James Orr.

Chambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 online

. (page 91 of 196)
Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 91 of 196)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

very large proportion to the pn Ip. The fruit remains on the tree after the leaves have
fnllen,and affords winter-food for birds. There are many varictlee of H., and cnrionsly
enough, some have only one stylo, whilst some liave several. The variety called
Glastokbubt Thobn— because supposed to have originated at QUistoubnry Abbey
—is remarkable for its eariy flowering, which often takes place in the middle of
winter, whihit the common kind is not in flower till May or Jone. The winter

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Hay •

flowers of the Olastonbary Tariety are, howerer, not geuenUly followed by f rolt, nnd
a tecond flowpring often takes place iu the eaine year. The coininou U. is often
popalarly called Mayt from the season of its flowering iu England. It is also called
Whitethorn^ in contradistinction to the Sloe or Blacl&thom. The use of tbe H. foi
hedges & almost oniTersal iu Britain. It is also sometimes employed as a stock on
which to graft apples and other Pomaceof, It attains a great age, and in its more
ad?ai«ced stages, is a tree of slow growth, altiiongb, when young, ii shoots np
rapidly. Ilie wood is vei^ hard, close-grained, and takes a flue polish, but is opt to
warp. A fermented llqaor, which is very iutoxicaiing, is maoe from Uie fruit iu
many parts of France.

The H. is particularly Taluable as a hedge-nlant. In consequence of its strong
and plentiful spines, its long life, aud its reuay adaptation to very various soils.
For this purpose, it is propagated by seed ; the haws are laid in a heap to rot, with
■ a mixture of sand or flue mould, aud in a year or sixteen months after, the seeds
are sown in groand carefully prepared by digging aud manuring with well rotted
manure. Tbe reed-drills are about sixteen inches ifpart Tbe young plantB are
kept clear of weeds, and the earth about them occasionally stirred with a hoe.
They often grow to the heisht of a foot or two feet in the first season. They are
commonly once transplanted before their final planting to form hedges. See Hbdob.
H. hedges bear trimming very well, and the natural dlsiKMitiou of the plant to
spread out above can be counteracted, so as to make the hedge as it ought to be,
widest at bottom ; but uuless the soil is very favorable, some of the planln are apt
to die, and form gaps, which it is by no means easy to fill up with fresh plants.
—Young U. plants are called quick* or quiekMU, because used to make living
(guide) fences.

HAWTHORNE, Nathauiel, an American author of distinction, was bom at Salem
in the state of Massachusetts, on JuIt4, 18d4. He was educated at Bowdoin Col-
lege, and after graduating there, he obtained a post in the Custom-house at Boston,
wbich he soon, however, threw up, and betool^ himself to literary woiic for a sub-
sistence. Ho wrote a number of stories for the journals, which he afterwards col>
lected in 1837, and published under the title of ** Twice-told Tales;" a second vol-
ume of which appeared iu 1851. In 1848 he took up hto residence at the charming
village of Concord, in a manse which had formerly been the dwelling of Emerson,
and which suggested the title of his next work, " Mosses from an Old Manse,''
(Boston, 1846). This sketch, in which he gives some interesting recollections of his
boyhood, first made his name known in Europe. In 1848 llepnbIi^hed *'ThoLib-
erhr Tree ; " and iu 1846, ** The Journal of an African Cruiser." After a three years'
residence at Concord, he again accepted a situation in the Custom-house at Boston,
and removed to that town. This, however, did not stop his literary work. •* The
Scarlet Letter" appeared in 1851 and was received with universal approbation, as
was likewise ** Tne House of the Seven Gables," published In the same year ; and
their author was at once recognised, both in Europe and America, as a man possess-
ing a true poetic spirit^ combining fine feeling witn a charming style, and displaving
a aecp knowledge of human nature accompanied by genuine humor. His ** Blithe-
dale Koroance " (Boston, 1858) may be regarded as a kind of autobiogniphv, so far
as it goes, being founded on passaues in his own life. In 1HS8, he received the ap-
pointment of consul at Liverpool, from his friend President Pierce, who had been a
fellow-student of his, and whose life he had written (" Life of Franklin Pierce,"
Boston, 1868). He resided iu Liverpool discharging the duties of his office for four
years, and afterwards went to Italy to recruit his impaired health ; a jonniev which
lumisbed him with material for his fantastic romance, "Transformation" (London,
1860), which is regarded by some as the best of his works. After his return to
America he published ^' Our Old Home" (1863), a sketch of Enghind aud the Eng-
lish. He died suddenly at Plymouth in Massachusetts, May 19, 1864. After his
death appeared **Septimins, a Romance of Immortality;" ** American Note-
Books:^ *» English Note-Books;" and **Freuch and Italian Note-Books" (1878).

HAY (Oer. heu, Dutch, hoy ; probably from the root of Oer. Aa««n, Eng. 7tew, to
cut), the stems and leaves of grasses or other plants dried for Fodder (q. v.) of cattle.
Throughout the grazing and dairy districts of England, and especially fn the vicinity
of krge towns, the bay-harvest is as important as the corn-harvest, aud a large

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


£?SSr 468

breadth of old pasture la auDnally cnt. Id Scotland however, little of this old nai^
nrai grass is converted into hay, and the crop consists mainly of clover and rye-
gra.«s. This reqalres less tnriiiug nud labor than the closer miccnlent iintnral grass,
and with twice tnmin^. and a week or ten days drying, will generally be fit for the
rick, Into which the Bugllsh farmer at ouce places it. In Scotland, the weather is
seldom sntnciently flue to fit the hay, within a moderate time, for a large rick, and
the practice is to put it, after a few days, in eorJbt, containing one or two hnndred-
weight, and thence, after another week, into what arc technically called tramp-ricks,
containing from one to two tons. From these It is transferred at any convenient
time to tlie rick-yard. This prncticc, alihongli almost miiverital in the north, is at-
tended with loss of time and labor, and, moreover, bleaches and dries up the hay,
giving it the appearance of straw, and preventing that gentle heating which Bnglisb
farmers desire both in their clover and grass hny. .

The management of the natural grasses of which most Bu^lsh hay consists is'
somewhat different, and the proces:« is seen in perfection in Middlesex and various
of the counties about London. The great matter— too generally overlooked in Scot-
laud— is to preserve the color and flavor of the grass ; and this can only be done by
keeping it constantly turned, and having It rnpidly dried, If possible, without the de-
teriorating washing of repeated rains. Artificial drying best attains this end, but
Is of coarse impracticable on the large scale. In the best style of English-hay-
making, the grass, after being cnt with the scythe or machine, and as soon as the
dew is off, is sbalcen and spread out by means of forks or of a Mdtn^machine drawn
by a horse. It is not allowed to He long exposed to the sun, but before evening, Is
dravni together by rakes Into irind-twos. which, if there is any prospect of rain, are
made up Into small heaps or cocks. It Is again spread out next morning, or on the
return of favorable weather ; and when the operations are expedited by wind and
fun, the hay will be ready for the rick by the second or third day. There is. however,
much difference in the time during which the hay requires to lie out; the bulk or
the crop and the auulity of the laud must be especially considered. When the grasses
are cut, as they suould l>e when in bloom, and before their seed ripens and their
stems get tough and hard, they contain the largest amount of moisture, aud require
careful making, but produce then the most nutritive aud palatable ha^. As soon
as it is thoroughlv dry, It should bo put at once into the stack or rick, and well
trodden down. A certain amount of heatinij; improves the flavor, and renders the
hay more palatable to every sort of stock, when, as is sometimes the case, It is Im-
perfectlv made, or picked up too soon, it gets overiieoted, and becomes dorit brown
or black, its nutritive properties are diminished ; it is, moreover, apt to disagree
with both liorses and cattle, aud can' only be profitably used when mixed with straw
and cut into chaff. Hay put together when damp from rain or dew docs not heat, as
when it contains an undue amount of natural moisture, but speedil v moulds. When
bay has been weathered and injured by repeated raiu8,it may be rendered more palata-
ble by scattering a little common salt over the rick whilst It is being built Throughout
Scotland, eight or ten pounds of salt to the ton is verv geuerainr used alike for the
clover and grass hay. In the midland and southern disiricts of England, the best
bay is genecally^got up in June ; but iu Scotland, little is carried until the middle
of July. When the crop Is good, and everything done well, the cost of hand aud
horse labor expended upon the hay before it la safely ricked will approach 20s. per
ton. The crop averages from oue to two tons per acre. Hay that has stood for seed
is tougher and less nutritive than that cnt earlier, for the sugar, gum, aud gluten of
the matured seed have been abstracted from the stems, which arc then apt to bo
little l)etter than straw. For milch cows, well-made English hay is deservedly

Krised; tmt good clover-hay is richer in albuminous matters, aud better adapted for
ortes and snoep.

HAYBOTE, in English Law, is an Implied right or liberty of a tenant to tidco
thorns and other wood off the land he occupies, to repair the hedges, gates, and
fcnrcH thereof. It also lacludes wood taken to make rakes and forks for gath-
ering hay, whence the name is derived.

HAYDN, Jopcph, a German compd^r, was born at the village of Rohran, on
the confines of Hungary and Austria, Slst March 178^ He was the son of a poor
wheelwright ; and manifesting great maaical talent, he was received, at the ac^ of

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


469 §5^

eight, into the chof r of the cathedral of St Stephen's, at Vieima. Here he remained
tin hill lith year, acqairiug a practicsl rather than a theoretical knowledge of lils
art, by singing the moalc of the best Italian and Gennau religioii» coropoeer». In
that year, howerer, bis voice broke, and be lo«t his place as a cliorister. He now
gave lensons in Vienna, played in the orchestra, occupied himself with composition,
and in this manner earned a maiuteunnce. At the same time, be stndied with ex-
treme care the ftrst aix sonatas of Emannel Bach, which bCd accidentally fallen into
his hands. His position, however, continued very critical, and he was on the verge
of starvation, when he had the gooil-fortiine to obtain as apopll a little girl, Signora
Martinez, who was being educated at Vienna under the care of the poet Metastasio.
H. embraced this opportunity of making himself acquainted witli the Italian lan-
goage. Subaeanently, Metastasia introduced him to the celebrated singer Porpora,
who employed him to accompany him on the piooo during his singing lessons, and
from whom be obtained (he tnstrnctioi; in composition he so anxioosly desired and
neiMied. In the latter part of 1750, he composed his first quartet for stringed iustru-
ments, and from this period his prospects rapidly brightened. In 17M, a certain
Count Morsin engaged him as music director and composer, ** with a salary of 800
florins, free lodgings, and table with his secretaries and other officials." About
this time, H. married the daughter of a hairdresser, who had been kind to him in
his days of penury. This marriage did not prove a happy one. " It is nothing lo
her," said H. near the close of his life, '' whether her husbaiid be a cobbler or an
artist." Her sole ambition was to squander H.'s earnings. In 1760, Prince Ester-
hnsy placed him at the head of his private chapel. For him H. composed his beau-
tiful symphonies (a style of composition in which he greatly exc<>lled all lils
predecessors), and the greater number of bis magniflcent quartets. While in this
situation, his patron conceiving the design of dismissing the band, H. composed
the famous symphony known as ** Haydn's Farewell," m which one Instrnment

after another becomes mute, and each musician, as soon as he has ceased to play.

Suts out his light, rolls up his music, ond departs with his instrument It is saia
lat hi consequence the prince changed his mind, and did not dismiss the baud.

After the death of Prince Eslerhazy, in 1790, H. nccompanied Salomon the violinist
to England, where, in 1791—1792, he prodnced six of his '* Twelve Grand Sympho-
wies.**^ His reception was brilliant in the highest degree. In 17S4, he made a second
engagement wilh^Salomon for Engloud, ana during tlils period brought out the re-
maining six symphonies. In England, he first obtniiied that recognition which
afterwards fell to his share in his own country. On his rctnm to Austria,, he pur-
chased a small house with a garden in one of the suburbs of Vienna. Here he com-
posed his oratorios, the ♦* Creation "and the " Seasons." The former work, the
harmonies of which are pcr\nded with the fire of youth, was written in his sixty-
fifth year, and Is cOLsidored by many to lie equal to the finest productions of Handel ;
the ** Seasons " (completed in eleven months) was almost his last work. He died at
Vienna, Slat May 1809.

Although IT. composed slowly and very carefully, his works are exceedingly numer-
ous, comprising 118 symphonies, 88 quartets, 24 trios, 19 operas, 5 oratorios, 168 pieces
for the baritone, 24 concertos for different instruments, 15 masses, 10 smaller
church-pieces^ 44 sonatas for the pianoforte, witli and without accompaniments; 1^
German nnd Italian songs, o9 canzonets, 13 hymns in three and fonr parts, the linr-
XJiouy and accompaniment to 866 old Scottish songs, besides a prodigious number of
dhertlssements and pieces for various instnimeiits.— Compare Grleslnger, *' Bio-
graph ische Not izen nber Haydn" (Leip. 1810); "Viede IlHydn " (Paris, 1817);
Qrottser, ** Biographische Notizen fiber Haydn " (Hirschb. 1S26) : '* Pohl, Joseph
Hardn " (Part 1 1876).

HAYDON, Benjamin Kobert, an English painter, was born at Plymouth, Janu-
ary 86, 1786. He <>xhil)ited his first picture at the Academy in 1807. '* Joseph and Mary
resting with our Soviour after a Day's Journey on the Boad to Egypt," which found
apurchaser in the author of **Anastasiu8.'' It was succeeded by ** Dentatns." H.
quarrelled with the Academy about the banging of this picture, and his life there-
after was divided between patuting and controversy. His pictures brought liim
admh^tion, and his wilful temper procured him foes. As yeais passed on, tlie
admiratiou cooled, while the foes remained virulent as ever. At tliis period, he had
many patrons, and Us pictures brought large prices; his '^ Judgment of Solomon,"

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




for Instance, TOO rninefts. He miide Mveral attempts to be admitted an Associate of
the Academy, and when he was refnsed, he characreristlcally impated the ref osal to
the euvy aud iealonsy of the academician^ aud railed ogalost them more bitterly
than ever. Hia ereat work, ** Christ's Butry into Jerusalem," was exhibited by
himself in 1820, bat did not flod a purchaser. Nothing daunted, H. painted two
other subjects from the passion of the Saviour. In 1821, he married, and two years
thereafter he produced tne ** Raising of Lasams," in some respects the most pow-
erful of his works. This style of sabject— covering enormous can vaaes^not. hit-
ting the public taste, he became involved in pecuniary embarrassments, and was
flnslly incarcerated in the King's Bench, from wliich, after a time, be was released
through the assistance of bis friends. While in prison he painted the "Mock
Blection," which George IV. purchased for 600 guineas. Of his sncceeding works,
^ Napoleon Musing at St Helena'* excited admiration, and was freqneuUy repro-
duced. In 1336 he was again imprisoned for debt, and was released on a settlement
being effected with his creditors. At this time he forsook the brush for the plat-
form, aud his lectares on art in London aud the provinces brought him fame and
monev. a circumstance which only increased his rage at the Academy and the artis-
tte public When government determined to decorate the new Houses of Parlia-
ment with pictures, H. considered that the hour of his fortune had at last arrived*'
He engaged in thn competition and was unsuccessful. ' This defeat he never en-
tirely recovered. His kst works were ** Uriel and Satan," *' Curtius Lenping into
the Quif," aud somo others of a kindred nature. He exhibited two of his lateas
productions in 1848 at the Egyptian Hull, but the exhibition was coldly r^^rded by
the public. This was the drop which made the cup overflow. On June 8S of that
year, he died by his own hand. As a painter, H. exdted much temporary admir-
ation, but he does not now rank high. He delighted in classical aud sacred sub-
jects, and these modem English taste does not seem to affect See the ** Life of B.
K. Haydon," by Mr. Tom Taylor (1862) ; and *' B. R. Haydon, Correspondence and
Table>talk, with a Memoir," by his son, F. W. Haydon (2 vols.. Loud. 1876).

HAYES, Augustus Allen, American chemist, was bom at Windsor, Vermonti
February 2$, ISOtf: educated at the military academy in bis native town; studied
chemistry under Professor Dana of Dartmouth College ; and in 1826, distinguished
himself oy his researches into the proximate elements of American miodicloal
plants, discovering the organic alkaloid Sanguinarla ; and in 1827, investigated the
compounds of chromium. In 1828— having removed to Boston— in connection with
the growing manufactories of New England, he devoted himself to the chemistry of
commerce, of dyeing, and ttie manufacture of copper aud iron. Hi9 numerous
paper:) were published in the " Proceedings " of the Boston Society of Natural His-
tory, '* American Journal of Science," '* Annual of SclenUflc Dlscovcrv,*' &c In
1837, his investisatlous into the generation of steam and economy of fuel, led to the
constraction of improved furnaces and boilers. He also discovered the process of
reducing pig to raaJieable iron without loss by the use of the oxides of Ht)n ; new
processes in copper-smelting, the decomposition of alcohol, aud formation of chlor-
oform ; and the oxidation of alcohol in the humun system. As state assayer of
Massachusetts, aud in the employ of the Federal government, he made important
InveAtigatious into the properties of guano ; examined the constitution of sea- water
at various depths, aud Its effects on the coppcr-sheathing of vessels ; and by a
series of useful studies aud experiments has added to the national wealth and the
domain of science.

HAYES, Isaac I., M.D., American explorer, was bora about 1880, educated to tbo
medical profession, and appointed surgeon to the Arctic expedition under DrKane,
with which he retnmed to the United States in 1865, convinced that there existed an
open sea around the north pole, and anxious to head an expedition for its explora-
tion. In this project he was aided by Mr Henry Orinnell, by the American Geo-
eraphicai and Statistical Society, and by Sir R. L Murchison and the Qeograpbical
Society of London. In June 1860, be fitted out a schooner of 138 tons, and sailed
from New York ; July 6, 1860, penetrated to SSo 46' n. lat, making extensive ex-

Cations and observarions of the coasts aud their inhabitants, and returned to
ton October 1861. In 1867 lie published •* The Open Polar Ses, a Narrative of a
Voyage of Discovery toward the North Pole, in the Schooner United States;" in

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




recogDlHou of which he wns awarded a gold medal by the Horal Geographical So-
ciety of London, and a BiniUar honor by the Geogmpfaical Society of Paris. In I860
H. a^in visited Greenland, and explored the southern coastd of that country.

H AT'SSINE, or Borate of Lime, known also as Bobooaxxjitz, Htdroborocai^
oiTB, TiZA, &c., was named after the mineralogist Hayes, and remained a miueral-
ogical cnrioeity, until 1861, when a specimen was first exhibited ns a commercial article
in the collection of imports sent to the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park by the town of
Liverpool. This broasbt it into notice ; and it is now occasionally imported in very
lai^e quantities from ftie ports of Iquiqne and Pisagna Bay, in Peru. Owing to tae
absurd love of the Peruvian government for monopoliov, vast qnnotitiea of borate
of lime are comparatively useless, aa that which is received in Urirope is almost a.l
smuggled out of the counti'v in opposition to the government dectees. About 9000
tons have been exported altogetner, and its value in tbie country is about X80 per
ton. The borate of Hme is found in rounded nodutest rarely larger than a pood-
sized orange, imbedded in the soil at certain spots of the. Pampas of Tamarnga!,
and in the northern part of the desert of Atacama. It is always associated with the
nitrate of soda, which is so abundant in that locality. Its cliemical composition is
CaO,B808 + 6H,0 {Hayeti) ; or boraclc acid, 46-«8 • lUpe, 13-46; water 86-6T {Bechi).
It is used as a source of boracic acid in the manufacture of the borate of soda, so
extensively employed as a fluxing material for glazing pottery; in glaas-roakiug,
metallic soldering, &c.: the only other known sources being the boracic acid from
the Tuscan springs, and the borax and tincal from Tibet See Bobax.

HAYKAU, Julius Jakob, Baron von, an Austrian general, was bom in ITW, en-
tered the Austrian service in 1801, and gradually advanced in rank till in 1S44 he was
appointed fleld-marabal. During the Italian campaigns of 1848—1840, he signalised
himself by his ruthless rigor, especially at the capture of Brescia. H. was (^nguged
In the siege of Venice, when he was summoned dv the emperor to Hungary in May
18«k to take the supreme command of the forces in that country. The stormiog of
Bast), the advance southward, the occupation of Ssegedin, and the engageroenis on
the Tbeiss, were oil the work of Haynan. Bat his atrocious severity towards the
defeated Hnngarians, and especially bis alleged flogging of women (a charge denied
by H.), excited the hatred ana detestation of Bnropc. In 1860 he was dismissed from
the public service, not for his cruelty, however, but for the intractability of his dis-
position. In the same year he was brought into unenviable notoriety on the occasion
of his visit to the brewery of Messrs Barclav and Perkins during hie stay in Loudon,
when he was assaulted by the draymen, and barely escaped with life. For this insult
the British government declined giving any satisfaction. On snbsequentlj visiting
Belgium and Prance he was received by the populace with strong dislike, but bv the
vigilance of the authorities was preserved from actual insult. Baron SchOuhals, in
a bic^aphy of bis friend H. (Orfltz, 1858),' tries to exonerate him from the accnso-
tfon of being either constitutionally or intentlocally cruel, and useerts that ho oniv
acted in obedience to the orders of his masters. H. died at Vienna March 14, 1868.

HAYTI, otherwise known as HIspaniola or St Domingo is, after Cuba, the
largest of the West Indian Islands, now divided into the independent states of
Hayti, and the Dominican Republic (q. v.). It is nearly equldistnut from Porto Rico,
on the e.^nd from Cuba and Jamaica on the w., with the Caribbean Sea on the s., and
with the Bahamas and the open ocean on the n. H. lies In u. lat between 11° 87' and
SO*', and in w. lonff. between 68° 20' and 74° 28'. It belongs to the group of the Orearcr
Aniiiles. and. like all the principal members of its series, its ereatcst length (about
400 miles) is In the direction— from w. to e.— of the chain of which It forms a part ;
its greatest breadth is 160 miles. Area, Including the islands of Tortuga, Goualve. Ac,
about 28,000 sq. m., and the pop. about 760.000. 'The conntrv. as the native name im-
plies, is mountainons, being traversed longitudinally by a ridge which sends out lat-
eral spurs, terminating In headlands on cither coast. I'lie range is of volcanic

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 91 of 196)