James Orr.

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mere soles of wood with straps ncroan the instep to keep them on ; pattens were the
same, with iron rings to raise them from the ground ; but the galoshes were wooden
soles, usuallr with a joint at the part where the tread of the foot came, and with up-
per leathers like very low shoes.

By the term goloshes is now generally meant the India-rubber over-shoes which
were introducea into Great Britain from America about the year 1847 ; but it was
some little time after this before the trade in them had reached mnch importance, as
at first tbey were clumsily made, and of Inferior quality. However, maiulv by the
exeHions of the Hay ward Rubber Company in America, their qnaltty and appear-
ance were soon mnch improved, aud the demand for them increased rapidly. Many
mills for their production were then started in America, and several were also set
agoing in Great Britain, Fratace, Germany, and Russia ; but there are signs that
the tnde in these shoes is somewhat on the decline. In the populous disuicts of
Great Britain, at all events^ the demand for them now is not a fifth part of what it
was twelve or fifteen years ago. Their comparative cheapness, however, still facili-
tates tlie sale of them in the outlying districts, and in poor countries generally.

As these shoes are at present made, they keep the stockings constantly damp,
and the feet uncomfortable, by preventing the escape or the absorption of the per-
spiration. It Is a little strange, too, that even when the uppers are almost entirely
of some woven texture, and nothing but the sole of vulcanised rubber, they are not
wholly free from this fault. Most kinds of rubber shoes have their separate pieces
held together entirely by the adhesiveness of the rubber when treated by some sol-
Tent, snch as turpentine. There are therefore no seams like those in a leather shoe,
and this, taken along with the close texture of the rubber itself, is the cause of the
discomfort we have mentioned. Still, when well made, thev have several good
qualities, snch as their Imperviousness to damp, as wdl as their softness, durability,
and neatness. Leather suoes have become so costly, that one cannot but hope
something will be done so to improve those made from this remarkable material,
that they will at least retain their place as a partial subptltute for leather ones.

The largest and best-conducted manufactory for the production of vulcanised
rubber go^hes and other shoes in Great Britain, is that of the North British Rub-
ber Company at Edinburgh. Here the material Is prepared by processes which are
to some extent described under the head Caoutchoco. That is, the rubber is 0)
torn up into small pieces, washed, apd rolled together in graunlaW sheets. (2) It
is then mixed, by the aid of heated rollers, with the vulcanising inalerials, consist-
ing of sulphur, lithafge, lamp-black, pitch, resin, and sometimes other materials.
(8.) The final stage In the preparation of the material is done after the shoes are
made, and couidsts in subjecting them for nine hours to a temperature of between
900* aud 300* F. Rubber so Ireatetl is said to be vulcanised, for the properties of
which sec Caoutchouc. After the rubber is thoroughly mixed with the materials
we have mentioned, of which snlphur is the most essential, the so far prei»rcd
sheets of material are again roiled out between the heated rollers, till they are of the
required thickness for the shoe uppers. For this purpose, the rollers, which are fit-
ted into machines called calenders, are very carefully adjusted. The sheets for the
loles are made in the same way ; only, in their case, the rollers are so constructed



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nB to produco a certain breadth for the heels of an extra thicknees, ami to indent
the surface with grooves, to prevent slipping. Both soles and uppers for each shoe
are cut out scparutelT vnth a knife, since tbo material will not admit of a number of
these being cut at a time by dies, which, however, is done In the case of the linings,
as they are of cotton or wool, and will not stick together by pressure. Thin metal
moulds are used by the workmen for shaping the separate parts of a shoe-^ c, the
rubber parts. The calico or other linings are coated round the edges with some
strongly adhesive cement, probably dissolved rubber, and theu all the pieces are
rcndy to be pnt together.

Up to thl8 stage, all the work has been done by men, but women actually make
the shoes, a kind of work for which their nimble Angers are well suited. The lasts
are of hollow cast-iron, and the company has no less than 170,000 pairs of them.
Working with a number of lasts exactly the same, the girl first covers tliem with iha
various pieces of lining and insole, all of which are held together by the cement.
Ketuming agnin to the first one, she now puts on the various outer pieces of the
shoe, sticking them together nuiekly with a little turpentine at the junctions; and
then by way of ornament, still more quickly runs a small notched wheel along whem
the seams in a leather shoe are, to finish her work. A clever girl will make fifty
pairs a day : a very clever one, seventy. That is to make a pair of shoes in ten or
twelve minutes. The next process is to coat the shoes with a varnish which givea
them a b<*antlfn1 glos^, and it is one of the great aims of the manufacturers to excel
in this. FiuaUy, they are put on light iron frames, and exposed to the lieat of the
vulcanising chamber.

In the Iiidia-mbber works of Edinburgh, more than twenty distinct kinds of bootfl
and shoes are made, and their average production is 4000 pairs a day. Besides those
worn in Great Britain, large numbers are exported to other countries, especially
Germany, where, however, an inferior kind is largely made. For Norway and
Sweden, a kind with warm felt lining has lately been much in demand.

GOLPE, in Heraldry, a Roundel purpnre. It is sometimes called a Wovmd, See

ROUNDBU

GOMARTSTS, or Contra-Remonstrants. the name by which the opponents of tb<
doctrines of Armlnins (q. v.), the founder of the Dutch Remonstrants, were desig-
nated. The party received this appellation from its leader, Francis Gomar. ThTj
theologian was Dorn at Bruges, 80th Jannaiy 1568, studied at the unlversitiei
of StrasWurg, Heidelberg, Oxford, and Cambridge, in the last-mentioned ot
which he took his degree of B.D. In 1684. In 1684 he was appointed
professor of divinity at Leyden, and signalitted himself by his vehement an-
tipathy to the views of his colleague, Armlnins. In the disputation between
the Armenians and Calvinists, held at the Hngne in 1608, his seal was very conspio-
nous ; and at thg synod of Dort in 1618, he was mainly instmmental in securing th<
expulsiou of the Armlnians (rom the Reformed Church. He died at GrOuiugen io
1641. An edition of his works was published at Amsterdam in 1646. G., though
stiff and bigoted In the last degree, and more Calvinistic than Calvin himself, was ■
man of various and extensive learning.

GOMBROO'N, called also Bendxb or Bitndeb Abbas, a town and seaport of
Persia, stands at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, In the Strait of Ormnz, and opp(>*
site the it»lund of that nauie. Bender Abbas owed its name and importance to Shah
Abb&s, who, assisttfd by the English, drove the Portuguese in 1622 from Ormuz, of
Hormns, then a flourishing commercial town (ui the island of the same name, ruined
the seapori, and transferred its commerce to Gombroon. For some time G.
prospered abundantly, French, Dutch, and English factories were erected here, and
the population rose to about 80.000. A dispute among the natives, however, resulted
in the destrncUon of the European factories and houses, and only the remains ot
these now exist. Trade then almost entirely forsook G. ; it is now inhabited by
only alwnt 40U0 Arabs under a sheikh, who is subject to the sultan of Muscat, in
Arabia. The town is surrounded by a mnd wall ; its streets Are narrow and dirty.

GOME'RA, one of the Canary Islands (q. v.).

GOMO'RRAH. Sec Sodom and Gomobbar.

GOMU'TO, Areng, or Ejoo Palm (Arenga saccharifera^ Sagtterw RumphHf of



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BoroMtit oemti^tM), an important pa3m which grows in Cochin China and in tho in>
terlor of Java, Snmatra, Celebes, and Amboyna, on dry (rroand. The Mem is SO-
SO feet high ; fhe leaves 16—25 feet long, pinnated. The llowers are in bunches 6—
10 feet long; the fmit is a yellowish-brown, three-seeded berrv, of the size of a small
apple, and extremely acrid. The stem, when young, is entirely covered with sheaths
or fallen leaves, and black horsehair-like fibres, which i^vne in jrreat abandnnco
from their margins ; bnt as the tree increases in age, these drop oC leaving an elo'
gant naked columnar stem. The strongest of the fibre!*, resembling porcupine qniils in
tbkrknefff, are used by tlio Malays as siyles for writing on the leaves of other palms.
Bnt the finer fibres are by far the most valuable ; they arc well known in eastern
commerce as Oomuto or Ejoo fibre, and are much used for making strong corduge,
particnlarly for tho cables and stauding-rigfflng of ships, European as well as no'
xl^e. Want of pliancy renders them less fitfor runuing-riffging, /ind for many other
poipoees. They need no pre|)aratlon bnt spinning or twisting. No ropes of vege-
table fibre are so imperishable, when often wet, as those made of Gomnto fibre. At
the base of the leaves of tho Qomnio palm there is a flue woolly material, called
baro, much employed in caulkin;^ ships and stnfling cnshions. The saccharine sap,
obtained In great abundance by cntting the spadlces of tho flowers, is a delicious
beverage, and by fermentation yields an intoxicating wine {neroo)^ from which a
spiritnoufl liquor called brMtn Is'maAe. In Java, a brown sugar, much used by the
natives, is made by boiling the sap.

GONAI'VES, ft seaport of Haytl, with an pzcellent harbor, stands on a bay of
its 09in name, which deeply indents the west coast of the island. It Is 05 miles to
the north-west of Port Repuhlieainf formerly Port au Prtnott the capitaL

GCNDAR, a citv of Abyssinia, capital of the kingdom of Gondor or Amhara,
iflsitoated In lat IV 86' n., and 87° 2^' e., on an insulated hill at an elevation of
t4M feet above sea level, and Is 80 miles distant from the northern shore of Lake
Dembea or Izana (see Abtssikia). G. is the seat of the archbishop of Abyssinia,
and was formerly the residence of the emperor or Negus, At one time it had from
50 to 100 chtnxhcs and abont 50,000 inhabitants; its population numbers at present
about 7000 only, bnt the latest returns shew 44 churches, with nearlv 1200 priests,
besides numeruns monks and nuns. It is poorly and Irregniarly built, and resem-
bles a wood rather than a city, on account of tho number of trees surrounding the
booses. The palace, a square stone structure flanked with towers, is the roost impor-
tant ballding. There are no shone or basaars, all the articles for sale being exposed on
mats in the market-place. O. nas manufactures of fire-arms, sword-blades, knives,
scissors, rasom, shields, pottery, Ac ; and a considerable transit trade between
Masenah on the Red Sea and tlie south of AM'ssinin, in slaves, musk, wax, ivory,
cofEee, boneji Ac. The mean temperature of O., as observed by Rl&ppell during tho
seven mcmtns from October to April Inclusive, was 6»*>, and the lowest temperature
during that time was 53'09<'. A great qnnutlty of rain falls here. As late as the
middle of the 18th c. G. was ca{>ital of Abyssinia.

GONDOKORO, a town In the country of the Bari negroes, on the Upper Nfle, In
40 54' n., SI*' 28' e. It is a centre of the ivory trade, and before Its annexation to
Egypt by Sir Samuel Baker In 1871. was also a centre of the East African slave irnde.
A Catholic mission was establisheu here In 1649 under Dr Knoblecher, but was dis-
continued In 1858, owing to the unhealthiuess of the climate— sixteen ont of twenty-
four of tho missionarfes having succumbed to it during the short period of the
existence of the mission.

GONDOLA (Italian), a long narrow boat (averaging 80 feet by 4) used chiefly on
the cjinals of Venice. The prow and stem taper to a point, and curve ont of the
water to a height of at least 5 feet In the centre there Is a curtained chamber for
the occnpauta. The boat Is propelled by means of oars or poles by one, two, or
occasionally fonr men. The rowers stand as they row, ana wear the livery of tho
family to which tho gondola belongs.

The term gondola is also applied to passage boats bav4ng 6 or 8 oars, used in other
parts of Italy.

GONDWANA. the land of the (^onds, is a hlllv tract of Hindustan lying between
It" W and 24» 80', and in e. long, between 77<» 88' and 87« 20'. It occnples & some^



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what centra] position, sending its dnUnage at once nortliward into the Jamna, east-
ward throngh the Maiiauadi into the Bay of Bengal, and westward through the Tnpti
and the Nerbadda into the Arabian Sea— the water shed In some places attaining on
elevation of 6000 feet. So isolated a locality, besides beiug in itself unfavorable to
civilisation, is rendered still more so by tlie ext^*eme barbarism of the inhabitants,
who are regarded, with some appearance of pro^babilltv, as the genuine aborigines
of India. Certain It is, that the country has never really formed a part of any of the
great empires in the east

QCNPALON (Ital. gonfalont)^ an ensign or standard, In virtue of bearing which,
the chief magistrates in many of the Italian cities were known as gonfaloniers.

GONG, an Indian Instrument of percussion, made of a mixture of metals (78 to
80 narts of copper, and 23 to 20 parts of tin), and shaped into a basin-like form, flat
ana large, with a rim of a few inches deep. The sound of the G. is produced by
striking it, while hung by the rim, with a wooden mallet, which puts the metal into
an extraordinary state of vibration, and produces a loud piercing sound.

QONQORA, Luis Y. Arsoto, a Spanish poet, was bom at Cordova, 11th July
1661 ; studied law at the university of Salamanca, where he composed the greater
part of his erotic poems, romances, and satires. At the age of 45, he took orders,
and obtained a small prebend in the catheth-al oC Cordova. Ho was afterwards op-
pointed chaplain to Pliilip III., and died in liis native city, 24th May 1627. O.'s po-
etic career divides itself into two periods. In hX^J^rst or youtliful period* ho yielded
himself up entirely to the naturaltendencies of his genius, and to the spirit of the
uatiou. His lyrics and romances of this period are in the old gcunliio Spanish
style ; and in regard to their caustic satire and burlesque wit, are among the most
anmirable specimens of the class of poems to whlcli they belong. G., however,
wished to outdo all his predecessors, and to furnish something wholly new and un-
heard of; the result of which unfortunate ambition was the introduction of a new
* " ■ "the estilo eultOy or the "cultivated style." From this

Q.'s literary career dates. To popularise the eatilo crdto^
' Soledades," and the ** Fables of Pyramus and TWsbe,"

? reductions of the most pedantic and tasteless description, poor in invention and
bought, but rich in high-sounding pompous phrases, and overloaded witti absurd
imagery, and mythological allusions, expressed in language of studied obscurity.
In this >vay he became the founder of a new school, the GhmaoristaSy or Ctiltoriataa,
who even surpassed their master in the depravity of their literary tastes. The
most complete edition of Q.'s works is that by Gonzalo de Floreis y Cordoba (Mad.
1633). Some of his romances have been translated into German by J. G. Jacob!
(Ealle, 1767).

GONIATI'TES, a genus of fossil cephalopodous mol1usc4t, belonging to the same
family as the ammonites. The genus is characterised by the structure of the septa,
which are lobed, but without lateral dcntlcnlations. as In ammonites ; they conse-
quently exhibit, in a section, a continuous undulating line. Some forms >^ith sliglitly
waved septa approach very near to tlie nautilus, from which, however, they are at
once sepniated, by the position of the small and delicate siphnncle. which is on the
dorsal or external side of the shell. The lines of growth on tlie external sur-
face have a sigmoid direction. The siphonal portion is shorter than the sides, form-
ing a sinus at the back, as in the nautilus. Tlie last chamber, the one tenanted by,
the animal, occupies a whole whorl, and has besides a considerable lateral expansion.
The shells are small, seldom exceeding six inches in diameter.

This genus is confined to the Palteozoic strata: upwards of 150 species
have been described from the Ji>evonian, Carboniferous and Triassic measures.

GONI'DIA (Qr. goni, generation, and eidoa, an appearance), small green bodies
which In some cryptoganious plants serve the pnipose of reproduction, but ap-
parently after a manner analogous to that of bulbils in phanerogamous plants.
Yatber than by true fructification. It is not, however, certain that the bodies called
gonidiain dllfereiyKlasses'of cryptogamous plants ai*e all of exactly the same
nature. The gomoia of Lichens (q. v.) are found in layers In the interior of
the thallns. In some of the lowest vegetable organisms, as D^amidiaeeaSf the
gonidia are formed by the endochrome or contents of the cell breaking



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QonorrhoBa

up Into ffranoles, sometimes iuvested with cUIa, and mo^n; as zoospores,
at fii^t ^ibio the cavity of the ceil in which they aie form^^d, and aftcrwarda
wUhoQt it.

GONICKMETKR, ao iustrament for measuring the angles of cirstalSb The sim-
plest iufttrament Is that invented hy Caran}2:eaa, which consists of two brass raters
tnniing on a common centre, between wliich the crystal is so placed that its faces
coincide with the edees of tlie rulers, and the angle is measnrea on a graduated ore.
For large crystals this is suflBcieutly accurate, bnt as many minerals are fonnd crys^
tallised only in small crystals, and as small crystals of any mineral are generally the
most perfect, an instrument capable of measuring more exactly was required. Thd
one gpenerally In use is the reflecting goniometer invented by Wollaston, and im-
proved by Nan maun. This is a more complicated instrument, yet easy of appHcation,
and it will nieasnre very small Vystals with certainty \o within a single minute (^').
The angle is measured by the reflection of the rays of light from the surface of the
different faces of the crystal.

OONORRHCE'A, described also as Blenkorbhaoia by some writers, is the most
common form of venereal disease. It has been known from very remote times; It
is generally believed that the sanitary measures incnlcatcd in the 15th chapter of
Leviticus have reference to this disorder as occurring amongst the Jews ; and It was
described by the Grcelc and Roman physicians. It consists in an inflammation of
the mucous membrane of somepait of the generative orga|0, producing a mnco-
pnmlent or purulent discharge troni the diseased surface. Hence Its name of gon-
orrhoea, which is formed on the erroneous supposition that the discharge consists of
llic spermatic fluid, is unsnitable. and the attempt to substitute blonnorrhngia, which
slgiiifles "a flow of mucous matter," has l)ecii made. Although it is termed a vene-
real disease, It is totally distinct from Hypbilis (q. v.). Allhough gonorrhoea is, In
the great majority of c:ises, the result of direct contnglou from sexual intercourse
with a person who is similarly affected, there is no doiibt that a very similar urethral
discbai^ may orise from constitutional and other causes Irrespective of contjiglon,
as in scrofulous, gouty, or rheumatic subjects. Moreover it Is certain that this dis-
ease in the male may proceed from intercourse with a woman In whom no morbid
change of the mucous membrane can be detected by the ppeculura. Ricord, a
French physician of grefft authority In this department of medicine. Jays down the
proposition, that *♦ gonorrlKca often arises from Intercourse with women who iiave
not had the disease." DIday, another high autliorlty, malntainR "that from the
very fact of a woman having a discharge, no matter what its origin, she Is liable to
give a disrhorge to a man." English surgeons arc gradually taking a similar \iew,
and admit that gonorrhoea may be the product of other causes tlian a specific poi-
son. The fact of the disease being usually caused by impure Intercourse Is proof
of the presence and action of the poison, but is no evidence of that poison being of
a specific character; any poison capable of being generated by simple inflammation
l>elu|r probably suflicient to induce the disease.

Men are so much more Ilnble to contract this disease than women, that we shall
conflne our remarke to gonorrhoea In the male. The symptoms usually appear in from
three to flve days after exposure to contagion. The patient feels an Itching or ting-
ling sensation at the extremity of the urethral passage, whose orifice has an abnor-
mally florid appearance, and Is usually closed by a viscid, colorless secretion. Tlils
premonitory stage may last for a day or two, when there is swelllnj» of the parts,
and a thick cream-like pus exudes from the urethra. The passage of the urine Is ac-
companied by a smarting or scalding sensation, and takes place with considerable
diflk>nlty. In a contracted or twisted stream. At night, a painful condition of the
parts, known as chordce, and due to spasm of the muscular fibres of the urethra, is
apt to come on. This stage may last, with slight variations, for a space varying
from one to three weeks, its length depending on the patient's mode of life, and the
number of previous attacks, the first being always the worst, and each succeeding
one l)elng gradually milder. The disease having thus rcochetl Its height, gradually
subsides : the various inrmptoms abate In scv<*rity, and after a periocT of uncertain
length, tne discharge either ceases or assumes an almost entirely mucous character.
If it ceases, the patient may be regarded as cured ; if tJie raucous discharge continue,
it known aa guet; and It is only to this condition ttiat the term blennorrhagia la



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truly applicable Tills gleet often remains, In defiance of all treatment, for months,
and its presence often preys very unnecessarily upon the patient's mind, po as to
derange Iiis health, and to sn^est nnuecossary fears regarding the loss of his virile
powers. It is from patients of this kind, who cannot be persnaded that the dis-
charge is nnacconipanied by any fnriher mi£>chief to themselves (further than possi-
ble annoyance arising from tUe fact thtic they should not marry so long as any dv^
charge exists), and that it is sure In due time to cease, unless there is stricture or
some other excitiug cause, that advertising qnacks draw their greatest profits.

There are considerable diMci'cpaucies ot opinion amongst the highest medical an-
thorities regarding the treatment of this disease. Various quuck medicines, in the
form of prophylactic waslies, to be employed after exposura to possible contagion,
are daily advertise<l In cei-tain cheap and disreputable journals ; but as Dr Draitt
somewimt quaintly but very truly remarks: *' The only prophylactic to l>e relied on
is chastity ; next to this, sonp and water, followed by an alum wash." To these di-
rections he might have added, that the uriuo should be discharged as soon as possi-
ble afterwards, so as to wash out the urethral passage. If the patient apply for
advice on the first snsnicion of the disease, before any acute inflanmiatorv symp-
toms have set in, and If he can devote his whole time to his cure, lie should keep a
constantly recumbent position, should live on a farinaceons diet, avoiding meat,
wine, and beer, and the a&orl/re treatment should be tried. This consists in the
injection into the urethra, every tour or six hours, by means of a class syringe, of
a solution of two crains of nitrate of silver in eight ounces of distilled water. By
about the second dti^ the discharge will begin to lessen, and the use of the injec-
tion must be stopp<m ; and if any tinge of blood has appeared in the dlschai^c. the
remedy must at once be discontinued. If the diminution extend in a few days to a
total disappearance of the discharge, the patient is cured ; if a slight discharge con-



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 9 of 196)