugen ; and the memoirs of the society, which appeared
under the title of **Commentarii SocietHtis Regite Seientiarum Goltlngensis," con-
tain many of his pap&rs. During the period that he held the professorship— viz.,
from 1786 to 17S3— lie composed and pnblished 66 works on medical subjects, chiefly
on physiology and botany : and it is«ecorded that he contributed upwaxds of 12,000
notJcet* or reviews of books to the •*GOttingische gelehrte Anceigen," a monthly
periodical work, of wliich he was editor. In 1753, in consequence of disputes with



nis colleagues, and probably in part from the delicate state of his health, be reskned
his chair, and returned to his native town, where he subsequently held several im-
portant and honorable offices. He stilU however, retained his position as president



of the Royal Academy of Sciences, and other more substantial distinctions, such as
a retiring allowaiice. &c It was after his retirement from GOttiugen that some of
his most important writings were poblI»hed. amongst which must 1^ especially men-
tioned his ** Elementa Pliysiologiis Corpons Human! " (Lansanoe, 8 vols. 4to, 1767
— 1766)~by fur the most important of his works-^Aud his tour **BlblIothecfB," or crit-
ical catalc^ea of works on botany, surgery, anatomy, and medicine. The increiia-
ing- maladies of bis later days did not distract his mina from tlie study of his favor-
ite subjects. He recorded all the Fyniptoins of his last illness — ^a combination of
gout and disease of the bladder— and the gi*adiuil cessation of his vital functions;
and his last words, addressed to his physician, were : ** Hy friend, the pulse has
ceased to beuL"

H.'s eminence as a m'an of science was duly recognised even in his own lifetime.
Ill 1739, he was appointed physician to the king of Great Britain ; he was ennobled
bv the emperor of Germany in 1748: the universities of Berlin, Oxford, and
Utrecht in vain endeavored to obtain him as their professor ; and he was an hon-
orary member of all the scientific societies of Europe. His name is especially con-
nected with the doctrine of muscular irritability, which Is noticed in the article
Muscus AMD Mnsoui^B TiasoB : and If he made but few positive additions to our
knowledge, his teaching and writings impressed a new aspect on physiology — a
•cieuce of which he has deservedly been termed **The Father." But, while his



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HaUooinatlons ^'^^

name is Indelibly recorded In the annaU of ■ckoioe, St sboiUd alio be remembered
that by his woric as poeti H. greatly coDtiibnted to the moTement which towards
the end of the 18lh c brought new life to German poetry.

HALLET, £dmnud, a celebrated astronomer and mathematician^ son of a Lon-
don soap-boiler, bom at Haggenton, near London, in 1666, educated at 8t Paul's
School, and afterwai-ds at (^00611*8 Collego, Oxford, which he entered in 1678. He
early became an experimenter in physiciH-berore leaving school, he had made ob-
servations on the variation of the needle. In 1676, he published a paper (" PliiIo>
s^ical Transactions *0 on the orbits of the principal planets ; also ooeervations on
a spot on the sun, from which he inferred its rotation roond its axis. In November
of the same year he went to St Hdena, where for two years he applied himself to
the formation of a catalogue of the stars in the southern hemisphere, which he pa1>-
lished in 1679 (** CataJogus Stellamra Aostraliniii). On his return, he was chosen a
Fellow of the Royal Society, and deputed by that body to go to Dansl^ to settle a
controversy between Hooke and Helvetius respectiuff the proper glasses for astro-
nomical observations. In 1680, he mode the tour of £urope, durine which he made
observations with Cassini at Paris on the great comet which goes by his name, and
the return of which he pretilcted. His observations on this comet formed part of the
foundation of Newton's calculation of a comet's orbit. H. retm^ed to England in
1681, and in 1683 pubashed (*'PhiL Trans. '0 his theory of the Variation of the Mag-
net. The next year, he made the acquaintance of Newton— the occasion being his
desire for a test of a conjecture which he had made that the centripetal force in the
solar system was one varying inversely as the square of the distance. He found
that Newton had anticipated him, both in conjecturing and in demonstrating this
fact. "Pot an account of H.'s connection with the publication of the ** PrincTpia,"
seeNEWTOK. In 1686, H. published an account of the trado-winds and monsoons
on seaa n^ar and between the tropics, which he followed by some other cbenilco-
meteorological papers. In 1699, he published his hypothesis relative to the change
in the Variations of the Needle, to test the truth of which, by obtaining measures of
the variations in different parts of the world, he was sent in 1698 in command of a
ship to the western ocean ; but his crew mutinied, and he was obliged to return.
The next year, howev^", he sailed again on the same expedition, and the result of
his observations was given to the world in a general cnart, for which he was re-
warded by the rank oc captain in the navy with half-pay for life. Soon after, he
made a chart of the tides in the Channel, snd snrv^ed the coast of Dalmatla for the
emperor of Austria. On the death of Dr Wallis Hi 1 TOB, he was appointed Savinian pro-
fessor of geometry at Oxford. In 1706 he publi^ed his researches on the orbits of the
comets. In 17tS, on the death of Sir Hans Sloane, he became secretary of the Roya]
Society; in 1716 he made valuable experiments with the diving-bell, which were af-
terwards pul>lished: and in 1790, after the death of Flam^teM, ho became astrono-
mer-ro]ral, and continued without assistance to conduct the operations at the Ob-
servatory with unremitting energy. In this office, and engagea especially in study-
ing the moon's motions, be passed the rest of his life. In 17i9> he was chosen a
foreign member of the Academy of Sciences, Paris. He died at Greenwich, 14th
January 174S, 86 years old. H. had marrie<l, in 1686^ dnnghter of Mr Tooke, auditor
of £xcoeqner, by whom he had several children. Besides the writings mentioned.
H. wrote many others. His **Tabul» Astronomicn" did not appear till 1748.
Among his principal discoveries may be mentioned that of the long inequality ol
Jupiter and Satnm, and that of the slow acceleration of the moon's mean motion-
He has the honor of having been the first who predicted the return of a comet, and
also of having recommended the observation or the transits of Vonns with a view to
determining the sun's parallax— 4i method of ascertaining the parallax first suggested
by James Oregoi7.

BALLET'S COMET. See Comet.

HA'LLOWBLL, a city in Maine, United States, on the river Kennebec, 9 mfles
south of Augusta. It has a town-hall, 6 churches, 8 banks. 1 newspaper office, a
cotton-factory, &c It is best known abroad from the flue quality of granite in the
neighborhood. . Steam-boats and rossels of nine fest draught can load. Pop. in
1870, 8007 ; 1880, 8,164.

HALLOW-EVBN, or Halloween, the name popularly glten to the ere or t^ qI



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QAT Haller

^^ * Ballndiuitioiu

▲II HallowB, or festival of An 8siott,wli1ch being tiM first Of Notember, HsDowcen
Is the evening of the Slst of October. In Boflsod, it wss long ciutoroary to crack
DUts. dock for apples In a tab of water, and perform otber harmfess fireside revebriee.
While the same thing can be asld of Scotland, tbe Halloween ceremonies of that
country partook more of a superstitions character : taking, among rustics, the form
oC a charm to discover who should be his or her partner for nf e. Ot these now almost
exploded customs, the best sumntary is that contained in Bnms's well-kuown poem
^ ualloween." We refer to Brand's ** Popular Antiquities " for some notice of old
Hallo w-even pcactioee.

HALLUCINA'TIONS are morbid conditions of mind fn which perception t^es
place where no in4>res8ion hot been made upon the external organs of the ppecial
senses, and where tbe object is believed to De real and existing. A picture is pre-
sented to tbe imaginatiott when no ray of light has faUcn upon tbe eye : a voice Is
beard when all around is silent ; a pleasant smell fills the nostril wben neither
flowers nor feart give forth their fragrance. Delusions, on the other hand, originate
St the other extremity of the chain of consciousness in the mind itself, and consist
in erroneous faiterpretatloos of real sensations. A form passes scroes the vision,
and It le regarded as a phantom, or a demon, or what is not and cannot be ; a voice
may addreas the listener In accents of tenderness and friendship, which before they
reach the mind have assumed the shape of insults and calnmnies; and the frech
odor of a rose may suggest notions of poison and pollution. Bnthallnclnations may
involve internal experiences as well as the rowrts from the outer u*orId; nor Is ft
invariably poesHiIe or necessarr to distinguish halluclnatioos from delnsluns. There
is a composite state in which the external Impression is imaginary, and the inteipre-
tation from such an impression, had It been real, Is erroneous. A dock Is heard by a
patient to strike where not a sound is audible by others, and the chime is held to be tbe
annomicement of the crack of doom. In all these coses, the sensorlum itself
must be held to be at fault, whether tbe nerves of seeing, hearing, Ac., be structur-
ally affected or not. These phenomena are observed m connection with all the
senses, but In different proportions; tbe frequen<7 being perhaps In lelation to the
nimiber of healthy sensations of which the oigan is the natural channel, and to the
degree of excitement and cultivation to which it is ordinarily subjected. 'Accords
tng to one authority, banncinations of hearing constitute two-thirds of the whole
observed; but, upon a more careful analysis, the following tabular expression of
frequency appears to be correct: hallucinations of hearing, 49:. of vision, 48; of
taste 8 : of touch, 8 ; of smell, 1. These conditions are detectable in all mental dis-
eases ; bnt the proportion varies according to the form and the intensity of the
alienatlotu AU are more frequent in mania than In monomania and fatuity; and
errors of vision are more numerous than tliose of hearing in mania. Lord Brongh«
ham at onetime held that the presence of halluclnatioQS should be elected Into a
crucial test of the existence of insanity. Practical men, however, demonstrate that
derangement Is not necessarily conjoined with such a symptouk Esqulrol held that
of 100 lunatics, four-fifths would be affected with hallncinationa. Of 146 Individuahi
in BIcdtre, Baodry found that M presented hallucinations ; and tbe subsequent re-
searehes of Tbore and Aobanel in tbe same hospital shewed 198 affected out of 448
maniacs, monomaniacs, dements, &c Bridre de Boismout, '*Des Hallucinations "
(Paris, 1846); Aubanel and There, **Becherches StatlstlqueB faltes i^THosplcede
BlcMre ; *» MIcb6a, " Dn DAIIre des Sensations " (Paris, IMS).

H9UuoifuMon»ofSanBMen.—lTi a great majority of cases, hallucfaiatlons can
readily be traced to mental alienation, which is cognizable by other signs, or to con-
ditions of the nervous system, which impair or pervert without overthrowing the
mind; or to general constitutional states, or positive diseases, such as In tbecase of
Nicolai, which involve disturbance of the fimctions of the external senses. There
is, however, a class of phenomena which cannot be Inchided under any of these cate-
gories; where objects appear; voices tempt, threaten, soothe, or where a series of
unpreeeions are recclvea oy the mind, without any corresponding sensations ; where
the system is perfectly healthy, and where the indtvldnal affected hi conscious that
what he sees or bean is unreuL Medical experience, however, goes to shew that
under such dreumstances the nerve, or some organ connected with the development
of spedal sensation, or the bndn itself, is In an abnormal or excited condition.
Which falls short of dhwase, not interfering with the regular discharge of the ordi-



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nary fnoetioiui of these parte of the economr, and not belnff detectable in an j otbei
way. and which la aometlmes compatible wflh great inteliigence, and even genias.
As lilnstrative of the latter proposition, and of the least morbid aspect of each phan«
tasmotSf it mav be meDtioued that the late Earl Grey was haanted by a gory head,
which he could exorcise at will. Swedenborg, while at the head of the goreruroeDt.
saw members of the heaveulT hierarchy eeatod among the ministers at tlie council
board, and bowed reverentially to them. Bemadotte encountered a woman in a red
cloak in his rides; and a patient has been described who was followed first by a cat,
then by a tatterdemalion becgar, and then by a skeleton wltich never left him,
walked side by side, joined his family circle, and peered through his curtains at
night Yet Swedenboi^ knew that it was not flesh and blood realities be acknow-
ledged ; the kingshmnk from, bnt repudiated the red cloak ; and the patient disbe-
lieved the skeleton, and detected its true nature and origin.

HALLUIK, a town of France, in the dep. of Nord. 10 miles nortb-north-east of
Lille. Weaving, bleaching, cotton-spinning, and brick-making are carried on, and
there are manufactures of linen and calico. Pop. (1872) 8680.

HALMALILLE {B«rrva amontUa), a tree of the natural order TilioMee^ dosety
allied to the Lime or Linoen tree of Europe, and much resembling it, but larger; a
native of Cevlon, much valued for its timber, which is a favorite nouse-bnlldiug
wood in that island, and is emploved also for carts, casks, and all household purposes,
and also for boat-building, as it is believed to resist the attaclcs of marine worms,
and in virtue cf a certain unctoositv, to preserve the ironwork from rust It is cx-

¥irted to Madras— wliere, from the principal port of exportation, it is known as
rinecmali IfmKf— and the Masaia boats, widen bravo the formidable surf tliere,
are made of it It is a light wood.

HA'LOGENS. This term, which is equivalent to "salt-producers," la derived
tirom the Greek word htUs^ salt, and includes a very distinct and well-characterised
;roup of non-metallic elements— vIk., chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine, which
orm with metals compounds analogous to sea-salt
The foIlowHifi; are their most important characteristics :

1. They combine directly and at an ordinarv temperature with the roetah>, for
which they exhibit a very strong afflnitv ; and their combinntlons with the metals
present those properties which pertain to Salts (q. v.). No elements excepting
these four possess the property of entering into direct combination with metals,
and of thus forming salt-like compounds. When united with tlte same metal, the
Brtlts which the different halogens form arc Isomorphons ; thus, for example, the
chloride, iodide, bromide, and fluoride of potassium all crystallise in cubes.

2. They all have a very energetic affinity for liydrogen, with which they all unite
in one definite proportion— via., S volumes of the gas or vapor of the halogen with
9 volumes of hydrogen, the union occurring without change of bulk, that is to say,
being represented by 4 volumes, and the resulting gaseous compound being intensely
acid, and verv soluable in water. The acids thus formed are hydrochloric, hydro-
bromtc, hydnodic, and hydrofluoric acids. Moreover, all these halogens (except
fluorine) form powerful acids with five atoms of oxygen— viz.: chloric, oromic, and
iodic acids ; and their salts present numerous points of resemblance.

HA'LOID SALTS. These are the compounds formed by the union of one of
the Halogens (q. v.) with a met4iL We may mention chloride of sodium (NaCl),
bromide of silver (AgBr), fluoride of calcicm (CoF), and iodide of patuseiuui (KI), as
examples.

HALORAGIA'CEA, or Halora'gefB, a natural order of exogenous plants, closely
allied to Onoffraosm (q. v.).— There are about seventy known species, herbaceous or
half-ahrubby ; pretty much scattered over the world, but almost all aquatic, or grow-
ing in wet places. The stems and leaves often Iiave large air-cavities. The flowers
are generally small, and the plants insignificant in appearance. Nor have any of them



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 71 of 196)