James Orr.

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understood thoronghlv the theory which he opposed, and combated it with a specu-
lative power, with a knowledge of philosophical systems, and a command of phil-
osopbical expression, which he luid not expected 10 find existing in Britain. For
some years after this, H. was a regular contrlbntor to the ** Bdlnbnrgh Eeview."
Besides other philosophical articles, two oC which, on the Philosophy of Perception,
and on Recent Publications in Logical Bcience, are especially celebrated, he
contributed several on education and university reform. Many of these contributionti
besides beiug republished iu Mr Crosse's '* Selections from the Bdiubnrgh Review,*'
were translated into <6sRiniin, French, and Italian, the French eollectiou, ** Frag-
ments de PhHMophLeJ' beiug especially valuable for the introduction, appendix, and
notes of its editor, M. Peitae.. In 1852, they were all edited bv H. hiuu»elf, with
large notes and appendices, under the title of '* Di^nssions in Philosophy and Litr
eratnre, Education, and Univeraltv Reform." In 1836, after a severe contest, U. was
elected to the chair of Logic and Metaphysics in Ediubnrgn. During bis first session,
he delivered a course of lectures on Metaphysics, which was followed iu the succeed-
ing session by a course on Logic ; and these two courses he continued to read on each
alternate year till the close of bis life. His influeuce soon began to shew itself in tlie
nuiversity among the young men who were attracted thither from difEerent parts of
Scotland, and other cocmtnes, in many cases chiefly for the sake of hearing u.; and
many of his pupils, now rising to distinction in various professions, trace to the Im-
pnlses which issued from his class the most valuable element of their education. Ex-
tensive notes of his lectures were taken by his students, and numerous copies of them,
transcribed from short-hand reports, wore iu circulation during the later years of
his life. Since his death they have been published under the emtorship of Profes-
sors ManselaudVeltch C'Shr William Hamiiton's Lectures," 4 vols. 18S»-i861). These
lectures, which were mostly written during the currency of the sessions iu which
they were first delivered, want the exactness of tliought and expression which ren-
der the works revised by himself for publication mo^s of philosophical compoai-
tion; bnt this maybe said toconvey higher value to tliem ns iotroductory worka.
Still it is to be regretted that the materials embf>died in these volumes were never,
as was intended, wrought into another work which U. had already planned at tlie tims
of his appointment. This was his edition of the works of Reid, with notes and
supplementary dissertations. It is periiaps impossible to adduce any writings which
have received the same amount of editorial care. The general aim of H.% whola
philosophy is, iu fact, but the special aim of this edition of Reid. His conviction
was, that the philosophy of common sense represents the highest reaches of human
speculation, and he sought, accordingly, in his annotations of Reld's writings, as in
his independent works, to point out the relation of the Scottish philosophy to the
systems of other conntiies, as well as to translate it into a more scientific expre»-
siou, that he might bring into clearer view at once its true character and the real
basis on which it rests. In this, therefore, more than in any of his other works, he
betrays his fondness for eliciting his own theories from the hints of previous think-
ers; his peculiar doctrines of perception, of the conditioned, of mental reproduc-
tion, Ac, are traced to the writings of Aristotle. Valuable, however, as this work
is, Its fatest edition contains references to numerous dissertations l>eyond that, in
the middle of which it abruptly stops. This is, undoubtedly, to be attributed to the
dccav of H.'s health. By the paralysis of his whole right side, though his mind
continued nutropuired, his power of work was seriously curtailed during the later
years of his life. He was, however, generally able, with an assistant, to perform
the dnties of his class till the close of session 1855— 18M, when his health
suddenly became worse, and ho died 6th May. See his life by Prof. Veitch (1809).
The time has scarcely come for estimating the position of H. in the history of
philosophy. Though hts system professes tot)e merely nn explication of the
Scottish philosophy, he seems to l>e already creating an independent school, and,
indeed, it m;iy be Questioned whether alibis cxegetical skill bos vindicated the po«
sition claimed for Reid, whether, therefore, it would not have been better "for H.

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bad he rtrnck into a eeparate path. For while his phlloeophy is distlngaished in
general from previoiis Scottish specalations hy its more riforoasly sjstematlc char-
acter, It veutnres, as in his doctrine of the conditioned. Into realms of thought,
whose existence had been scarcely surmised by any of his countrymen. This doC'
trine, which limits positiTe thoneht to tlie conditioned sphere between the contra-
dictory poles of the inibiite and the absolnte, has attracted more attention than any
of his other doctrines, especially since the publication of Mr Mansers *^ Bampton
Lectures'* In 1868 * and thongfa H.'s dlscossion is confined to the metaphysicnl as-
pects of the questtou, and is perhaps Incompatible with a consideration of the ethi-
cal ideas which must be embraced in oar conception of the Infinite Belnc, itisilkelv
for some time to gather roond it the higher efforts of British specnlatlou. H. fs
also worthy of being distlngnlrtied by bis important contributions to logic. These
may be redoced to the two principles (1) of dtetiugnlshing reasoning in the quantity
of extension from reasoning In that of comprehension, and (9) of stating explic-
ItiT what is thought implicitiy ; from the former of which issues his twofold deter*
mination of major, minor and middle terms, as of major and minor prerelses;
from the latter the quantification of the predicate, the reduction of the modes
of conversion to one, and his unmeroos simplifications in the laws of syllogism.

HAMILTON. Sir William, grandson of William, third Duke of Hamilton, bom
In Scotland in 17S0, was. lu 1764, appointed £uglish ambassador to the court of
Naples. During his residence tht>re, he took an active part in the excavation of the
ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii, and collected a rare assortment of art-relics,
consisting chlefiy of Greek and Etruscan antiquities, which was afterwards pur-
chased for the British Museum. He was recalled to England in 1800: but while on his
way liome the vessel In which he sailed wus unfortunately wrecked, and a great
part of his collection of antiques lost. 'Drawings of these had, however, been pre-
served, which were afterwards published In his *•' Aut]quit68 Etrnsqnes, Grecques,
et Romaines, tiroes du Cabinet de H. Hamilton ** (4 vols. Nopicf, 1766). He also
published ** Observations on Mount Yefuvlns, Momit Etnu,^ &.C. (Loud. 1778 ):
*• CamnI Phlegraei " (Naples. 17:6^1777), &c.; besides some papers In the " Philos-
ophical Transactions " (Lond. n«7 - 1796). H.'s claim on the Bntlph government for
special services was disallowed^ ond he died at London In comparative poverty, 6th
April, 1801.— The wife of H. was the notorious Lndy Hamilton, whose name ^^res
unpleasantly in the biography of Lord Nelson. She died at Calais lu 1816, and her
Memoirs have been published.

HAMILTON, Sir Winiam Bowan, L.L.D., one of the few really neat mathenuitl-
dans of the present century, was born In Dublin in August 1806. From bis infancy
ho displayed extraordinary talents, having at the age of IS a good knowledge of
thirteen languages. Having at an miusuoliy early age taken to tne study of matlie-
matlcs, In his 16th year he had mastered thoroughly all tlie ordinary university
course, and commenced orlgicai investigations of so promising a kind, that Dr
Brinklev, himself a very good mathematician, took him under Iim especial patron-
age. His earlier essays, connected with contact of curves, and caustics, grew by
degrees Into an elaborate treatise on the *' Theory of Systems of Rays," published
by the Royal Iiish Academy in 1888. To tliis he udded various supplements. In the
last of which, published In 1838, he predicted the existence of tlie two kinds of con-
ical refraction (see Rkpraction), the experimental verification of which by Lloyd
still forms one of the most convincing proofs ot tlie truth of the Unduiatory Theory
of Light. See Light. Tlie great feature of iiis ** Svstcms of Rays " is the employ-
ment of a single function, upon whose differential coefficients (taken on various
hypotheses) tlie whole of any optical problem is made to depend. He seems to have
been led by this to his next great work, ** A General Method in Dynamics," pub-
lished in the ** Phllosophicttl Transactions " for 1884. Here, again, the whole of any
dynamical problem is made to depend upon a single function and its differential co-
effldents. This paper produced a profound eensution, especially among continental
mathematicians. Jacooi of KSulgsberg took up the purely mathematical part of
H.'s method and considerably extended Tt; and oi late years the dynamical part has
been richly commented on and elaborated by several French mathematicians, all
nnltlng In thflr admiration of the genius di8phiyt>d In the original papers. For
tbese researches, H. was elected an honorary member of the Academy of St Peters-

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burg, a rare and coveted distinction. The principlo of varying actimit which forma
the luaiu feature of the meraoira. is hardly capaole, at all events In few words, of
popular explanation. Among IL's other work?, which are very nnmerons, we may
mention particalarly a very general ** Theorem in the Separation of Bym1x>ls In
Finite Differences," and hia ** Examination of Abel's Argument conceraing the Tin-
poseibility of solving the General Eqnntlou of the Fifth Degree."

We may also particularly allude to bis memoir on ** Algebra as the Science of
Pure Time," one of the first steps to his ^'and invention of quaternions. The steps
by Mibich he was led to this latter investigatlou, which will certainly, when better
known, give him even a greater reputation than conical refraction or varying action
has done, will be more properly treated under Quaternions. On the latter tsubject.
he nubliflhed, in 1853, a largo volume of ** Lectures," which, as the unaided work of
a Hinglf mun in a few years, lias perhaps hardly been surpassed. Another volume
of a more elemoiitary character on the same subject, containing in addition his more
recent improvements and extennlons of his calculus, was published after his death,
which took place Sd September 1865.

While yet an nnder^^raduate of Trinity College, Dublin, he was appointed. In
1827, successor to Dr Brmkley in the Andrews' chair of astronomy in the university
of Dublin, to which is attached the astronoraer-royalship of Ireland. In 1835, he
was kniirhted on his delivering the address as eecretarv to the British A.«»ociation
for Its Dublin meeting. He occupied for many years the po?t of president of the
Koyal Irlah Acadetny, and was a member of most of the great scientific academies
of Europe. He held during his life, not in Dublin alone, but in the world of science,
a position as merited as It was distinguished.

HAMILTONIAN STSTEM, a method of teaching languages, so called from the
Inventor, an En>^lish merchant of the name of James Hamilton, born about 1709.
Having removed to Hamburg in 1793, he took lessons in Qorman, ou the under-
standing that he was not to be troubled with the grammar of the language. He and
his teacTier read together a German book of anei^otes, the pupil translating word
for word after his teacher ; and after twelve lessons, namiltou found himself— so
at least we are told—able to read an easy German book. His attention was thus
drawn to the subject of learning foroign languages; and finding himitolf,aftera life
of vicissitudes, in the city of New York, alx>ut the year 1815, he wrote a treatise
expounding his views, and commenciHl putting them in practice. He undertook ta
teach ndult]^ in fifteen lesnons lo trauslate the Gospel of 8t John from French Into
Eni^iish, but found, we are told, ten le?«son9 sufficient. After teaching for a time
with great suf^cess in America, he returned In 1823 to England, and visited the chief
cities, everywhere attracting crowds of pnpIK notwithstanding that his system
was flenounced by many as quackery. He died in Dublin In 1831.

The Hamiltonian method was only one stage In the reaction— begun as early as
the time of Comenins (q. v.), and carried on, among others, by Milton and Locke—
against the pedantic method of beginning to teach a foreign or dead lansnage by
ranking the learner commit to memory a complete set of grammar rules befoce he
had acquired sufficient practical acquaintance with the l.inguage itself In Its concrete
form, to give the rules any meaning. Hamilton's method of procedure may be
shortly summed up as follows: Supposing Latin to be the language to be leawed,
Hamilton put into the pupil's hands the Gospel of St John In Latin, with an inter-
linear version, so literal as to shew the gender as well as the number of nouns, &c.,
and the mood, person, and tense of the verbs. The Idioms were not translated by
corresponding Idioms, but each word by its literal equivalent In English. A funda-
mental point with Hamilton was to give the primitive, and not the derivative signi-
fication of the word, and to give the same signification to the same word in what-
ever connection It might stand. When the pupil had by this practice got a consider-
able knowledge of the vocables and accidence of the language, he was practised In turn-
ing tlie English version back into the Latin. Hamilton undertook In this way to give
boys of eleven as mnch knowledee of Latin In six months as they usually learn at
our public schools In six years. One obvious defect of this method Is, that no lan-
sruage admits of a word-for-word and uniform translation Into another ; the method
is In tills respect misleading. Besides, one ereat use of learning languages Is as a
mental discipline, and In this point of view the Hamiltonian system Ts useless. It
may be useful in the case of adults who wish to acquire, with as little labor as poa-

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Q Q 7 Hamiltoniaa

^^ • Hammer

ribIe,aUmiredpower of reading and ppeakiDg a langnage; and in any case, a
language once began to be learned on HamlUon's priijclple», may be afterwards
proeecnted on a better method, thus avoiding the pulnful initiatory slapea of the
grammatical method. Tlie neceasity, however, of having recounje to the crude
method of Hamilton, is anperseded In tlie practice of roor-t modern teacliern, who
jontrtve to make the practical and grammatical knowledge of a language go hand
In baud*

. **^'*^^'* a town of Prussia, In the province of WePtphalla, Is situated on the
left hank of the Lippe. 22 miles north-north-wept of Am.«i)erg, It is surrounded by
an ok! widl now converted into a promenade, and by a ditch ; contains a tastle. gym-
nasium, and college, and carries on the mai)Ufactnre of linen extensively. Iron is
al»o produced. H. was fonnerly one of the Hnuse towns. Pop. (1875) 18,904.

HAMMER— STEAM-HAMMER- a tool used for applying the force of impact,
either for the purpose of beating mulleable materials into a required form, or for
driving nails, wedges, Ac The common haud-liammer confelsts of uu iron head,
nsDally faced with fteel. fixed crosswhse upon a wooden handle. When one side of
ibe head is thinned out of a wedge form or to a point, this is chilled the pane of the
hammer. 1 \wfaee is the flat disc which strikes the work. Carpenters' and joiners'
hammere have a bent pane with a V-shaped notch, which is nsed as a bent lever for
drawing nails, Ac. The pane Is sometimes sharpened so as to form an adze or
chisel. A multitude of other modiflr atioiis in the form of hammers are made to suit
different kinds of work. Some of the more important of these are treated under the
beads of the various operations, such as Fobgino, File-cdttino, aoLi>- beating.
«c '

For many purposes, hammers are required of greater weiglit than a man can
wield ; and a great variety of power-hammers are used. These, for tlie most part,
are masses of iron raised by steam or other power, and then allowed to fall by their
own gravitT upon the work. The helve or shingling hammer, used for coinpivssing
tbemas8of iron drawn from the pnddllng funiace, and the tilt-hammer^ wmCi In
the manufacture of shear-steel, arc important examples of such hammers. The
first Is a heavy bar of cast Iron about ten feet long, weighing three or four Ions and
upwards, to which is attached a head of wrought iron faced with steel, weighing
nearly half a ton more. It works upon an axis at the end of the bar furthcHt from
the head, and Is raised by cams attached to a heavy wheel set In motion by steam or
water power; these cams strike or "lick" a projection extending beyond the
head, and thus raise it about 18 or 20 inches at the rate of from 70 to 100 times per
w "^l:;^!?® •"^-*>«ininer is similar, bnt touch lighter, and Is adapted for striking
above 800 blows per minnte. In order to obtain tlds velocity, a abort "tail "extends
with a downward inclination beyond the axis, and the cams strike this downwards,
and thus lift the longer arm of the lever to which the head is attached. These when
worked by steam, a** they usually are in this country, are, of course, steam-hammers ;
but when the term steam-hammer Is used without qnallflcatlon. It applies to another
and more elaljorate machine of very different construction, invented by Mr James
Ifasmyth In 1842, and subsequently modified and Improved In j'ome of Its minor de-
tails. In this, the hammer Is attached to the bottom of a heavy mass of iron, the
•hammer-block," capable of rising and fallinj.' between upright bars or •» guides : "
this again, is fixed to the rod of a piston, which works in a cylinder placed perpen-
dlculariyovcr the hammer-block, Immmer, and anvil. As the piston rises in the
plindcr, It lifts the attached mass, whieh Is then allowed to fall from vaiylng
heights, according to an adjustment which can be made by an attendant simply
touching a handle. The odjnstments are so perfect that It may be made to crnsh a

bo desfTibed here In detail. One novel contrivance, y\z,^ the " latch," which r».
verses the action of the steam-valves at the precise moment required, is of remark-
aoie Ingenuity, •

In Uie first ** Nasmyths " that were used, the weight of the descending mass—
vl«., the hammer-block, hammer, Ac— was from Ihlriy to sixty cwts., and they
were justly regarded as mechanical marvel& Steam-hammers with a descending
mass of twenty to flf^y tons have since been constructed. In order to compare the

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Hammer-bMxn O Q Q

Hampden OOO

power of these with the *' helvo " or other hammers, which descend bv unjnilar mo-
tion on a pivot, it mnet be remembered that these latter, when formed of a Btrai^ht
bnr, are ouly,effcctive to tlie extent of a body of one-third of their weight falling
directly from a corresponding height, on account of the fact that ttic whole bar
forming the hammer is moving with a velocity varying from nothing at the axis to
a niaximam at the end of the bar, where the hammer-face is fixed.

HAMMER-BBAM. a portion of an open timber roof, forming a tmf« at the
foot of the rafter, which gives strength and elegance to tlie const ruction. It looks
lis if there had been a tie rleht across, and the centre port being cut ont, the rem-
nants at each end form the fiammer-beara. The end next the apartment is usually
ornamented with shields, heads, pendants, ^bc

IIAMMBR-CLOTH, a cloth which covers the drlver^s seat in some kinds of gen-
tlemen's carriages. The term is believed to l)e a corruption of hammock-doth, the
scat which the cloth covers being formed of straps or webbing sirotchcd between
two cmtclie^ as a sailor's Imininock is suspended. Ease of motion, as in the case
of springs, is the cause of tills arrangement. Ilummcr-cloths ore usually orna-
mented with fringes, and bear the arms of the proprietor of the carriage. They
are oid-fasliioned, and now more seldom seen iliau formerly.

UA'MMBRFEST, the principal town and trading port of Flnmark (q.T.) In Nor-
way, and tlie most nortliem town of BuroDc, is situated in TO^ 40' n. lat., and 88<>8(K
6. long. Pop. about 2000. H. is situated in a barren treeless district in the rockr
Island of Kvaloe (*^ Whale Island *'), and consists of one long street skirting a wall
of rock. The harbor is good and presents a bu!«y appearance during summer, when
it is visited by some 200 vessels, which bring bemp, meal, potatoes, and other pro-
visions in exchange for oil and flsli (the staple cotumodities of the island), reindeer
hides, eider down, and fox skins. Daring the two summer mouths the s«n in con-
tinually above the liorizon and the heat Is veiy great, yot the winter, singular to say,
Is mild enou<;h to allow of the fisheries iteing carried on. Copper from tlio works
at Ka:ifiord, which have l)een In the hands of an English compauv since 1847, is also
sent to England from Hamincrfeat. H. is the northern limit of the birch.

HAMMER-HEAT), or Hammer-Headed Shark {ZygcBna or Spht^ma), a genus of
fishes of tlie great family of Sharks ; having the general form and characters of the
family, but dlstlnguislicd from all other fishes bv the extraoixlinary form of the head,
which In the adult resembles a double-headea hammer, being extended on both
sides to a considerable lougtli, and having the eyes at the ends of the lateral exten-
sions. The mouth is below the centre of tlie head. The liammer- headed form is
not nearly so perfect in the young as iirthe adults. It is supposed to be intended
for enlargement of the sphere of vision. In the foetal state the lateral extensions are
doubled upon themselves. The hammer-heads are ovo- viviparous, and produce
many (about forty) young at a birth. They are most abundant in tropical seas. In
the Bight of Benin ^* they may often be seen ascending from tlie clear blue depths
of the ocean like a great cloud." They are very voracious. Some of them attain a
great size. Oivo species {Z. maUetis) has been taken on the British coasts. It at-
tains a length of twelve feet or upwards. It cliiefly belongs to the warmer parts of
the Atlantic Ocean.

HA'MMBRSMITH, a villase of England, in the county of Middlesex, about six
miles west-south-west of the Loudon post-offlce, is situated on the Thames, which
Is iiere crossed by an elegant suspension bridge, completed In 1827, at the cost of
jC90,000. The grounds in the vlcuiity are occupied as nurseries and market-gardens.

from wlilch a laiye supplr of flowers and vegetables is sent to the ell v. The parish
ciiurch. a plain brick building with a low tower, was erected in 1681, and conso-
crated by Laud, then bishop of London. H. contains also the convent of the Good

Sliepherd, and, in connection with it, an asylum for penitent women. Neartlio
Broadway stands the West London Hospital, supported by voluntary contributions.
There is also a large endowed school, founded by a Mr William Godolphin, and
which takes his name. The uremisos and grounds of the schoolroom cover upwards
of four acres. Formerly, a detached village, and connected with London only in a
commercial sense, H. is now joined to that city by continuous lines of street, and

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*^°^ Hampden

forms eFsentUlIj a portion of it. The pariah of H. is trarersed by »iz very impor-
tant railway?, two of which terminate here. Pop. of the parieh in 1871, 42.691.

HA'MMOCK, the apparatus in which a sailor slings bis bed, derives Its name
tbrongh the Spanish hamae.trom a Peruvian word ; the custom of thus suspending;
a l)ed having been derived from Peru, where the natives fasten the two ends of a
piece of canvas, or of a nettUig of grass twist, to the bi-nnches of a tree, and lie sus-
pended on it in luxurious ease. A sailor's hammock cousists of a rectangular pit*ce
of hempen cloth, about six feet long and three iu width, gathered together at each
end by means of cords and a clew, and hung to hooks under the deck. The ham-

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 75 of 196)