James Orr.

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Lougwood, where stands the iionse in which Napoleon lived. Supplies of provis-
ions, properly so called, arc mostly imported, more especially for the reaideut pop-

HE'LENSBURGH, a rising town nnd favorite watering-place of Scotland, in the
county of Dumbarton, Is pleasantly situated on the rieht bank of the Flrtb of
Clyde, opposite Greenock, from which it is four miles distant, and 23 miles west-
north-west of Glasgow by mil way. It was founded In 1777 by Sir James Colqo-
houn, and named after his wife Helen. In 1858, direct railway comraunicat4on was
opened up l>etween H. and Dumbarton and Glasgow, and since that time the towu
has greatly increased. Pop. (1S71) 6975 ; bnt in summer, the numbers are ueiirly

HBLPACAL RISING (from Gr. helio9, the sun). A star Is said to rise bellacolly
when it rises just before the sun. When the sun approaches a star which Is near
the ecliptic, the star becomes for a season Invisible— the heavens being too bright in


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the qnarters of snorise and ennsett at the times of its rising and setting, to allow
it to be fieeu. Bnt when the san, progressing in its orbit, separates from ihestar,
and the Istler beeius to rise first, it In time rieea so nnich earlier tluui the san, as
just to be visible Defore dayli};ht. It is then said to rise heliacally.

HBLIA'NTHUS. Sec Jekusalkx Artichoke, and Sumvlowxb.

HELI'CID^ (Or. Iidix^ a spiral), n large family of gasterpodons molluscs, of
the order Pulnumattu and of which Snails (q. v.) are familiur examples. The
order is distinguisliea by having part of the mnutle cavity formed into on air-
sac or Inng. The U. are land mollnscs. They have a spiral shell, into which the
body of the animal can he withdrawn. Most of the species pretty much resemble
the common snails in their habits, feeding on vegetable substances of varions kinds,
and often proving troublesome to the f aimer oud gardener.

HS'LICON, a mountain, or rather a mountain range in the south-west of the

froviuce of Bceotia, in Greece, may be regarded as a coutinnatiou of the range of
amassns. It was celebrated by ancient poets as the favorite seat of the Muses.
The loftiest summit (now called Paleov6vi) is about 5000 feet high. At the bottom
of H. stood the vilUgeof Ascru, the residence of Hesiod, and the scat of the earli-
est school of poetry in Greece. In ascending the mountain from Ascra (now
Pyrg4ki). the traveller pusses the famous fountain of Ajmnlppe, the waters of which
were fuhled to lx»tow inspiration. The Grove oC the Muses is supposed to have
l>een situated in a hollow at the foot of Mount Mirand^ll, one of the summits of
Helicon. Leake considers titat its site is now occupied by the cliurch and convent
of St Nicbulas. Twentv stadia at)ove this was the fountain of liippocrene, prob-
ably the modern Maltariotissa, where there is still a fine spring.

HE'LIGOLAND, orHolgoland (Holy Land), a small island In the North Sea, be-
longing to Great Britain, is situated about S5 or 40 miles north-west of the mouth of
the Kibe, In !at. 54° 11' u„ and long. T^ 63' e. It Is about n mile long from north to
south, and one-tiiird of a mile from east to west, one-fifth of a square mile in super-
ficial area, and about 9 8-8 miles in circumference. The island consists of an upper
and a lower quarter; the former, "The OberJand," Is a rock 800 feet in height, and
4800 paci>s in circumference, on which stands a town of 360 hou;>es, and 1013 iuhnb-
Itunts 'the latter ** Ssndy Island," is n patch of shore with 60 houses south-east of
the cliff, and communicating with it by a fiight of 178 steps. The surging of the
sea, which hosHln>ady greatly diminished the size of the island, Is fast consumins
its shores, and will probably at no great distance of time, reduce It to a mere sand-
bonk. H. has two good ports, one on its north, and another on its sonth side. The
inhabitants are supported chiefly by fishing and commerce, by serving as pilots, and
by the strangers who visit H. for the excellent sea-bathing Sandy Island
affords. A light-house stands on the cliff near the village. There is also u prison,
bnt it is never occupied. The annual value of the fisheries is about jC6000, and the
chief products arc lobsters and haddocks. H. is an Important place In time of war,
and commands the German traib in the North Sea. The island, which was taken
by the English from the Danes in 1807, and was formally ceded to them in 1814, has
an .English governor, but the internal affairs arc ihanaged by a council of the
islanders. Four hotlerles, manned by a garrison of British soldiers, ore mounted on
the cliff. The British estalilishment maintained on 11. costs about £1000 a year.
Steam-1>oats run between this and Hamburg.— H. was anciently sacred to the^od-
dcss Hertha, and was the island to which the tribe of tlie Angli, who Inhabited tho
mainland opposite, went to perform relI}ziouB rites in her honor. On a map discov-
ered by Sir William Gell, the situation of many temples, villages, and large tracts of
country, arc delineated, all of which were swallowed up by the sea, between 700 a. d.
and 1200 A.D., according to D'Anville. The sea continued its encroochments, and,
before the end of the 17th c, had submerged several churches and monastic estab-
lishments. Christianity was first preached here by St WlllHirod in tlie 7th c, after
whose time the island received its present name. Before this it wse called Foset-
inland, from the Frisian goddess Fosetn, who had a temple here. The InhabitantA
of H. are divided into two classes, differing both In race and occupation— the one
being fishers, the other merchants, cultivators, Ac The first are Frisians, a tall ond
moaculur race of hardy seamen, simple and primitive in their habits and holding

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lODd-Iabor io coutempt The niercbant class coueists of immigrants from Hambaig
aud other places ou the maiuluud, or their descendaut^a.

HELIOCE'NTRIC, a term In Astronomy, signifying that the snn (Gr. heliw) la
taken as the centre of i-eferenco or view. It is opposed to geocentric, which iudl-
cat^s that the earth is taken for centre.

HELIODO'RUS, the enrliest aud best of the Gi-cek romance writers, was bom
at Emesa, in Syria. 'ITie church liistoriuu Socrates says he hecanie a CbHstlau, aud
was Bishop of Trikka, in Thessaly, about tlio cud of the 4th c. a.d. But It now
■seems more probable that the romance writer was a Neo-Pythagorean sophist of
the 8d c The work by which ho Is known is entitled *'^thlopica." It cxieuHs to
ten books, aud narrates in poetic prose, at times with almost epic t>eanty and sim-
plicity, the loves of Thcagen«;B aud Charlclela. The work is distlngnished from
the later Greek romances by Its vigor and its pure morality. See Robde. '* DtT
Griediische Roman »» {187€). There are editions by Korals (1806), Bekker (1855),
aud Uir^chlg (1336).

HELIOGA'BALUS. See Elagabalus.

HELIO'METER, *• enn-measurer " (from helio», the snn, and metron^ a measnrc),

is an Instrument invented by M. Bouguer In 1747, by means of which the diameters
of the heavenly bodies can be measarod with great accuracy. As Improved by Dol-
lond, the object-lens of the Instrument is In two h-.ilves, each of which will form a
pertect image In the focns of the eye-piece ; and the images may be made to diverge,
coincide, or overlap each other, by varying the distunes iMJtween the half-Ieuses. If
the dlau)eter of the sun Is to be measured, the two lenses are adjusted so timt the
images may touch each other, then the distance l)etween the centres of the two
object-glasses measured in seconds gives the diameter of the sun. Fraanhofer has
made majiy remarkable Improvements on the H.

HELIO'POLIS {City of tJie Sun), the Greek name of the citv called by the Egyp-
tians Ou, stood on the east side of the Peloslac branch of the Kile, neai the apex of
the Deltti, and was one of the most ancient and important of Egyptian cities. Here
were the headquarters of the wisdom of the Egyptians. Prom the pritsta of H.,
Solon, Thales, and Plato arc reported to have learnt, Mauethon,the historiographer
of Egypt, was chief-priest of IL, an office filled centnries Ciirlier by the father-in-law
of the Hebrew Joseph. The rnins of H. still cover an area nearly three miles
square. One of the red granite obelisks long famous as Pharaoh's needles, is still
standing near the hamlet of Matarich. There Is reason to suppose that the obelisk
called *^ Cleopatra's needle," lately brought to England, had originally been broogbt
to Alexandria from H.


HELIOS, the Greek name of the sun (the Roman SoO, who was worshipped as
a god. He was, according to Homer, a sou of the Titan Hyperion, and of Thela or
BuryphaGssa, and Is descrTt>cd by the same poet as giviuz light both to gods and
men. He vi^ea In the east, from the marshy borders of Occanus, into whose dartc
abvsses he also sinks at evening. The later poets, however, gave him a splendid
palace iu the east, somewhere below Colchis, and describe him as being conveyed,
after the termination of the burning labors of the day, in a \vinged boat of gold,
along the northern coasts of the sea back to Colchis. After the time of iSschylus,
he began to be Identified with Apollo or Phcebns, bnt tlie identification was never
fully carried out. His worship was widely spread. He had temples in Corliith, Ar-
gos, Ti-oezune, Elis, and many other cities, bnt his principal scat was Rhodes, where
a four-team was annually sacrificed to him. In addition, It was customary to offer
up while iambs or boars on his altars. The anlnmls sacred to him were horses,
wolves, cocks, and eagles. Sculpture represents him, for the most part, as riding
In his chariot, drawn by four horses.

Hfi'LIOTROPE (Heliotropium), a genus of plants of the natural order Bora^nea
(q. V. > ; of the section, sometimes made a distmct order, EhrtUaectK, the fruit sep-
arating only when ripe into four carpels. Many of the species have fragrant flow-
ers. The Peuuviak H. (fl. Peruvianwin), a small shrub, seldom more than two
feel high, with oblong-lanceolate wrinkled leaves, aud small lUao-blue flowerS) is in

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almost nnlveiva] caltivatlon for itn f ragrancef which reeemblee that of vanilla. The
BvROPEAN or Common H. (H. Europcntm)^ a natfre of the south aud west of
Europe, \» QU anuual with bidoII white, or rarely p«Ie red, flowers. Important heal-
ing powers were once erroneously ascribed to It in cases of cancerous and scrota-
Ions »ores ; it its however, astringent aud mncUugiDous. Manv hybrid hellotrophes
sre now to be 8«^n in flower-garaeus aud green-houses, exhibiting great variety in
the size and color of their flowers. They aeliglit in a rich, light soil. The shrubby
kiuds nre generally proiiacrated by cuttings. Large quantities of the flowers are
used by perfumers for making scents.— Classical fable accounts for the name H.
(Or. Ae/toA, the sun. and trepo, to turn), by representing Clytia as turned into this
flower throui:h gazing at Apollo.

HELIOTROPE aud HBLTOSTAT, names applied to instruments used bv snr-
veyorn (or recderiug distant stations distinctly visible. This is managed by placing
a mirror at the distant station, aud adjusting it so that at a particular hour of the
day {arranged beforehand) the light of the sun shall be reflected from the mirror
directiv to the surveyor's station. The surveyor must make bis observation aJmost
at the jusiaut he sees the glancing of the mirror, as the constant change of tlie sun's
position in the heavens produces a corresponding change in the diction of the
ravs reflected by the mirror. Oauss (q. v.) invented snch an instrument a1)0Ut 18S1»
which is nsed abroad, especially In America, for geodetic surveys, and Is said to
possess such power that a mirror one inch square is visible eight miles off, In aver-
age sunnv weather, and appears as a brilliant star at a distance qf two miles ; while
some heliotropes have been nsed so ] owerful as to be visible nearly 80 miles off.
The term Hellostat, applied by Captain Drnmmond to an instrument invented bj
him for the same purpose, more prop<'rly belongs to an Instrument invented by
S'Gravesande, consisting of an equatorial revolvin<? on its polar axis, so that Mie
sun, when once accurately in the focus of the telescope, continues »ie€idily fixed
there. Drummond's hehostat is chiefly used in Britain.

HELIOTROPE, or Bloodstone, a variety of chalcetlony or of jasper, of a green
color with red spots. The finest heliotropes consist of chalcedony, and are translu-
cent, at least at the edges ; the iasper bloodstones are opaque. H. is found in many

Cs of the world, as in Scotland, but the finest smximens of this mineral are
ight from the southern parts of Asia. It was well known to the ancients, who
obtained It chiefly from Ethiopia and Cyprus. It is much uses for boxes, seals, &c ;
and those specimens arc most valued in which the ground color Is beautiful, and the
spots bright and well distributed. It was much nsed in the early ages of the
Christian Church for the engraving of sacred subjects, the flgures being so managed
iliat the red spots should represent drops of blood. Different accounts are given of
the origin of the name H.

HBLIOTYPO'GRAPHY (otherwise Photokeliographp ; from Gr. helio»,ihe son).
Mr. De l.i Rue, in the Observatory at Kcw, has produced, on sheets of paper, pic-
tures in which the solar spots are representi^d without the aid of drawing or en-
graving of auy kind. In one form oi operation (noticed in the ** Proceedings " of
the Royal Astronomical Hoclety), the sun's spots were viewed through a Newtonian
reflector of 16-inch diameter, and 10 feet tocal length, producing an image that
would have made the sun's disc three feet diameter. By a nice adjustment^ the
Imnge of a portion of the disc was received on a glass-plate rendered sensitive by
collodiou. The first part of the process wos then complete — the sun painting a pic-
ture of his own spots on a piece of glass. Then came the transfer of tills negative
to a positive, by the usual photc^rophic means of priuting, but with a varnTsli of
very complex chemical nature on tne positive plate. This completed the second
stage— photographv producing a veiy faint picture on the positive plate. Then
came chemistry: by dissolvhig awav certain constituents of the varnish, which
had been more affected than the rest bv the actinic force of the son's liglit, the sur-
face of the positive plate became a series of ridges and hollows, rtlievi and intaglU,
extremely minute in their differences of level, but still snfliciently marked to con-
vey the notion of a kind of engraving. Next came electrotvpe, or galvanograpby.
The plate, in the state iust described, served as a matrix or foundation on wbicn an
electrotype cast could be taken. By Pretsch's process, this cast may be so varied
as to be available either for sorface-printiug or for printing on the copper-plate

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Hell tC1 O

HeUebore OIL

plau. Other jBolar phenomena, each na the corona, and the appcarnDce presented
daring auutdur ana total eclipses, liuve been made to reproduce themselves In a
Bimilur way. See oIbo Photographio Enobatimg and Photoqbapht.

HELL (Heb. Sheol, Or. Baden^ Sax. Hell^ Ger. HdUe), originally a cavern or deep
and dark aby^s, and somelimcs applied (as Gen. xxxvii. 86; Jobxiv. IS) to the
grave, is commonly nsed to signify t^e place, or the condition after death, of the
Bonis of those who. having failed daring life to f uifll the essential obligations im-
posed by the natural or the positive divine law, are consigned to a stiite of ponish-
ment or purgation. With the Kame unanimity which has existe<l «8 to a Htate of
reward after death (see Heaven), almost all the varioufl religions, whether ancient
or modern, unmlK'r among their most prominent doctrines the belief of a state of
pnuislimeut after death— the natare of which is variously modified accordiiig to the
peculiar tenets of each religion— for unexpiated guilt. Among early Curistiau
writers, the word hell la variously employed, sometimes to signify a place of tempo-
rary purgation, in which sense it comprehends the Roman Cattiolic Furgatory (q. v.);
sometimes the place {Ltrnbus Patrum) in which the souls of the just of tlie old law
awaited the coming of Christ, who was to complete tbeir felicity ; sometimes the
place lb which unbaptizcd children are believed to be detained, on account of the
stain of unremitted original sin ; and Ia<<tly, the prison of those who die stained with
the personal guilt of grievous sin. Many controversies, which would be entirely
out of place here, have arisen about the details of this doctrine, as to the place, the
nature, and the duration of the punishment of hell. It will be ouougii to say that
although according to the literal sense of more than one passaage oiScripture, and
the popular notions of the various Christian communiUes, the place of hell would
seem to be assigned to the interior abysses of the earth, or to the depths of the iu-
termuiid:me spacer, yet even the formularies of the Roman Catholic Church, with
all their rigorous precision of detail, and still more those of other coramauioms
li:ivo abstanied xrom any formal declaration as to the locality of the
pnuiBbment of the damned. As to the nature of the punishment to which they are
subjected, whether it is c nifiucd to the **pain of loss"— that is, to
the romorscfnl conscionsness of having forfeited the presence of God, and the happi-
ness of heaven— or whether and to what degree it further includes the " pain of
sense," there is some difference between the Eastern and the Western churches, and
it is sometimes alli's;ed that the Eastern Church altogether rejects the idea of punish-
ment of sense. This, however, is a mistaice ; botJi churches agree that the punish-
ment of hell includes the " pain of seuHC," the controversy between them having
regarded not the existence of the pain of sense, but certain questions as to Its nature,
and especially whether it consists In material fire, a point which, in the decree for
the union of the Greek and Latin Churches at ihe council of Florence, was left unde-
cided. The controversy on the subject of the eternity of the punishment of hell
dates from an early period, Origen and his school having taught that the punishment
of hell was but purgatorial iu Its object ; that its purifying effect having once been
attained, the punishment would cease for all. even for the devils themselves ; and
that its duration in each case is proportioned to the guilt of the individual. Thia
doctrine of the final restoration of all to the enjoyment of liappiness, was the weil-
knowu Orlgeuistic theory of the apoeatattasU, to which so many of the early writers
refer. It was rejected, however, by the common judgment of antiquity, and^was
formally condemned by the second council of Constantinople— « condemnation
founded ou the literal sense of many passages of the Scripture (see Matt, xvili. 8 ;
XXV. 4L and 46 ; Mark ix. 43 ; Luke iii. 7 ; 8 Thess. L 9 ; Apoc xx. 10, ifec) ; and iu
the controversies between the Eastern and Western chnrcnes, on the eubj^t of the
punlshmeuts of hell, the belief of their eternity, iu the most strict sense of the word,
was always recognized as a common doctrine of both. In the New Testament, the
name Oelienna is frequently used to designate the place of punishment of the damned
(see Matt. v. 22, 89, 80 ; x. 88 ; xvlii. 9 ; xxil. 18; Mark ix. 48; Lnke xii. 6: James
Hi. 6). The latter word, indeed, unlike the Hebrew Skeol and the Greek Hade$j is
never found in any other signification tlian that of the place of punishment of the
sinner after death.

HELL GATE, or Hurl Gate, narawl by the Butch settlers of New York HelU CkU,
is a pass in the East River, between Groat Bom Ic>land, and Long Ishiud, east of the

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centre of New York Island, Uulted States, formerly very daugeroas to vessels from its
poiuted rocks and whirlpools. Daring 1869—1878, exteuslvc submarine galleries aud
tunndff were excavated Tu tlie rock for tUe pnrpose of receiving a gigantic charge of
dyuamile (60,000 lbs.), which was fired by electricity on Sept, 24, 18I(J, and completely
brohe up the obstroctiug rocks.

HE'LLAS, the original home of the Hellenes, according to the received
opinion, was first a town, and afterwards, nnder the name of Phthiotis.
a well-known district of Tliessaly. The ancients also sometimes applied
this name to the whole of Theesaly. With the spread of the Hellenic
people soathwards, the term embraced a gradually increasing territory, nutil It
came to denote the whole of Middle Greece or Greece Proper (modern lAvodia), At
a still later period, the Pelo{>onueeas itself was inclnded under the designation ; and
finally, H. came to be ased in the broadest pense, as comprehending the whole of
Greece, with Its islands and colonies.— The Hellenes, or Greeks, as distingoished
from the more ancient Pelassians, received this name in the belief that they were
descended from a certain Helien. 'J'his niythlcal personage, a son of Deucalion and
Pyrrha, or. acconllng to others. oL Zens and Dorlnpc, and the father of iEotns,
Dorus, nnd Xuthns, was said to have been king of Plithia, and to have ruled over
all the country between the rivers Peueius and Asopns.

HE'LLEBORE, a name applied to two very different genera of plants. The
'^'gonns to which it more properly belongs, and to which it has belonged, since very
ancient times, HelUhdrvs^ is of the nataral order Hanunculaeea^ and Is character-
ised by a calyx of 6 persistent st'pals, often resembling petals ; u corolla of 8 or 10
very short, tubular, honey-secreting petals ; numerous stnnteus and 8 — 10 pistils; a
leathery capsule, and seeds arranged in two rows. The ppeclcs are perennial ber-
baceous plants, mostlv Eucopenn, generally with a »h(^ root-stock; the stem mostly
leafless, or nearly no, but pomellmes very leafy ; the iHves more or less evergreen,
lobed, the flowers terminal. A familiar example of this genns is the Black H.— so
called from the color of its roots— or Christmas Robe («. Niger), a favorite in our
flower-gardens, because its large white flowers are produced in winter. The leaves
are all radical ; the stalks generally one-flowered ; the flowers white or tinged with
red. Black H. formerly en joyed a higher reputation as amrdicinal agent than it
now possesses. Melampus is represented ns employing it in the treatment of mad-
ness centuries before the Christian era. The root Is the part used In medicine, nnd
it Is imported Into this country from Hamburg, and sometimes from Marseille. It
consists of two parts— the rhizome or root-stock, and the fibres arisin«r from it
The former Is nearly lialf an inch thick, several inches long, and knotty,
with transverse ridges and slight longitudinal etriie ; the latter are numerous, cylin-
*^ drlc4&I, brown externally, and whitish intemallv. The taste is slight at first, ihen bit-
ter and acrid. The chen)!cal composition of the root is not very accurately known.
It Is not much employed at the present day, but it has been found of service (1) in
mania, melancholia, and epilepsy ; (2) as an cinmena;:ogue ; (8) In dropsv— Its action
as a drastic purgative, and its stimulating effect on the vessels of the liver, render-
ing It useful ; (4) in chronic skin diseases ; and (5) as an anthehnintic Ten or fif-
teen grains of the powdered root act as a sharp purgative. The tinclnre, which is
obtained by maceration In spirit, is usually given when Its action as an emmena-
gogue Is required. In an exces-ive dose, it acts as a narcotic ncrld poison, and causes
vomiting, purging, burning pain in the stomach aud Intestines, fulntness, paralysis,
aud deal h.— Stinking H. (fl. fcetidxM) grows on hills and mountains in the south
and west of Europe, in pome of the chalk districts of England, and in several places
in Scotland. It has a very disagi-eeable smell, and green flowers somewhat tinged
with- purple. The stem is many-flowered and leafy— Green H. {H. virfdis)^ also
found in the chalk districts of Kngland, hasa leafy stem, with a few large greenish-
yeUow flowers. The celebrated H. of the ancients was probably a species peculiar

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 99 of 196)