James Orr.

Chambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 online

. (page 90 of 196)
Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 90 of 196)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


without fear." His death, at the moment when the rebellion had been crushed, ex-
cited the deepest sympathy and regret, not only in the army of India, but also
among the public at home.

HAVENS. See Habbob.

HAYER, a term used in Scotch Law to denote the person in whose custody a
document Is. It often happens that in the course of a litigation it is essential for
the court to see, or for one party to rely, on a document in the hands of a third party.
In order to get at the haver or holder, letters of incident diligence are issued,
which have the effect of compelling bhn to produce and exhibit the document, or
state on oath why he refuses to do so. The term Is not used In England, the same
party being merely summoned as a witness by being told in his gtibpceria that ho
must bring the document with him ; or, if there ia no trial, he may be examined by
commlMiion or under interrogatories.

HA'VERFORDWEST (Welsh, Hwl/ordd), a parliamentary and municipal
borough, seaport, and market-town of Wales, capital of the county of Penibrote,
and a county of itself, occupies a hlshly picturesque situation on the sides and at
the foot of several steep hills on the West Cleddan River. 8 miles north-east of Mil-
ford, and a1)Out 270 miles west-north-west of London. It is well built, but Irregu-
lar, and is surrounded by several picturesque walks. When the Flemings settled
in the district in the reign of Henry L, H. was one of their principal stations. The .



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



CHAMBERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA



Hawick *^^

cavtie, tbo keep of which is sow used as the coonty Jail, was erected by Gilbert de
Clare, first t&n of Pembroke, in the 14th ceDtnir. The nave of 8t Mary's Chnrch
—one of the finest In Sooth Wales— is remarkable for the beauty of its roof-earring,
and fof its skilful constractiou and rich ornamentation. In conjnnction with the
boroughs of Fishguard. Narberth, and St Dayid's. H. returns a member to parlia-
ment. The trade of the town is inconsiderable. Pop. (18T1) 66i8.

HA'VERHILL, a city in MassachuseUv, United Slates, at the head of navigatioa
of the Meniniac River, on its north bank, 12 miles from its mouth, and 38 miles
north of Boston. It is a pretty town, connected by two bridses with Bradford,
and the seat of an active manofacturiug industry in boots and shoes (in which 8000
persons are engaged), iron, woollens, hut« and caps, railway carriages, coaches, soap
and caudles, tinware, leather. In the colonial times it was a frontier town, and suf-
fered ranch from tlie Indians. Pop. in 1870, 13,092 • 1880, 18,47S.

HAVEEIS, Clopton, M.D.. an eminent anatomist and physician, who, after
studying at Cambridge and Utrecht, where heffradualedj settled in Loudon in 1887.
His <^' Ostcologia Novo, or Some New Observations of tne Bones and the Parts be-
longing to them ** (8vo, Lond. 1691), was long a standard work, and his name ift in-
delibly recorded In the annals of anatomy as the discoverer of the Haveraian canals
iu bone. He edited '' I'lie Anatomy of Man and Woman, from Spacher and Rem-
melin " (folio, Lond. 1691), and was a contributor to the '* Philosophical Trauaac-
tious.'' The exact date of his death is not known.

HA'VERSACK, a bag of strong coarse linen, in which, on a march, each soldier
carries his own bread and provisions. It iif borne on the left side by a strap paaring
over the right shoulder, and is only used in the field and in cantonments.

HA'VERSIAN CANALS. Sm Bone.

HA'VBRSTRAW, a town in New York, United States, America, sitnated on the
west bank of the Hudson River, 37 miles north of Now York City. Stooy Point,
famous in the history of the American Revolntiou, lies in this township. Steam-
boats and sloops carry on an active trade with New York, and there aro several
foundries and manufactures. Pop. of township in 1870, 6412 ; 1880, 0973.

HAVI'LDAR, the highest rank of non-commissioned officer among native troops
In India and Ceylon. In the Hong-kong Gun Lascws (a corps now disbandod), tue
havlldar received Is. 8d. per diem ; but m India his pay is somewhat lees.

HAVRE, Le, (a contraction of the original name, Le Havbb ds Notbs Dajoe
DS Qbaoe), the second town in the department of Seine Inf6rienre, France, and,
next to Marseille, the chief commercial emporium of that country, is sitnated on
the north side of the estuary of the Seine, in lat 40^ 89^ 16" n., long. \fi 6' 37" », and
103 miles north-west of Paris, reckoning in a straight line. H. has direct commnni-
catiou with Great Britain, Holland, Hnmbarg, Portugal, Mexico, Brazil, tTiiited
States, India, Ac It is the Port of Paris, with which it Is connected by a railway
184 miles long, and the continuation of this lino to Strasbnrg affords such facility
of communication with Germany, that the greater part of the trade of that count^
with America is carried on through Havre. For foreign trade, H. is the Liverpool
of France; it receives annually from 600,000 to 600,000 bales of cotton, nearly three-
fourths' of the whole quantity imported ; it also ships most of the exports to Amer-
ica, and, generally speaking, possesses about one-fifth of the whole trade of the
country. The sum-total of its imports and exporti» is about 2,000,000,000 francs
(je80.000,000.) Customs receipts ha 1874, jGS27,300. The imports consist Of cotton,
species, coffee, tea, sugar, timber, coal, Ac ; and the exports of French manufac-
tured goods, of wine, rtrundy. oil, jewellery, provifiiiona, dsc In 1870. 8468 vessels, of
2,516,898 tons, entered, and 6707 vessels, of 1,886,162 tons, cleared the port. About
600 vessels belong to Havre. H. also possesses manufactories, sulphuric add, to-
bacco, cotton goods, starch, Ince, oil, machinery, ropes, salt. &c, also sugar-refiner-
ies ; the annual value of the manufactures being estimated at X2,600,000. Its bar-
bor is one of the most accessible in France, and is entered by a narrow channel
formed by two long jetties stretching from east to west, and which, owing to the cur-
rent, requires little dredging. This channel leads to the avantpcrt (outer harbor),
where the various passenger-steamers lie, and within this avant-port are capa-
cious wet docks, capable of accommodating 600 ships. The largest of these is



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE,



463



RaTerhiU
HKwiok

I/Eare, which contains 700,000 eqnare feet. Among the dry dock?, one recently
completed, 615 feet long nud 112 broad, iaa stapendoos work, and obviates the neces-
sity for sending large steamers for repairs to Sootbampton. A new basin Itns been
coustracted in the pHiln of the Leare. measaring aboat 63 acres. H. was, till lately,
sarroauded by ramparts and lofty walla ; bnt these were demolistud, to admit of the
eztensiou of the town, which has now absorbed the neij;hborin£r commanea of In*
gonriUe and Graville ]*Heare, and uambers (1872) 81,786 iubabftants. Among the
pablic bolldings muy be noticed the chnrcbes of Notre Dame and St Francis, the
new City Hall (bnllt in the style of tlie Tnileries), the tower of Frauds I., JBzchunge,
MaDslon-hoase, Arsenal, barracks, and a number of elegant villas which clothe the
slopes o< IngonTiile. The principal institutions are a Royal School of Navigation, a
School of Applied Qeometry, ana a Uhrury containing 90,000 yolumes. The greater

Srt of the town is modem. H. was founded in 1509 hy Louis XII., on the site of a
hing-Tillage. and was intended as a harbor of refuge for the French navy. It was
E»tJy extended and improved by his Hnccessor. Francis I., and from his time rap-
y rose in importance, especially as the rival harbor of Uurflcur was being grad-
uauy silted nn with sand. The names of Richelieu, Colbert. Vuubau, Napoleon, Ac,
are connectea with the improvements uud additions made to the original harbor. It
was bombarded by the British in 1694, 1760, 17M, and 1795. Under Lonis XIV., it
became the entrepot and chief seat of operations of the French East India and the
Senegal and Guinea Companies. It is celebrated as the birthplace of Mademoiselle
Scudery, Bemardin St Picire (author of "Paul audVtrgiulA'0*and Caelmir Dcla-
Tigne. The statues of the last two arc placed iu front of the library faoiug the harbor.
HAWAFL See Sandwich Islamss.

HA'WASA, or, more property, Anssa. formerly an important, but now a de-
cayed town of Eastern Africa, capital of ttie country of Adal (q. v.), is situated on
the Hawash, In lat. lio 80* n. and Ions. 41o 46' e. It is still the seat of some traffic,
a perpetual fair or market being hetd here, at which salt, blue calico cloth, and the
produce of the soil, are said to oe tlie chief articles of sale. About H., however,
bttle baa yet been ascertained. Pop. estimated at between 6000 and 0000.

HA'WASH, a considerable river of Abyssinia, has its origin near the south-
western border of the Shoa territory, in lat. about 90° n., and long, about 88** e. It
flows in a general north-east direction, forming throughout three-fourths of Its
course the southern and eastern boundary of Shoa, and scparatlne that country from
the districts Inhabited hy the Gallns tribes. It then flows through the territories of
the Mndaito tribes, and falls Into Lake Aussa, in lat. ll** 86' u., and Ions. 41o 60^ e.
The name ot the country of Abyssinia (called Habcsli by the Arabs) probably
originated in that of the river.

HAWFINCH (^occothra^tiUa vtilgaris). a bird of the Grosbeak (q. ▼.) genus, and
tbeflnch family {Fringillidat). It is considerably larger than the cbafflncli ; the ndnlt
male has the crown and back chestnut brown, the neck and rump gray, the wIdkb
partly black, the larger wing-coverts white. The H. is a very shy bird, avoidhig
man, and therefore often unobserved in districts where it is by no means rare. It
is gregarious. It lives cliiefly in forests, Duiids its nest on the highest branches of
tr^Sy and feeds very much on beechmast and the kernels of the haw. plum, clicrrr,
^c. Tt is not uncommon in some parts of England, but It is rare in Scotland. It is
widely diffused over Europe and the temperate parts of Asia.

HARWICH, a Irarsrh of barony and a considerable manufacturing town in the
south of Scotland, inthe county of Roxburgh, is aitnated at ttie confluence of tlie
Tevioi and the Slltrig, 10 miles south-west of Jedburgli, and 68 mllca south-east of
Edinburgh by railway. Some of tlie churches and bank-offices are elegant modem
baildinga ; many elegant mansions and flue villaa have sprung up within recent years,
and several new streets are models of neatness. The town contains several relics
of antiquity worthy of mention. Among these are the Tower Inn, part of which
was an ancient fortress, and the residence of the barons of Dmmlanrig. the snpe-
liors of the town ; and the Moat, a circular mound supposed to have tocu used in
remote times both as the place of assembly and deliberation of the neighboring chiefs,
and as the seat of the aominlstration of justice. H. carries on the manufacture of
TweedB (q. v.) on an extensive scale, and has long been known as a principal aeat of



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



CHAMBERS' ENCYOLOFJEBIA



Hawisa AClA

Bawks ^^^

the hosiery roannfactnre in Scotland. The Tweed-tnde fia8 greatly increased In
importance of late years, and besides the mannfactnrers, resident wholesale mei^
chants are largely engaged in it. The stocking mannfactnre was commenced in
1780. Plaids, shawls, Dlankets and leather ore also manntactnred in the town. Aboot
800 power and 100 hand looms are employed. The exchange is a large and hand-
some boUding erected in 1866, Id which year the formerly defective water-sapply was
made excellent by the introduction of the Allan, a monntain bom which joins the
Teyiot 5 miles above the town. The ancient monicioal constitatlon of the bacgb,
founded od a chatter granted by James DongUu of Dmmlanrig, and conflmied by
Qneeu Mary, was reformed by special act of parliament iu 1861. The corporation
now consists of fifteen councillors, elected by jSA householders, llie couih^ ek«t
a provoi>t and four bailies from their number, as iu royal bnrghe. H. now forms
oue of the three Border burghs, which together retom a member to poriiament. Yxsp,
(1871) 11,365.

HAWI'ZA, a large and Important Arab town of Persia, in the province of Kbns-
istan, is situated in Tat. 81o 15' n. and long. 480e., 80 miles south-west of the city of
Shuster. Previous to 18S5, the river Kcrkhah flowed through the town from east to
west ; but a canal having been made to irrigate a tract of conutry on the north side
of the river, and whose level was lower than that of the vicinity, the waters of the
river burst through the new opening, and are now lost iu a marsh, 15 miles north
of UAwiza. I'he inhabitants of the town can now obtain water only by digging
wells in the old bed of the river. Pop. estimated at W,000.

HAWK, a terra often applied to almost all the JFWconitfoe, except the lax^gest
eagles, but also used in a more restricted sense to designate a section of the family,
reckoned among the {(ftiobU birds of prey, having the wings so short as not to ex-
tend to the extremity of the tail, and the bill short and curviug from the base. In
many of their characters and habits, however, Uiey make a very near approach to
the true falcons. The species are numerous, ai'e arranged in several genera, and
are distributed over the world. Examples of two of the most important genera are
the Goshawk (q. v.) and Sparrowhawk (q. v.) of Britain.

The Hawk frequently occurs as a charge in Heraldry, and may be belled^ j&stai,
and varvelled. The hawk^a Mlj itaelf used as a separate charge. Is attached to a leg
of the bird by jesses or thongs of leather. Varvels are rings attached to the end of
the josses. The hawk's lure, also a heraldic charge, conrfsts of two wings joined
with a line, to the end of which is attached a ring. The line is sometimes ttotetd or
knotted.

HAWKERS, or Pedlars, or Petty Chapmen, persons who go from town to town,
or door to door, selling goods, wares, or merchandise, or exercising their skin In
handicraft. A considerable change has been made by recent legislation In regard to
this class. Those pedlars exercising their calling entirely on foot have been sepa-
rately dealt with from hawkers who employ one or more beasts of burden in ttieir
business. The foot pedlars are placed nuder the surveillance of the police, and are
exempt from excise auty. 8!nce January 1, 18T2, any person whatever wliocan sat-
isfy tlie chief officer of police of the police district in which he resides, that he Is of
good character, is above seventeen years of age, and has resided during tl»c pcevfoas
month in the district, will receive, on due application, a certificate valid for a year,
on payment of five shillings. Such certificate entities the holder to exercise his call-
ing in the particular police district only : but should he desire to extend his traffic to
another police district, he can. by satiafyhog the chief ofllcer of tliat district of hia
good character, receive an indorsation on his certificate, rendering it valid for that
particular district also, on payment of sixpence. The poJice have power at any time
to open and search the packs, &c of any certificated pedlar, with a view to prevent
dishonesty and smuggling, &c., for which they have much opportunity. They liave
an appeal to the local Justice of Peace and other courts against oppression by the
police.

Hawkers or pedlars who use beasts of burden are in a diflfereut category. Any
person may become such by merely taking out an annual or half-yeariy license from
the excise, and there is no limit of the locality, the lieense being valid all over the
kingdom. These licenses are at the rate nf £i per annum for each beast of burden
usvo In the trade. He is in no case entitled to sell spirits, but he may sell tea and



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE.



465



Hawiza
Hawks

coffee. He nnet not sell plated goods wtthont taking out a platellcense, nor mnst ho
sell by aactfon withooi an aacttoneer's license. Any person hawking nnprovlded
with a license, or who rcfases to prodnce the license to any person who calls for it,
is liable to severe penalties. Commercial travellers, book agents, seliers of vege-
tables, fruit, fish, or victaals, also sellers in fairs cr markets leg^Iy established, do
not require either licenses or certificates, though it mnst be sometimes difficult to
define whether a seller comes within the category of a pedlar or hawker (84 and 85
Vic c 9« ; 29 and 30 Vict c. «4).

The reason why the state iroi>08e8 this tax on hawkers is, that they have great
advantages over regular shopkeepers, as they pay no rent, and often interfere with
the natural course of dealing at shops. *

HA'WKESBURY, a river of New South Wales, in Bast Australia, enters the
Padflc at Broken Bay, about 20 miles to the north ot Sydney. Its entire coarse does
not exceed 60 miles, the dividing ridge of mountains being here very near to the
coast. Pitt Town, Wilberforce, and Windsor are situatrd on its banks, and it is
navigable from the sea to four miles above the last- mentioned pbice. The H., even
In this land of floods, is remarkable for its inundations. In 1808, the water rose 88
feet ; and in 1344, it rose 80 feet in a few hours.

HAWKINS, Sir John, an English navigator, was bom at Plymouth about 1520.
He has the infamous disunctiou of being the first Englishman that trafllcked in
alaves. His *' commercial '' career ended in 1568, after which we find him more
honorably employed. He was appointed treasurer of the navy in 1573. knighted foi
bis services against the Spanish Armada in 1588, and for the rest of his life was en-
caged in malung havoc of the Spanish West Indian trade. In 1605, along with his
kinsman, Drake, he commanded an expedition directed against the Spanish settle-
ments in that (Mrt of the world, but died, November 21, in the same year. H.
founded a hospital at Chatham for the relief of disabled and sick sailors.

HAWK-MOTH, a name sometimes used to comprise all the lepidopterons in-
sects of the section Crtjmaeularia, the Liuusean genus Sphinx, They have a spine
or stiff bristle on the anterior edge of eacli of tlie liiHtl-wings, and these being re-
ceived in corresponding books cm the under-side of the fore-wlugs attach them to-
ffether. Their wings are generally covered with a looser down than those of butter-
flies. The body is rather largeand thick. Notwithstanding the name CreptueulariOy
signifying that their period of activity is that of twilight, and which is truly
characteristic of the greater number, many of them may be seen darting from flowet
to flower even at mid-day, or hovering over flowers, from which they suck the honey
by their long proboscis. They make a lotid humming noise with their wings, and
are insecta of very rapid and powerful flight. Their caterpillars have always 16 feet.
A peculiar position which the caterpillars often assume has led to the name Sphinx^
because of a fancied resemblance to the sculptured monster of E^pt Their cbr}"-
salJds are <nrlindrical, free from points and angular prominences, bluut-hcaded, with a
conical abdomen, and are sometimes enclosed iu cocoons, sometimes concealed in
the earth.— The name Hawk-moth Is sometimes limited to a division of the Crepuscu-
laria, of which tlie genus Sphinx, as now restricted, Is the type, and of which the
Death's Head^Moth (q. v.) is an example. Their caterpillars are smooth and elon-
gated. The name Hawk-moth appears to be derived from the hovering motions of
these Insects, resembling those of Hawks looking for prey.— Many Hawk-moths arc
natives of Britain; they are more abundant in warmer climates. Some of the
species have^ wide geographical range.

HAWKS. Francis Lister, D.D., LL.D., American clergymen and author, was
bom at Ncwoem, North Carolina, June 10, 1708 ; educated at the university of North
Carolina; admitted to the bar in 1S17; in 1810, elected to the state legislature; but
being drawn to the church, he was ordained, in 1827, a clergyman of the Episcopal
Church, and was engaged at New Haven, Philadelphia, andSt Thomas's Church in
New York, until 1848. During this period he was appointed historiographer of the
Episcopal Church in America, and visited England in search of documents. In 1887,
he founded, with Dr Henry, the " New York Review," and established St Thomas's
Hall, a high school, at Flushing, Long Island, which involvetl him in heavy pecuni-
ary liabilities, charges iMtsed upon which were brought against him on bis election



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



CHAMBERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA



466



Ha w k tt gt
Har

in 1848 as Bishop of MfsslsalppL He was acaoitted of the cliarges bronght agatnat
him, bul declioed the bishopric. lu 1844, he oecanic rector of Christ's Clrarch, in
New Orlenns, and president of the QDiversity of Louisiana. lu 1S49, he declined the
bishopric of Rhode Island, and became rector of Calvary Chnrch, New York. In
this busy career he pobiished "Reports of the Soprerae Court of North Carolina"
(4 vols., 1823—1828), "Coutribntlons to the Ecclesiastical History of the United
States" (2 vols., 1836— 1840) ** Egypt and its MouuraenU" (18»), •^Auricular Con-
fession in the Protestant Episcopal Church *' (1860), a translation of Rovcro and
Tschudi's ** Antiquities of Peru " (1S54), and edited the papers of General Alexander
Hamilton, biographical works, several juvenile books, " Comn»o<lore Porrv»a Ex-
pedition to the China Seas and Japau In 1||S)<— 1854,** and a portion of a ** History
of North Carolina." He died in New York, September «7, 18M.

HAWKSBBE, or Hanksl)ee, Francis, a natural philosopher of considerable emin-
ence, was born in tho latter tialf of the ITih c, and died about 1780. He was
admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1706, and was appointed to the oAce of
curator of experiments to the Society, and in 17)tS be was elected asslstant^secretary.
Ho contributed 48 memoh*s to the ** Philosophical Transactions," chleflv on chemis-
try and electricity. Of his experiments in the latter department, Hr Thomton, the
historian of the Royal Society, observes, that " they constitute the beginning of
the science, and by drawing the attention of philosophers to that particular sabjecL
were doubtless of considerable service in promoting electrical iDvestigationa.^
All these memoirs appeared between the years 1704 and 1718. His chief inde-
pendent work was pnuiished in 1709, and was entitled, ** Fhvsico-Mechanlcal Ex-
periments on various Subjects ; touching Light and Electricity producible on the
Attrition of BodleA." He Is perhaps best known for his improvement of the earlier
air-pumps of Boyle, Papin, and Hooke (a subject fully discussed in Wilson's '* Re-
ligio Chemlci," pp. 816—218), and for being the flrM who used glass in the electrical
machine.

HAWEWEED (HieraHum\ a genus of plants of the natural order OomfotUm,
sub-order Ciehoraeem. The species are annual, or more generallr perennial plants,
some with leafless scapes, one-fiowered or roauy-flowered, and some with )mtf
stems ; the leaves, stems, and involucres in many species being hairy. They are
very numerous, natives of the temperate and colder regions of the northern hemis-
phere, particalarly abounding in Europe. A numtier are natives of Britain, and
some of them are very common plants. The flowers are generally yellow, but the
Orange Hawkweed (H. aurantiaeum)^ a native of the south of Europe, and doubt-
ful native of Britain, is often cultivated in gardens for its rich orange flowers, tt
is a perennial, about two feet high.

HAWSE, the situation of the cables In front of a ship's bow, when she is
moored with two anchors out forward— one on the starboard, the other on the port
Ik>w. The term is also used to denote any small distance ahmd of a ship, or be-
tweeu her bow and the anchors at which she rides ; as, for instance, when it is said
of another vessel, '* she sailed athwart our hawse," or ** she anchors in our hawse."
When the two cables pass directly to their anchors, without crossing or chafing at
tlie futwae-holea by which they enter the ship, the vessel is said to nave a "clean
hawse."

HAWSER. See Ropk.

HAWTHORN, {Craiaig%ino»vacaifUha ; see CBATiSaus), a shnib or small tree, a
native of Europe, Siberia, and the north of Africa, common in Britain, and much
planted both for hedges and for ornament It varies in height from six or eight to
twenty or twent v-flve feet. It has roundish obovate 8— 5-Iobed deciduous leaves, and
corymbs, generally of white. roiuM^olored, or sometimes deep crimson flowers, suc-
ceeded by a small red fruit (A/itoM), with vcllow pulp, the central stony part bearing a



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 90 of 196)