James Orr.

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that the Dutch school has produced, waa bom at Utrecht in 1600, studied under his
father, and soon obtained immense suni^ for his pictures. Towards the close of his
life, he removed to Antwerp, where lie died in 1674. H.'s pictures represeut, for
the n)oat part, splendid vai*es of frnits and floweri», musical in8trunieuti«, and oma-
nients of various Iciud.-*. He painted a garland of flowers for a ceitain Jan Vnnder
Meer, who refns^Ml 2000 guilders for ft, but afterwards fcave it to the Prince of
Oniu^e^ who broDs:hC it with him to England. U.'s coloring is exquisite, and bis
riac of chiurogcuro uupurpa^suible.

HEEN, Chow, Ting, and Foo, Chinese geographical tenns U5ed to designnto the
relative rnnlc of cities and districts, //erti indicates the smallest division, although
its city mar be an important one; thns, Slianghai-hcen is a large city and district,
while the department in which it is situated, »ungkiang-/oo, to which it is subordi-
n:itc, is a smaller ))lucc. Qcuerally si>eakiiig, however, the turins designate the rauk
of cities, from /oo, the chief, to heeti^ the least in aizo.

UEERBN, Arnold Hermann Lndwig, an eminent Q«rman scholar, wa!« K>m
25th October 1760, ur Ari>ergeii. near Bremen, where his father was at that time
pastor, and received his education at the cathedral school of Bremen, and at the uni-
versity of GOtiingen. lie fir^t made himself known to the literary world by two
philological works— viz., an edition of Menaiider** " DeEncomiis" (GOttingen, 1785),
and tlie '' Eclogs Phyiticte et Ethicte " of Stobaeus (4 vols. OOttingen, 1792—1801). lu
preparing matt* rhUs for the latter of these works, he visited Italy, the Netherlands^
ana France, and by luterconrse with various learned men of these countries, ex-
panded and enriched ids mind. In 1794 he was appointed Professor of Philosophy,
and in ISOl, Professor of History at GOttingcn. He married lu 1797 a daughter of
Hcyne, and died 7th March 1842. His lectures io the university referred from the
very first more to Greek and Uomao antiquities, and to the hintory of the flue arts,
than to philology, strictly so-called. The latter, indeed, was flually quite thrown
into the background. In 1793-.'1796, appeared at G5ttiugen his ** Idecn OI>er Politik,
den Voikelir uiid dsn Handel der vornehmsteu VOiker dcr alteu Welt" (4th edit. 5
vols. 1824—1826). This work has secured him a place among the most eminent

fiotlern historians. If his " Geschichte des Sludinms der classicheu LiU>ratDr seit
em Wiedcraufleben der Wlssenchaftin " (2 vols. Gfitt 1797— 1S02) proved U-ss satis-
factory to scholars, his " GJeschichte der Sta:iten de* Alterthums * (Gdtt 1799 ; 6tli
edit. 1826), and bin **G«>schichte des Europ. Slaatcnsyaieins and seiner Colonieu"
(GotL 1809; 4th edit. 1822) abounded In new views and acute expositions. For his
*' Untersuchniigci' Db 'r die Kreiizziige," he received the prize from tlie National
Institute of France. His " Kleiue historischo Schrlften ^ (3 vols. G6tt» 1803—1808)
contain some very Interesting treatises. In 1821— 18i6, he published an edition of
all his hltitoricat work* (" Hisloriechen Werke") in 15 vols. H. was a member of
tiie academies of 8t PeterAbun;, Berlin, Mnnich, Stockholm, Dublin and Copenhagen,
and of the Asiatic Societies of London and Calcutta.

HEQEU Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, one of the greatest German philosophers,
was l)oni 27th August 1770, at Stnttgiirt, and became, in 1788. a student in the
Tttblngen theological institute, where his speculative abilities, liowever, were out-
shone by his yonngor companion, Schelling. After leaving the university in 1798,
he was a family tutor at Bern, and Frankfurt-on-tho-Malno for six years, during
which i>eriod he devoted liini:*elf chiefly to the study of Christ's life and the
i)hilOi*unhy of religion. In the bt^innlng of 1301, he left Frankfurt for Jena, where
he publlslied his first work, •♦Ueber d. Dlffercnz d. Ficlite'schen u. Schelling'scheii
flystoms" (1801), and entered tlio university as Privat-dtKent. Next year he joined
Bcli»IIIng, to whose philosophy he seems at this time to have adhered, In thetyiitor-
ehipof ^Doa Kritischo Journal fnr Philosophie." His lectures in Jena did not
attract much notice, but It was at ihia place, while the dbi of the battle in 1806 waa



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sounding throoKfa the town, that he completed his first Important work, ** Die
Pb&nomeooloffie d. Qefstes ^ (1807). which be nsed afterwards to call his voyage of
dtocorerv. Shortly before the Imttic, he had been made extraordinary professor of
philosopby ; bnt the disaster which that event brooght npon Jena compelled him to
seek means of snbelstence elsewhere, and he went, nccordinKly* at Isicthaminer's
reqoevt, to Bamberg, where he edited a political paper for two years. In 1808, ho
was appointed rector of the {nrmnaAlaro at Nuremberg, and there he bad jnst com-
pleted his «* Wissenschaft d. Loglk" (8 Bde 1812—1816). when he was called In 1810
to a profesporship of philow>pby In HHdelberg, where he pohlislied his ** Eiicyklo-
pidied. pblkMophischen Wisseuschaften " (1817; 8to Aufl. 1880), in which he first
developed his complete system. In 1818, however, he was cnlletl to FicliteV place
in Berlin, and it was here that he first began to gather around him a new philoso-
phical school. Hto lectures, whfcli were delivered in a stammering voice, and wltli-
oat rhetorical ornament, yet with the impressiveness of being the expression of
laborloiis thought, attracted hearers from all ranks and professions. He rose to
considerable political inflnenee through his ofllclal connection with the Prussian
government, and his philosophy in some respects lost credit from tlie general con-
servative tendencies of his administrntton. Still, in his *^ Rechtspbllosophie '^
(1881), he demands representation of the people, freedom of the press, publicity of
jfidic'ral proceedings, trial by jury, and the administrative independence of corpora-
tions. In the midst of an active life, he was suddenly cut off by cholera, 14th
November 1881, and burled beside FIchte. A complete collection of his works
was published In IS vols. (Berlin, 1S82— 1841), and his life written by RosenkrauK
(1814).

At first, as has been Intimated, H.'s philosophy started from the same position
as Schelllog's— the principle of the identity of knowing and Mng; but at an early
period he departed from Schelliwg's theonr. that this Identity can be apprehended
only tlirongh an intellectual intuition, of wiiicli the understanding c»n render no
acconct Carrying out rigorously the principle from which both started, as em-
bodied in the proposiiiun of Spinoza, that the order and connection of thoughts are
the same as the order and connection of things, H. songht to find the universal form
which characterises the process both of exi»'tence and iltought. This universal form
he rec<^rnised as the process of becoming ( Wftden). But the process of becoming
is only the nulon of position and negntion ; for all that becomes at once posits,
and by passing into soinethUig else, removes itself. Identical with this process is
the process of thought; for every thought involves its contradictory. Hut the contra-
dictory is not a mere negation, it is In Itself positive ; the conception of unity, e.g.. is
not more positive than Its contradictory, the conception of plnrnlily. Every thought,
therefore, as it Involves Its contradictory, adds to its own contents, and by the com-
bination of the two contradictories we rise to ul)*»olute knowledge. This process,
involving In it the thrt^e stages of position, negation, and the union of both, deter-
mines the method of H.; for according to this method, his entire cvstem is organi-
cally necessitated in all its parts lo a threefold division corresponding to the three
stages in the process of thought and existence. The point from which all knowledge
must start Is thought simply and hi itself, the science of which, logic, forms there-
fore the first part of this system. But thought pn^st^s into something other than it-
self, exists out of Itself In nature, and the philosophy of nature accordingly ranks as
the second part. Returning aga<n from ilse&trai)gemeiit In nature, thouglit becomes
conscious of itself in mind, and consequently the philosophy of mind forms the third
part. It would be profitless to gWe a mere enumeration— and nothing more could
ne attempted here — of the varmus subdivisions, in their degrees of subordination,
into which ttiese three erand divisions are separated. For an account of tlie nyptem
consult, besidt*s the ordinary histories of philoi«op»»y, Yera's •♦Introtliiction ft la Phi-
losophie de Hegel " (Paris, 1855), and llaym'j ** Ilegel u. seine Zelt" (Berlin. 1858).
For the EuKltoh student of H., Ur Hutchison Stirlhig's '* Secret of H." is luvaln-
sble.

Heaelitmism is commonly employed to tienote the direction of philosophical
specniatlon In the largo school which arose under the influeiic>* of Hegel. Ijnring
H.'s life, nnd on till 1841, when Schelling came to Berlin, He<relianism fonnd a very
efllcient organ in the " JahrbQcher fQr uissenschaftllche Kritik" (1891—1847, ed. by
nemiing) ; and through the iudueuce of the Prossiau minister, Von Alteusteiu, a



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large nambcr of the philosophical chairs lu the PmeilaQ nnlTersffies were »ecnred
for Het^elian professors. In the second grand department in(o which H. had divided
his system, the philosophy of uatnre, his specniations did not jrive tlie sauie iinpefns
to inquiry ns those of Scheiliiig had given ; but this may be accounted tor from the
consideration that the enthusiasm for physical investigations, which was nrins
when Scliciling's enrly specultitions appeared^ had renchetlits culmination before O.
began to attract norieo. In logic, al»o, owing to U.'s own exhaustive treatment,
little lius hcen done by his disciples, except in the way of ezplicatiou and aiiotogy,
of whicli SciiallcrV, £rdmann's. and Hinrlch's works on the science are specimens.
But in psycltology we find developments of the Hegelian principles by Koseukrunx,
Miclielet, and Brdmann ; in jurisprudence, by Gaus; in ethics, by Michclet;
in tcstlietics, by Vischerf Hinrichs. UotUo, Kosenkrans, Ruge, and Schnaaae;
in tlie history of pliilosophy, notwitiistaudiuff ll.'s own work, by Brdmann,
Miclielet, Uosenkrauz, Schwcgler, Zellur, &c In the pliilosonhy of re-
ligion, iiowcver, Hegelian speculation lias been more widely and powerfully
influential than in any other department; Daub, Marliciueke, Hostmkniux,
Conradi, QOschcl, Vatke, and a host of other more or less known writers,
joining with H. in seeking to elicit tlie, eternal n.eauing embodied in the historical
and symbolical forms ot Christianity. But as soon as Hegelianism readied this
sphere of speculation, it began to shew antagonistic tendencies. These became es-
pecially apparent tour years atli-r H.'s d^atii, in ihe controversy raised by Straosa'
^*Lcben Jesn" (1835), and continued by his ^^Christliclie Olanbensiehre*' aSM).
The Hegelians then split into three sections, called severally the right, left, and cen-
tre, according as they represent su|>ernaturulism, rationalicm, or a mediating mys-
ticism. Among ttiose of tlie extreme left, known also as the ** Young He«^elin^Mi,"
^nd dubbiMl by Leo with the feliciions but untranslatable diminutive '' Hegelian,"
the Hegelian phiisophy. which had l>efore been ecclesiaMticuily and politically cou-
dervative, became thoroughly radical. In 18S9, Ruge began to e<iit for them a spechil
organ, *'Die Hullesclieu Jahrbflcher," which was very influential among the yonth
of Qdnnany. but was prohibited in 184T, after liaviug l)eeu transferred to Leipsic
under the title of *' Ule Deutachen JahrbQctier." Weisse, Fichte (tlie younger),
Ulrici. Fischer, and Carrlere. were named pscndo- Hegelians, because, though retain-
ing a large element of H^'gi'lianlsm, tliey mtroduce at times an extnuieous metliod
and divergent results. Beyond Ocrmany, Hegelianism is represented in France,
in Itily, In Denmark, and in Sweden by numerous uhilosopiiers of note; and has
also exulted an im|K)rtant influouco ou British and American thought, especmllj in
the region of |>sycho!ogy.

HEOESrPPUS, the earliest of the Christian Church histoHans. He was bom
of a Jewish family in Palestine about tlie iMjginning of the 2d c, but became a
Christian at an early ago. and was a member of the Church of Jerusalem. He went
to Rome in the pontitlcate of Anlcetus, visiting upon Ids journey many churches,
and esiMJcially that of Corinth, where Primn* was bishop. He remained in Rome
till the death of Sotor (176), and is supposed to liave died in the year 180. It was
during Ills sojourn in Rome that l»e comi)Osed his history, in Ave books, en til led
"Memorials of Ecclusitistical AfiEuirs," which, however, appear not to have formed
a complete and continuous history, although they extend from the death of Christ
down to the writer's own age. Unhappily, the work as a wiiole, has perished, and
we know it only from some fragments which Eusebins has embodit^ ii. his own
History, and the most important of which are his account of the martydom of St
James and also of St Simeon of Jerusalem. Eusehius speaks higlilv of the dor-
trinal fldelity of H., and St Jerome, of the simplicity and purity of his style. An-
other work on ilie Wars of Ihe Jews (also in Ave books), ascribed to H., Is con-
fessedly spurious. The most complete collection of the fragments of his \vrilii»g«
is that of Uallandus in the second volume of his great collection. See also Grabe,
"Spicileglum," torn, ii.; and Fabricius, »*Bibi. GnEca,"viL 16«.

HEOPRA. See HsDJitAn.

HEI'DB, a small town in Prussia, in the province of Slesvig-HoMelh, Isaitnated
in Northern Ditmarsh, 83 miles north-north-west of Glnckstadt. It is a p)'*a8ant.
well-built town, with a largo market* place. The iuhabitanta are employed chieAy la
agricolture and general trade. Pop. (I$i5) G7i^



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HEIDELBERG, an aodent cHr of Oermany, in (be grand docby of Baden, Is
Bitnated on the left bank of tbe mer Neckar, in one of the moat beaatiful dia-
tricta In tbe coontry, on a narrow strip of gronnd belween the river on the north,
mid the northern extremity of tbe Oeipbei^ Mono tains on the aontb. It is 18
mileH sooth-cast of Man heim. and about 64 miles south of Fraiikfurt-ou-the-Maine.
The town ronsists mainly of. one street abont throe miles in length. Among its
moel important buildings are the Ciinrch of the Holy Ghoet» tiirongh which n
mrlitiou-wall has been rnn, and In which service urcordiiig to the Cntholic tiitd
Protestant ritnals is si in altaii^oiisly carried on; the Church of 8t PetcVs. on ihe
door of whicli Jerome of Prague, the companion of Uusfi. nailed his relebroled
fAeses. at the same time publicly expounding his doctrines before a multitude; as-
sembled in the churchyard ;' and the ruins of the castle, which was formerly the
residence of the Electors Palatine, and which, in 17ft4. was set on Are by liglii-
niiig, and totally consumed. In the cellar under the casiio is the famous He'delberg
Tnn, M feet lonz and 84 feet high, and capable of containing 800 hhds. H. is cele-
brated for its university, which, after those of Prague and Vienna, is tlje oldest In
Germany. It was founded by the Elector Rniirecht I. in 1886. and continued to
flourish until the period of tlie Thirty Tears* War, when it began to decline. In
1803, liowever, when the town, with the snrronnding territory, was assigiietl to the
Grand Duke of Baden, a new em commenced for the university, and It rapidly
became fninons. It comprises faculties of theology, law, medicine, and philosophy,
iios 110 professors and lectnrers, and Is attended by from 600 to 800 students. Its
libniry consists of about 800,000 volumes and 8000 mannscrlnts. The trade and mnii-
nfactnrM of the town are Inconsiderable. H., originally an appanage of the
bishopric of Worms, became 1155 the scat of the Counts Palatine, and cominned to
be so for near six centuries. After the Reformation H. was long the head-
quarters of German Calvinism, and gave its name to a famous Calvinistic cate-
chism. H. suffered much during th«! Tliirty Years* War, was savagely treated by
the French in 1688, and was In ^698 almost totally destroyed by them. Pop.
(18T1) 19,988; (1875) W.338, of whom two-fifths are Cathollca. and abont 600 Jews.

As the residence of the rulers of the I*al.Mliuate, H. underwent all the vicissj
lodes of that much -enfferlug electorate. See P>i.atimatb.





Pig. 1. Fig. S.

HEIGHTS, Measurement of, maybe perfonned In any one of four ways: by the
aid of trigonometry ; by levelling ; tiy at«ccrtaining the atmospheric pressure at the
top and bottom of the height by the barometer ; or by ascertaining tlie boiling-point



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of water at the top and bottom by the therraouiPter. As tho second and third
methods are treated of elsewhere (see Lbveixino and Babombtsr), the first and
foarlh abne are here considered, 'i'he first method is often more couveuleut than
anj of the others, as it does not require the ascent of the height, nor even a neur
approach to it. There ai-e two cases of the problem :— Case 1 (when there is level
ground in front). Let ACD be a height of Irregular form, take O and M, two »*ta-
tlous on tho l('vel gronnd in front, find the aui^les AOB, AMB, and measure OM ;
then as AOM, AMO (which is AMB subtracted from ISO''), and OM are known, AO
can be fonnd ; and since now AO aitd the angle AOM are known, AB can be found.
If the hei;!ht is rognlnr in form, all that is necessary to be done is to measure OC,
calculate CB, find AOB ; then AB can at once be calculated by the ordinary rules. —
Case 2 (when there is no level ground in front). Suppose the height of A above O
(flg. 2) is to be found. Take another station M. from which A and O are visible,
measure the angles AOM, OMA, and find OM by Levelling (q. v.), then OA can be
fonnd ; at O take the angle AOB (the augnlar oliimde of A), then from OA and AOB,
AB can be known. If tlje height of one point above anolher— the latter not being
tho observer's station— bo tequired, then the height or depression of the firsthand the
heiglit or depression of the other above or below the olwerver's station, must be
found separatf ly as before, then the difference (if both are above or both below the
ot>server's level) or sum (If one is below it) of these resultsgivcs the number re-
quired. Fv^r instance (flg. 1). the height of A or A B is first found, CB or the height
of £ is next calculated, and their difference, AB— CE, or AF, is the height of A
above E.

Besides this rigorous trigonometrical method, there are many ways of esti-
mating pretty nearly the height of objects, with little or no calculation. For in-
stance, if the height is perpendicular, and the ground in front on a level with the
base, take two pieces of wood, hinged or jointed together at an angle of 45(3, or a
large pair of compasses opened to that angle ; place one leg horizontal and directed
to the base of the object, and move the instrument towards it, or from it, until the
other leg point to the lop ; then the distance of the angle from the bottom gives the
height.

The fonrth method Is often used in measuring the height of mountains when
great accuracy is not required, or \)tlien the apparatus requisite in applying the other
methods is not at hand ; all the apparatus i^equired in this method being two ther*
monieters, a tin ytot to boil the water, and a book of tables such as those given by
Colonel Sykes in ** Hints to Travellers." The method dt^pends npon the fact, that
vapor of water or steam has a certain tension or clastic force according to its tem-
perature, thus : at 320 it can support 0*2 of an Inch of mercury ; at 80° it can «npi>ort
linch; at 15i)», 7 42 inches ; at 1 SOS 13 5 inches; at 212° (the ordinary boiling-pomt),
80 inches, or the whole pressure of the air. By observing, therefore, the temperature
at which wat«r boils, we can find, by means of a table of the elastic force of vapor
at different temperatures, the pressure, in inches of mercury, to which it is subject
at the time. Now, l>cginning at the level of the sea, it is found by experiment that
a fall of 1° In tho bollln^g-point corresponds to an elevation of 610 feet ; at an eleva-
tion of 2500 feet, the difference for a degree is 620 feet; at 6000, it is 530 feet; at IT,-
000, it is 690 feet. An approximation for medium elevations may be made by taking
530 feet on an average for the difference corresponding to 1**, then 530 mHlliplied ^
t?uf number of degrees betioeen the boiling-point and 212° unit give, approximatelp,
t\e height.

HEIJN, or He3rn, Peter Petersen, a famous Dutch admiral, was bom in 167T, at
Delf tshavcn, near KotterdanL Of low origin, he gradually advanced himself by his
bravery to the highest dignities, ^s vice-admiral of the fleet of the Dutch West In-
dia Company, he In 1626 engaged and utterly defeated the Spaniards fn All Saints*
Bay, captured 45 of their ships, and returned to Holland with an immense booty.
In consequence of this splendid victory, the Company raised him to the rank of
admiral. Only two years after this, he captured, almost without requiring to strike
a blow, tho grand Spanish allver flotilla, the value of which was estimated at 12,000,-
000 Dutch guilders. As a reward of this unparalleled success, he was, in 1629,
named Admiral of Holland. Shortly after, he met his death in a fight with two



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sb1p« off DnnkergnCi A marble roonament is erected to liis memory In the old
cborch at DelfU

HEPLDRONN (formerly, Heilighrnnn^ holywelt)^ an Important trading and man-
nfactnriue town of the kingdom of W&rtemberg, iu tlie circle of Ncckar, is Birnnt^ d
oil the right bank of the river Neckar. iu a l>eaatifnl and fertile valley, 88 niilce nonh
of Stott^DrU The church of St Killan, bnilt from 1013 ro 1589, a noble rdiOcc,
partly Gothic and partly Renaissance; the old town-hall. d^XhVftswMnw— the Tlilefs
Tower— in which GOta von Berlichinseu was confined ; and the bonsc of the Tentonic
kniffht«, now a barrnckf are the chiel bnildluirs. Tliongh wine and field and garden
produce are sUlI cnltivated by many of the inltabltants trade and nmnnfactnrep arc
the chief branches of Industry now carried on here. Pap^r, chemical products.
c>ilk, dye-Btuffs, gold, silver, and iron wares, tobacco, vineiiar, &c., are manafacturcd
for export. Gypsoni and sandstone are qourricd iu the vicinity. Pop. (1875) 21,208.

HEI'LIGENSTADT, a regularly built and walled town of PrusBlan Saxony, fs
situated on the Leine, near the Hnnoverlan frontier, 6U miles north-west of Erfurt.
Is was the capital of the department of the Harz, iu thelkingdom of Westphalia,
from 180T to 1814. Weaving, dyeing and paper-mannfacture are carried on. Pop.
(1815)6801.

HEI'LSBERO, a small to>m of Prussia, In the province of Prnssia, Is very
beantifolly situated on the Alle, 43 miles south of EOnigsberg. It was orlglnally
thc chief town of Ermeland, one of the old divisions of Poland. Pop. (1875} 5770,
who manufacture cloth, leather, Ac

HKI'LSBRONN, a sonill town In the Bavarian circle of Middle Francoula (pop.
1000), worthy of note as the ancient burial-place of the Ilohenzollem Burggrafs of
K&mberg. The convent of Heilsbroun owes its ori^u in 1138 to Bishop Otho of
Bamberg, and its subsequent rich endowment to the Counts of Ahenberg, from
whom it passed in heritage to the Nftrnberg princes, who thenceforward retJilned
the lay-proprietorship ot the institution. Nearly all the memlwrs of their House
were ouried here till the end of the 16th c. when It became the bnrial-place of the
Franconian branch of the Hohcnzollorns, till their surrender of their Francon Ian
hereditary lauds. Hiuce the suppression of the monasteries In 1655, little has been
done to k'eep up the splendor of H.; but the church still retains a large number of
highly interesting mouumentH, at once commemorative of ancient German history,
and iflnstrativeof the progress of art iu Germany during tlie middle aces. The \\V-
lage of neilsbroun, which lies on the Schwabach, possesses mineral springs, and
has manufactories of wax-cloth and woollen goods. The history and antiquities of



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