James Orr.

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mock thus suspended forms a sort of bag capable of containing the sailor's matt rrpH,
hip blanket^*, and himself, as soon as he has acquired the far from easy knack of
climbing Into it. The hammocks are taken below at sunset, and hung in rows, al)ont
two feet apart, in the meu's portion of the ship. When done with In the moriiiuL',
tlie bedding is carefully tied up within each, and the whole stowed in the hammock-
netting, which is generally in the bulwarks of the waist. If the weather Imj not t-wU
ftcientTy drr, however, to allow of this, the hammocks are left l)clow. Stowed tJius
in the netting, the tiammocks form a strong barrier against small shot.
/

HAMMOND, Henry, D.D.. a learned English divine and able controversial writer,
the yoongest son of Dr John Hammond, a physician, was born at Chertsoy, Surrey,
August IS, 1606. Educated at Eton, he was, In 1618, sent to Magdalen College, Ox-
ford, where he sedaloosly applied himself to classical studies. In July 1625, he
became a Fellow of his college, and in 1629 enten-d into holy orders. In 16S3 he wns
presented to the rectory of Penshnrst, In Kent, and in 1643 he became Arch-deacon
of Chichester. H. followed the unfortunate Charles to the Isle of Wight, and con-
tinned with the king as his chaplain till his attendants were dismissed, in 1647 ; he
then retnroed to Oxfoi-d, and was chosen sub-dean of Christ church. In 1648, he
was deprived of his college offices by the parliamentary commissioners, and shortly
after retired to Westwood, in Worcestei-shire, the seat of Sir John Packwood, where
the remainder of his life was spent in literary labor. He died April 26, 1660. His
celebrated work, the "Paraphrase and Annotations on the New Testament," was
pabllshed in 168B. A new and enlarged edition came out In 1656, but the b«'st edition
fc that of 1T02. His collected works were puhlished. In 4 vols, folio, in 1674—1684.
His sermons and minor works are reprinted In the Oxford ** Library of Anglo-
Cathollc Theology.'* - *

HAMOO'N. See Seistan, Lakb of.

HAMPDEN, John, a celebrated Enpllsh patriot^ said to have been bom In London
In IfiW, was the son of William Hampden of Hampden, Buckinghamshire, and Eliza-
beth, oanghter of Sir Hennr Cromwell of Hiuchlngbrooke, Hnntingdonthire, nunt
of OllTer Cromwell. His father died in 1697, when he was only three years old. In
1609 he was entered a gentleman commoner at Magdalen College, Oxford, and in
1«13 was admitted to the Inner Temple, where be made considenible progress in
the study of law. On Janoarj' 80, 1621, he first entered the House of Commons ns
member for the now disfranchised borough of Gramponnd. He attached himself to
the party of 8t John, Seldeu, Coke, Pym. and those who opposed the arbiinuT
encroachments of the crown, hut at first took no very forward part in public busi-
ness, and spoke but seldom. In the first three parliaments of Charles I., he sat for
Wcndorer. In 1627, for refusing to pay his proportion of the general loan which
the king attempted to raise on his own authority, K. was commitred to close im-
prisonment in the Gtatehouse. Subsequently, he was removed to Hampshire, but,
with seventy-six others, unconditionally liberated by an order of council. His ac-
tivity and industry in parlianH^t now rendered him o*ne of its leading and most use-
ful members ; he was on most of its committees ; hut after the dissolution of the
parliament of 1628—1629, he retired to his esfcite, and devoted himself to study and
to country sports and occupations. Claiming the power to tax the country in any
way be thought proper, Jn 1684, Charles had recourse to the impost of Phip-moni-y.
At first limited to London and the maritime towns, and levied only in time of war,
it was. In 1636, extended to inland places in time of peace, when H. reso-
lutely refused to pay It. and bis example was followed by nearly the whole county of
Buckingham. In 1687, he was prosecuted before the court of Exchequer for non-



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Hampshire *)0A

Hamoton %yv\J



Hampton

payment, when a raijorlty of the judges gave n verdict againrt him. lu the short
parliament of 1640, U. took a prominent part in Uie great contest betweeu the cron'u
and the House of Commons. To the Long Parliament he was returned lK)Lh for
Wendover and tlie connty of Bpclciusrhanif and made his election for the latter. For
)ii:» resistance to tlio king^s proceodiusa, he was one ot the five members whom
Charles, on January 4, 1(142, rashly attempted in person to seize in the House of
Commoi>s; and on the breaking out of the civil war, he ralsnd and became colonel
of a rognneut in the parlianientjiry army under the Earl of Essex. He was al*o a
member of the Committee of Pubfic Safety, ami in the prosecution of the war, con-
stant ly advised orompt and energetic measures. He was present at the repulse of
the royalii^ts at SouUiam, at their defeat near Aylesbury, at the flight at Bdgehill, and
at the assault and capture of Rending. Prince Itupert having attacked a parliamen-
tary force at Chiuuor, near Thame, H. put himselt at the head of a few cavalry Uiat
were rallied in haste to oppose him, and in theflijht that ensued at Uhalgrove Field,
received In the first charge a wound, of which lie died six days after, on June 24,
1643. He was twice married, and by his first wife had three sous and six daugh-
ters.

HA'MPSHIRE. SOUTHA'MPTON, or familiarly, Hants, a maritime counly
in the south of England, is bounded on the w. by Dorset and Wilis, on the n. bv
Berks, on the e. by Surrey and Sussex, and on the a. by the English Channel.
The county, including the Isle of Wight, lias an area of 1,070,216 acres. 900,000 of
which are estimated to be under culture. Its population in 1861 was43i,4d5 ; and
in isn, &44,684. The surface is irregular, being traversed by the North and South
Downs. The south-western portion of the couuty, almost wholly detached from
the main portion by the Southampton Water, Is occupied mainly by the New
Forest. This tract is 64,000 acres in extent, is the property of the crown, and is
valuable for the oak and beech timber obtained from it for the use of the British
navy. Within tho forest, an aboriginal breed of pony is still foimd. Besides that
called the New Forest, there are also remains of those of B^re, Alice Holt, Wool-
mer, &c. The principal rivers are the Anton or the Test, and the Itchea, which flow
southward through the couuty Into the Southamptou Water, and the Avon, also
flowing southwa^, and forming the western boundary of the New ForesL Tito
climate of the counly is in general mild, and favorable to vegetation ; indeed, tlio
climate in the south of the Isle of Wijiht is supposed to be milder than (hM of any
other portion of Qreat Britain. Tlie soil consists In part of poor sands and gravel,
and of a mixture oU stiff clay and chalk. All the usual crops are produced, hops
are cultivated, and the bacon cured here Is famous. The manufactures of the county
are inconsiderable. Southampton and Portsinoulh, both termini of important mil-
wiys, are the chief centres of trade. The couuty, exclusive of the boroughs aud
the Isle of Wight, sends four members to tho Honse of Commons. The New
Forest seems to have beeu fiital to the family of William the Conqueror : there
two of his sons, and his grandson, met with sudden aud violent deaths. Of t4io
early ages of English history, H. contains many interesting relics ; of these tho
chief are Porchester Castle, at the bead of Portamouth Harbor; Calshot and
Hurst Castles, now occupied as coast-guard stations, erected in the time of Henry
Yin., and Netley and Beaullea Abbey:), and the Prioiy of St. Dionysias, all iu tho
neighborhood or Southampton. The county is exceedingly rich in Roman remains,
as coins, urns, pottt>ry. &c For further information on tho antiquities aud his-
toi-y of thetowni* of H., see articles Wioht, Isli ov ; WiNOHBrrER, &c.

HA'MPSTEAD, a village of England, in the county of Middlesex, is finely situ-
ated on a range of hills four miles norih-north-west of London. It was for-
merly famous for its medicinal springs, and is still a favorite place of residence
and of holiday resort among Londoners, who are attracted to it by the beau^ of ita
situation, and the purity of Its air. On the summit of the hill. alKive the village, is the
Heath, which afl!ords extensive and pleasant prospects of the sun'onnding country.
On the Hampstead road, and in the vicinity of the vlllaeo, many handsome villas
havo been erected. Pop. (1871) 82,2Sl. A bouse on the Heath, formerly called tlio
Uppor Flask Inn, and now a private residence, was at one time the place of reeortot
the famous Kit-Kat Club, at which Ste^'le, Addison. Ricliordson, and others' used to
assemble. The village of H. was mnch frequented by Pope, Guy, Johnson, aud
Akenslde, and later by Byron, Leigh Hmit, and Johanna Baillie.



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QQ1 Hampahire

Ot/JL Hampton

HA'MPTON, a small vlHago on tho Chewipeake Bay, in Virginia, United States
America, givinjr its name to Hampton Soada, a eoatberly branch of Obesopeake
Bay, and month of James River, one of the best harbors on the American coaet,
defended by Forti-ess Monroe and Fort Calhonn. These roads were the scene
of important events in the American revolution, the war of 1812, and the civil wiir of
secession, ippeclally of the first naval battle between iron-clad vessels, the Virginia
or Merrinmc and the Monitor, Pop. (1870) 2800 ; (1880) 2,684.

HA'MPTON, a vtllaffo of England, in the connty of Middlesex, is pleasantly situ-
ated on the left bnnk of the Thames, about twelve miles south-west of London.
The streets are narrow, and the honses are Irregularly built ; in the vicinity, how-
ever, there are many noble mansions and bcnntiful villas. Pop. <18T1) 2207.

Hampton Coubt Palace, long a royal residence, and now usually occupied by
persons of rank, reduced In circumstances, stands a1>ont a mile from the village in
the midst of grounds that extend to the Thames. The original palace was erected
by Cardinal Wolsey, and cumc afterwards Into the possession of Henry VIII., who
enlarged it, and formed around It a royal park or chase, which he stocked wUh
deer. Here Edward VI. was bom, and here his mother. Queen Jane Seymour, died.
Charles I. underwent a portion of his confinement at this palace, and it was the oc-
casiosAl i-esidence of Cromwell, Charles 11., and James II. A considerable portion
of It wtm rebuilt by William III., and by him the park and gardens were laid out In
the formal Dutch style. The palace, as It at present stands, consists of three
quadrangles with some smaller courts: the great eastern and southern fronta hav-
ing been erected by Sir Christopher Wren. The picture-gallery comprises Lelv's
Beauties of the Court of Charles il., valuable specimens of Holbein, Kneller, West,-
Ac, and above all, seven unequalled cartoons by Raphael. The gardens, which
are about 44 acres In extent, and have not been materially altered since they were
laid oat by William IIL, present a series of curloos raised terraces, formal
flower-pots, and long, shady and trim arcades. Among other attractions of the gar-
dens is a *' maze*' or labyrinth, which famishes much amnsemeut to youthful
visitors.

HAMPTON COURT CONFERENCE, a conference which took pliice at HaMn>-
ton Court, chortly after the accession of James I. to the throne of Enelnnd, in order
to the settlement of ecclesiastical disputes. The king presided and took a prinrlpul
part in the conference. He was attended by some of the nobility and highest
officers of state, hut no one seems to have hean permitted to take any pnrt in the
proceedings except the king himself and the divines whom he had summoned. Of
these, the reprei^entntlvrs of Ihc £pli«copalian parly were more numerous than the
Puritans ; and the Pnritj«np, although men of known worth and learning, were
among the least extreme of their party. Archbishop Whttglft, with eljrlit bishops,
fix deans, and an archdearon, appeared on the Episcopalian side ; two Oxford pro-
fessors 01 divinity, two divines from Cambrldire. and along with them Mr Patrick,
Galloway, minister of Perth, In Scotland, maintained the Pnrltan canse. On tint
klng^o accession, the Puritans entertaining great hopes of release from the rigid
enforcement of ceremonies which galled their consciences, and of the reformat on
of abuses in the church, had addressed a petition to the king, know as the '* Millen-
ary Petition," because it was signed by nearly one thousand ministers in all parts of
thecountiT. Bt;it the king's Intention was not to comply with their wishes, and
the Hampton Court Conference seems to have been merely a device for making it
appear that their demands had been considered and found unreasonable. On the
first day of the conference (12th January 1604), the Episcopalians alone were ad-
mitted to the presence of the king, who demanded their oiinlon, which they gave,
on the third day after, in favor of the exlstliifr system in all the parts coraplufned of.
The king debated with them on some point*; and in the end. decided aj^ainst them
in a few minor particulars, thus maintaining the assertion of his own ecclesiastical
snpn*macy. as well as finding an opportunity for the display of his attainments in
theology, althongh in all that was most Important, his verdict was in th<lr favor.
On the 16th of January, the Purltens were called to the kind's presence, but along wit h
them some of the Episcopalians, when James debated keenly against the Puntans,
using language very unworthy of ti king or of a Christian, and according to his own
account of the matter, ** peppered them sooudly." On the 18th of Jaunary, both



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Hamvtar



392

parties were called In, and the royal jadgment Intimated, which was afterwards
annonnced in a proolamtition very adverse to the Pnrltans.

HAMSTER, {Crioetus)^ a genus of rodent qaadrupeds of the family Murtdae^ r^
sembling tbe tnie mice and ruts in their dentition, but having check-poiiches, and a
short hairy tail. The Common II. {Cricetm vulgaris) is a native of tlie north of
Europe and of Asia, ubnndaut in many parts of Germany and Poland, but not found
iu Britahi, and rare to the west of the Kn!ne. It is of variable color; although gener-
ally reddish gray above, the belly black, ttie feet white, and large white spots on tbe
sides, throat, and breast. It is larger and of stouter form than the common rat.
the tail only about three inches long. It burrows in dry soils, each iudiTidoai
making a burrow for itself, to which there are more entrances than one, and which
also contains several holes or compartments, one cf them Hued witli straw or liay,
in which it sleeps, and some of them capacious enough for the storing of large quan-
tities of gmiu or other provisions — to the amount of So pounds of com or a hundred-
weight of beans— whicli the animal carries thither in its cbeck-poucbee, and on which
It f^ds during the milder parts of winter, spending the most severe part of that
season in a state of torpid hybernation. It is a great pest to tbe farmers of the coun-
tries In wbich'it abounds, and the object of their unceasing hostility; but it is very
EroliAc, producing two or three broods iu the year, una sixteen or eighteou at a
irth. It feeds generally on vegetable food, as leaves, seeds, 4ftc, although ili» said
also sometimes to devour small quadrupeds, birds, lizards, frogs, &c. The 11. earries
away pease aud other l^umes iu pod, but shells them, and deposits only the edible
portion iu its store. Its labors aud depredations are all carried on by night. It is an
Qxtremcly fierce and puKnacions animal, and exhibits more than the pertinacity of
the bull-dog. The skms of h'arasters are of some value.— There are several other
smaller species of the genus, mostly Asiatic

HAN, tlie nsme of the most celebrated of the twenty-six dynasties of China
(20tt B. o. to 890 A. D.), founded by Kao-ten, whose accession to the empire Is
regarded as the commencement of Chinese modern history. The number and char-
acter of its heroes and literati are superior to most other periods, and to this day
the term SonnofUan is the favorite appellation of tbe Ciunese to themselves— the
most common term for Chinamen.

HA'N APER OFFICE, a branch-office of the Court of Chancery, from which cer-
tain writs are issued. The name Is derived from the fact that the papers aud writs
used to be kept in a hamper {in hanaperio),

QA'NAU, an industrious and flourishing town In the Prussian province of Hes-
sen-Nassau, Is situated near the confluence of the Kluzig and the MaJii, 12 miles
eart-noith-east of Frankfurt by rail. It is divided Into the Old and New Town, the
latter of which was founded, in 1597. by Protestant refugees from Belgium, who
introduced the manufacture of woollen and silkeu goods, which still flourishes.
The town of H. stands pre-eminent in Germany for its jewellery, and gold and sil-
ver wares, while it also curries on extensive manufactories of carpets, gloves, leather,
cards, paper, hats, cutlery, tobacco, and cigars. H. has broad and straight streets ;
the bafldfngs most worthy of note are the ancient castle ; a gymnasium, in which
the Wetterau Library is located ; and the electoral palace of Phllipp&rnhe, famed for
its orangeries, and once the property of Napoleon's sister. Princess Pauline Borghese.
Pop. (1875) 22,730. Iu the neighborhood of the town, and on the left bank of the
Main, are the baths of Wilhelrosbad and the village of Rumpenheim, with its palace
and gardens. H. is celebrated as the scene of the last battles which Napoleon fought
Iq Germany, October 30 and 31, 1818, when, in his retreat from Leipsic, after a biird-
fought battle, he totally defeated the allies.

HA'NCHINOL (Heimia salieifolia)^ a plant of the natural order LythamcB, with
lanceolate, frequently teruate leaves, aud flowers on one-flowered stalks. It is a
native of Mexico, and is much esteemed as a medicine for its very powecfnl sudo-
rific and diuretic properties. It is highly extoUed as an autisypbilitic

HAND, The. The genus Homo^ or Man, takes rank In the classification of mam-
mals as a distinct order, Bimana, In consequence of imin being the only animal
possessing two hat\dH. At first sight. It mlgtit be considered that four-handed ani-
mals—the monkeys, apes, aud their aJUes, which are i^aced by zoologists in the order



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OQO Hamrter

Oi/O Hand

OUADSUVAKA— were floperlor to those which posseis only two hands, but this ia
far from behig tbo caAe. None of these four liuuds ure adapted to the variety of ac-
tions which tlie hnmnn hand is capable of performhig, and ttiey ai-e all, lo some de-
gree, required for support and locomotion ; so that \vliile in the higher forms of the
qmtdmmana the extremities present an approximation in structure to those of man,
hi the lower they gradually lend to resemble the ordinary qnudrnpedal type. •* That,"
says Cuvier, ** which constitutes the hwnd^ properly so called, is the faculty of oj>-
posiug the thumb to the oilier flii^crs, so an to seixe npon the most minute objects
—a faculty which is carried to its highest degree of perfection in inmi, in whom the
whole anterior extremity Is free, anacan be employed in prehension." llie peculiar
prehensile povi-er of the human hand is chiefly dependent upon the length, power,
and mobility of the thumb, whicii can be brought hito exact opposition lo the ex-
tremities Of all the fingers, whether separately or grouped together.

Before describing tlie hand itself, we must say a few words on the upper extremity
generally, of which the band may be regarded as the essential part.

The general arrangement o( the liones of the arm will be readily understood by a
reference to fig. 1. The general plon of the osseous framework of the upper and
lower limb is very similar. The Atwienis or arm-bone corresponds to Ihe/pmur or
tbigh-lioue ; the lower end of the humerus is connected with the two bones of the
forearm, the radiwi and the tif»ia, which correspond with the two bones of the leg.
Then come the earpaX bones, the metacarpal bones, and the phalanffM, just as we
have tarmU bones, meiatartal bones, and phcUtmgM In the foot.

r. bD D ^

•\ QQQq-




QQ



jTig. I. Big. «.

Fig. 1.— 1, the humerus ; S, the radios ; 8, the ulna. Beyond the distal ends Of the
radius and ulna come the carpal bones, the metacarpal bones, and the phalanges.

Fig. 8.— Diagram of the bones of the hand, with the ends of the radius and ulna.
1, end of radius ; % end of ulna : B, scaphoid ; 4, semilunar ; 6, cuneiform ; 6, pisi-
form ; 7, trapesium ; 8, trapezoid ; 9, magnum ; 10, unciform ; It, 11, metacarpal
bones; 18,12. first row of phalani?es; Itt, 18, second row; 14, U, third row;
I, thumb ; u, forefinger, &c\ v, litUe-fiuger.

In fig. S (which we copy from Humphry*s ** Human Foot and Human Hand ")
we have a diagram shewing the way Tn which the bones of the band are
arranged, 'llie carpal bones (8 to 10 in the figure) are eight in number,
and are arranged in the wrist In two row& The first or upper row con-
sists practically of three bones (8, 4, S), the fourth (6) being regarded as
belonging to the class of Semmoid Bones (q. v.), and the second row of four
bones (7, 8, 9, 10} ; so that, excluding the pisiform bone (6), the carpal and
the tarsal bones correspond in number. As we commonly term the palm the frmii
of the hand, tlie tliumb becomes conventionally the outer, and the fittle-flnger the
inntr digit ; but according to the rules of comparative anatomy, and in order to
compare the hand and foot, wo ought to reverse these terms. Tne outer (8) of the



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394



carpal bones of the first row sopport* (through the intervention of 7 and 8) tiie
boncff of the thnmb and forefinger (i and u), and coustitntim wiih thorn WMwdtr
dlvinion of the hand. The inner (5) of tho carpal ))one8 bean* thn little, atid tlie next
(tiie ring) flnjror (▼ and ir), and coDBtitnte» with thuni the <nn«r diviaiou of the baud,
while tlie middie oue(4) bears the middle-finger (iii), and betongi* lo ihe middle div-
ision of the hand. We lilcewlse see from this flguref and lilcewise from fig. 1, that
the two outer bon3s (3 and 4) are connected witij th«) radins, wliilc tlie inner bone
(5) is connected (Indirectly by a thiclt ligament) with the ulna.

It is nnuccessary for us to enter into any anatomical details regarding the indi-
vidnai carpal bones. Collectively, thev are so arruuged that tlio carpiw preseota a
dorsal convex surface, upon which the tendons of the extonsor muscles of the
fingers plo}', and a palmar concave surface on which the tendons o| the flexor mnsn
cies lie. The several bones are joined to one anotlier— each bonn lieing united lo
three or more others — by a large extent of surface, and are girdetl togetlier by
Btrong ligamentous bauds. The wrist is thus a^^ strong as if it had itcen cuiistructed
of one solid piece of bone, while the slight gliding movements which occor be-
tween the severol bones, give it an elasticity which serves to break tho shocks ttiat
result from falls upon the hand. The uppermost surface of tlie first row of carpal
bones is convex, and this convex surface is received into a wide cup or socket,
formed by the lower articular surface of the radius, and by a ligament poatdng from
that bone to the ulna.

The metacarpal bones and the phalanges require no special description. like
the great-toe, the thnmb has only two phulauge?, while each of the other digits has
three.

Wo shall now notice the various movements of which tlie hand is capable. They
may lie divided into (1) the different directions in which the hand coiiectively can
be moved; and (2) the movements of which the hand itself, without reference to
the arm, is capable.

The Bcapula or shonlder-blade, with which tlio principal arm-bone articnlatea. fa
itself movable to a very considerable extent on the surface of the ribs on which It
rests. Again, the socket in which tho neariy spherical head of the humerus or arm-
bone liesls very shallow— not unlike the cup in the well-known toy enp^nd-baU-^
and the arraiigenieuts of the shoulder-joint generally are such as to permit so great
a variety, ana so extetisive a range of movements, that we are able to apply the
hand to every part of the l>ody. Titis freedom of motion Is due in a great degree to
the clavicles or collar-bones, which by steadying the siiould >r-blades, and keeping



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