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and K — came the Books of Ch (c 250 BC).

The distinctions between the great documents of the
Pent do not appear so clearly here. The summary,
("epitome") is the work of a Jewish re-
4. T and E dactor; the longer narratives (e.g. 1 K
17 — 2 K 8; 13 14r-21) "are written in a
bright and chaste Heb style, though some of them
exhibit slight peculiarities of diction, due, doubtless (in
part) , to their North IsraeUtish origin " (E) . The writers
of these narratives are thought to have been prophets, in
most cases from the Northern Kingdom.

VI. Date. — There are numerous data bearing
on the date of K, and indications of different dates
appear in the books. The closing verses bring
down the history to the 37th year of the Captivity
(2 K 26 27); yet the author, incorporating his
materials, was apparently not careful to adjust the
dates to his own time, as in 1 K 8 8; 12 19; 2 K

8 22; 16 6, which refer to conditions that passed
away with the Exile. The work was probably
composed before the fall of Jerus (586 BC), and
was revised during or shortly after the Exile, and
also supplemented by the addition of the account
of the downfall of the Judaean kingdom. There
are traces of a post-exilic hand, as, e.g., the mention
of "the cities of Samaria" (1 K 13 32), implying
that Samaria was a province, which was not the
case until after the Exile. The existence of altars
over the land (1 K 19 10), and the sanctuary at
Carmel, were illegal according to the Deuteronomic
law, as also was the advice given to Elisha (2 K 3
19) to cut down the fruit trees in time of war (Dt
20 19).

LiTERATUHE. — K. Budde, Das Buck der Richter,
Mohr, Leipzig; John Skinner, "Kings," in New Century
Bible, Frowde, New York; O. P. Burney, Notes on the
Heb Text of the Books of K, Clarendon Press, Oxford,
1903; R. Kittel, Die BUcher der KSnige, Vandenhoeck
and Ruprecht, Leipzig. 1900; I. Benzinger, Die Bilcher
der Kdnige, Mohr, 1899; C. F. Kent, Student's OT,
Scribner, 1905; S. R. Driver, Intro to the Lit. of the OT,
Scribner, new rev. ed, 1910; J. E. McFadyen, Intro
to the OT, Armstrong, New York, 1906; Carl H. Cornill,
Einleitung in die kanonischen Bilcher AT, Mohr, 6th ed,
1908; A. F. Kirkpatrick, The Divine Library of the OT,
Macmlllan, 1891.

Wallace N. Stearns

KINGS' SEPULCHRES (2 Ch 21 20) . See Jeru-
salem, VIII.

KINSFOLK, kinz'fok. See Kindred.

KINSMAN, kinz'man, KINSWOMAN, kinz'-
woom-an: Most frequently of the 5X5, go' el, the
one who had a right to "redeem"; referring to the
custom of avenging the blood of a slain kinsman;
hence, a blood relative (Nu 6 8; Ruth 2 20; 3
9.12; 4 1.3.6.8.14; cf "performing the part of a
kinsman," Ruth 3 13); in Ruth 2 1, better ren-
dered "acquaintance." Also 31"1J3 , karobh, one near,
rendered "kinsman" (Ps 38 11); probably better,
"neighbor." Once, "IXTC, sh^'er, "flesh kin," ren-
dered "kinsman" (Nu 27 11; cf Lev 18 6; 25 49;
20 19; 21 2, rendered "kin"). <rvy-yev^s, suggenis,
"of same race" (cf <xvyy4m.a., suggenda, "kindred"),
used of blood relationship of varying degrees of
nearness (Lk 14 12; Jn 18 26; Acts 10 24; Rom

9 3; 16 7.11.21). Rendered "kin" in Mk 6 4.
Kinswoman: "1X115 , sh''er, "kin by blood," or "by

flesh" (cf above; also Lev 18 12 f ; also cf 18 6,
"near_ of kin" AV); also same root, fem. form,
rriSlp , sha'drah (Lev 18 17), is tr* "kinswoman."
In Prov 7 4, "Call understanding thy kinswoman"



might be more accurately rendered, "thy familiar
friend," RVm (from yt)12 , mddha\ "acquaintance") ;
of similar rendering of modha'ath, under Kindred.
Lk 1 36 RV, "kinswoman" (a-vyyepls, suggenis),
AV "cousin" (suggenes); same is rendered "kins-
folk" (1 58 RV). Edward Bagbt Pollard

KIR, klir, kir ("I'^p , Ifir) : The meaning of Kir is

"inclosure" or "walled place," and it is therefore

doubtful whether it is a place-name

1. Meaning in the true sense of the word. In 2 K

16 9 it is mentioned as the place
whither Tiglath-pileser IV carried the Syrian
(Aramaean) captives which he deported from
Damascus after he had taken that city. In Am 1
5 the prophet announces that the people of Syria
(Aram) shall go into captivity unto Kir, and in
9 7 it is again referred to as the place whence the
Lord had brought the Syrians (Aramaeans) as
Israel had been brought out of Egypt, and the
Philis from Caphtor.

Except in one MS (LXX, A), where it appears
as the Libyan Cyrene (2 K 16 9), it is never ren-
dered in the LXX as a place-name.

2. How Thus the place whence the Syrians
Rendered were brought (Am 9 7) is not Kir,
in LXX but "the deep" or "the ditch" (LXX

ix pSdpov, ek bdihrou, "pit"), probably
a tr of some variant rather than of the word "Kir"
itself. Comparing the Assyr-Bab Mru (for qtru),
"wall," "inclosure," "interior," or the like, Kir
might have the general meaning of a place parted
off for the reception oif exiled captives. Parallels
would be J^ir Moab, "the inclosure of Moab," Kir
Heres or ^ir Hareseth, "the inclosure of brick"
(LXX hoi lilhoi toii toichou). It seems probable
that there was more than one place to which the
Assyrians transported captives or exiles, and if their
practice was to place them as far as they could from
their native land, one would expect, for Palestinian
exiles, a site or sites on the eastern side of the Tigris
and Euphrates.

In Isa 22 5 occurs the phrase, "a breaking down

of the walls, and a crying to the mountains" {m'lfar-

kar klr vf-sho"' 'el ha-har — ■' 'a surround-

3. An ing of the wall," etc, would be better).
Emendation and the mention of kir and sho"^ here
of Isa 22:6 has caused Fried. Delitzsch to suggest

that we have to read, instead of J;ir,
J;o''', combined with sh6'^\ as in Ezk 23 23. Follow-
ing this, but retaining ^ir, Cheyne translates "Kir
undermineth, and Shoa' is at the mount," but others
accept Delitzsch's emendation, Winckler conjectur-
ing that the rendering should be "Who stirreth up
Koa' and Shoa' against the mountain" (Alttest.
Untersuchungen, 177). In the next verse (Isa 22 6)
Kir is mentioned with Elam — a position which a
city for western exiles would require.

The mention of Elam as taking the quiver, and
Kir as uncovering the shield, apparently against
4 Soldiers "*^® valley of the vision" (in or close
of Kir in *° J^^^)' implies that soldiers from
Assyrian these two places, though one might
j^^y expect them to be hostile to the As-

syrians in general, were to be found
in their armies, probably as mercenaries. See Fried.
Delitzsch, Wo lag das Parodies f 233; Schrader.
COT, 425. T. G. Pinches

KIR OF MOAB (DXiU "lip , Iflr mo'abh; LXX
has TO T€txos, t6 telchos, "the wall," "fortress") : The
name, at least in this form, appears
1. Identi- only once (Isa 15 1) as that of a city
fication in Moab. It is named with Ar of

Moab, with which possibly it may be
identical, since 'ar or Hr is the Heb equivalent of



1811



THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA



Kings' Sepulchres
Kiriath-jearim



the Moabite Kir. The Tg hence reads "Kerak in
Moab." There can be no doubt that the Kerak
here intended is represented by the modern town
of that name, with which, consequently, Kir Moab
is almost universally identified. It must always
have been a place of importance. It is mentioned
as Charakmdba (Xapa/c/ifi;8a) in the Acts of the
Council of Jerus (536 AD) and by the early geog-
raphers. It dominated the great caravan road
connecting Syria with Egypt and Arabia. The
Crusaders therefore directed attention to it, and
held possession from 1167 till it fell again into the
hands of the Moslems under Saladin, 1188. The
Chroniclers speak of it as in el Bellfa, and the chief
city of Arabia Secunda. Under the title of Petra
Deserti the Crusaders founded here a bishop's see.
The Gr bishop of Petra still has his seat in Kerak.

Kerak stands upon a lofty spur projecting west-
ward from the Moab plateau, with Wddy '■Ain

Franjy on the S., and Wady d-Kerak
2. Descrip- on the N., about 10 miles from the
tion Dead Sea. The sides of the mountain

sink sharply into these deep ravines,
which unite immediately to the W., and, as Wady
el-Kerak, the great hollow runs northwestward to
the sea. It is a position of great natural strength,
being connected with the uplands to the E. only by
a narrow neck. It is 3,370 ft. above the level of the
sea. The mountains beyond the adjacent valleys
are much higher. The place was surrounded by a
strong wall, with five towers, which can still be
traced in its whole length. The most northerly
tower is well preserved. The most interesting build-
ing at Kerak is the huge castle on the southern side.
It is separated from the adjoining hill on the right
by a large artificial moat; and it is provided with a
reservoir. A moat also skirts the northern side of
the fortress, and on the E. the wall has a sloped or
battered base. The castle is then separated from
the town. The walls are very thick, and are well
preserved. Beneath the castle is a chapel in which
traces of frescoes are still visible. In days of an-
cient warfare the place must have been practically
impregnable. It could be entered only by two
roads passing through rock-cut tunnels. The main
danger must always have been failure of water
supply. There are springs immediately outside
the city; but those alone would not be sufficient.
Great cisterns were therefore constructed in the town
and also in the castle. The half-nomadic inhabit-
ants of Kerak today number some 1,140 families
(Musil, Arabia Petraea, III, 97). The Gr church
claims about 2,000 souls; the rest are Moslems.
They are wild and fearless people, not greatly in-
clined to treat strangers with courtesy and kindness.
In the spring of 1911 the town was the center of a
rising against the government, which was not
quelled until much blood had been shed.

W. EWING

KIRAMA, ki-ra'ma, kirVma (Kipojid, Kiramd;
AV Cirama): The people of K. returned with
Zerubbabel from Babylon (1 Esd 5 20); the
"Ramah" of Ezr 2 26 (q.v.).

KIR-HARESETH, kflr-har'g-seth, -ha^re'seth
(nte"in"-|ip , Ifir-h&reseth, Isa 16 7; in 2 K 3 25
AV reads Kir-haraseth [pausal form]) ; KIR-HERES
(toin nip, hlr heres, Jer 48 31.36; in Isa 16 11
AV"reads Kir-haresh [pausal form]): Modern
scholars unanimously identify this city with Kir
of Moab. In Jehoram's invasion of Moab it alone
withstood his attack; and on the city wall the king
of Moab sacrificed his son (2 K 3 25ff). It was
obviously the capital, i.e. Kir Moab. The name
is generally taken to mean "city of the sun."
Cheyne, however, points out (EB, s.v.): (1) that



this explanation was unknown to the ancients;
(2) that "kir" is nowhere supposed to mean "city,"
except in the compound names Kir-heres, Kir-
hareseth, and Kir Moab; (3) that fieres, "sun,"
nowhere has a fem. ending, and (4) that Isa 16
7 (LXX and Aq.) indicates d and not r in the second
part of the name {Ai<re9, D&selh). He suggests,
therefore, that we should possibly read niCnn tl^lp,
Ifiryath h&dhashah, "new city." W. Ewinq

KIRUTH, kir'i-ath (t^Tp , Uryalh, "city"; AV
Kirjath): Mentioned (Josh 18 28) as a city of
Benjamin ; has been identified with Kuriel el
'■Enab, "town of grapes," a prosperous town on the
highroad between Jerus and Jaffa; it is sometimes
spoken of by the inhabitants as ^urieh. It is,
however, generally thought that Kiriath here stands
for KiRiATH-jBAEiM (q.v.). See PEF, III, 132,
Sh XVII.

KIRIATHAIM, kir-i-a^tha'im (Q'^n'^np, Ifirya-
thaylm, "two cities"; AV Kirjathaim):

(1) A city in the uplands of Moab formerly held
by Sihon, and given by Moses to Reuben, who is .
said to have fortified it (Nu 32 37; Josh 13 19).
It is named along with Elealeh and Nebo in the
former passage, and with Sibmah in the latter. It
was in the hands of Moab in Mesha's time, and he
claims to have fortified it (M S, 1. 10) . For Jeremiah
(48 1.23) and Ezekiel (25 9) it is a Moabite town.
Onom identifies it with Coraitha, a Christian vil-
lage 10 Rom miles W. of Madeba. This is the
modem Karaiydt, about 11 miles W. of Madeba,
and 5 miles E. of Machaerus. This, however, may
represent Kerioth, while the towns with which it
is named would lead us to look for Kiriathaim to the
N. of Wady Zerka Ma'in. From this city was
named Shaveh-kiriathaim, "the plain of Kiria^
thaim" (Gen 14 5).

(2) A city in the territory of Naphtali, assigned
to the Gershonite Levites (1 Ch 6 76), correspond-
ing to "Kartan" in Josh 21 32. W. Ewing

KIRIATH-ARBA, kir-i-ath-ar'ba. See Hebron.

KIRIATH-ARIM, kir-i-ath-a'rim (Ezr 2 25).

See KiRIATH-JEAKIM.

KIRIATH-BAAL, kir-i-ath-ba'al. See Kiriath-

JEARIM.

PRIATH-HUZOTH, kir-i-ath-hu'zoth, k.-hu'zoth
(tilSn ri^np, ki^yath hvtgdth, "city of streets";
LXX reads iriXeis iiravKtav, pdleis epaiileon, "city
of villages," from which we may infer a reading
miSn , h&serdlh, for mSn , hitgoth; AV Kirjath-
huzoth): A place to which, after their meeting,
Balak and Balaam went together (Nu 22 39).
They met at "the City of Moab" (ver 36), which
is probably identical with Kir op Moab (q.v.);
Kiriath-huzoth was probably therefore not far from
that city. Some would identify it with Kiriathaim;
some with Kerioth; as yet there is no certainty.

KIRIATH-JEARIM, kir-i-ath-je'a-rim, k.-jg-a'rim
(Qi"iy"j~n^"1p , ki''Vath-y'arlm, "city of thickets";
LXX T| iriXis 'Iape{(i,, he p6lis lareim; AV Kirjath-
jearim) : One of the four chief cities of the Gibeon-
ites (Josh 9 17); a city of Judah (Josh 16 60),
evidently an ancient Sem "high place," hence the
name "Kiriath-Baal" (ib); it was one of the places
on the border line between Judah and Benjamin
(Josh 18 14.15; 15 11 [where it is called "Baalah"];
cf 1 Ch 13 6). It is mentioned as in Judah (Josh
15 60; 18 14; Jgs 18 12), but if Kiriath (q.v.)



Kiriath-jearim
Kiss



THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA



1812



is identical with it, it is mentioned as belonging to
Benjamin (Josh 18 28; in 2 S 6 2, Baale-judah).

Jgs 18 12 records that the men of Dan set forth
out of Zorah and Eshtaol and encamped in Mahan-

eh-dan behind (W. of) Kiriath-jearim.
1. Scrip- (In Jgs 13 25Mahaneb-dan["thecamp
ture Refer- of Dan"] is described as between Zorah
ences and Eshtaol; seeMAHANEH-DAN.) To

this sanctuary the ark of Jeh was
brought from Beth-shemesh by the people of Kiriath-
jearim, and they "brought it into the house of




Ruined Church at IJuriet.

Abinadab in the hill [m "Gibeah"], and sanctified
Eleazar his son to keep the ark of Jeh" (1 S 7 1).
Here it abode twenty years (ver 2; 2 S 6 2-4; cf 1
Ch 13 6; 2 Ch 1 4). Clearly it was in the hills
somewhere to the E. of Beth-shemesh.

The prophet Uriah-ben-Shemaiah, killed by Jehoi-
akim, belonged to Kiriath-jearim (Jer 26 20 f) .

In Ezr 2 25 (cf Neh 7 29), this place occurs
under the name "Kiriath-arim." In 1 Esd 6 19
the name occurs as "Kiriathiarius."

The exact position of this important Israelite
sanctuary has never been satisfactorily settled.
Some of the data appear to be contra-
2. Position dictory. For example, Jos (Ant, VI,
i, 4) saya it was a city in the neigh-
borhood of Beth-shemesh, while Eusebius and
Jerome (Qnom) speak of it ("Cariathiareim") in
their day as a village 9 or 10 miles from Jerus on the
way to Lydda. But it is open to doubt whether
the reputed site of their day had any serious claims.
Any suggested site should fulfil the following condi-
tions: (1) It must harmonize with the boundary
line of Judah and Benjamin between two known
points — the "waters of Nephtoah," very generally
supposed to be Lifta, and Chesalon, certainly
Kesld (Josh 15 10). (2) It should not be too far
removed from the other cities of the Gibeonites —
Gibeon, Chephirah and Beeroth — but those places,
which are all identified, are themselves fairly widely
apart. (3) Mahaneh-dan ("the camp of Dan")
is described as between Zorah and Eshtaol, and
was W. of Kiriath-jearim; this, and the statement
of Jos that it was in the neighborhood of Beth-
shemesh, makes it probable that the site was near
the western edge of the mountains of Judah.
Zorah (now Sara''), Eshtaol (now Eshu'a) and Beth-
shemesh (now ^Ain Shems), are all within sight of
each other close to the Vale of Sorek. (4) The site
should be a sanctuary (or show signs of having been
such), and be at least on a height (Gibeah, 1 S 7
1 m). (5) The name may help us, but it is as well
to note that the first part of the name, in the form
"Kirathiarius" (1 Esd 6 19), appears to have sur-
vived the exOe rather than the second.

The first suggested identification was that of
Robinson (BR, II, 11,12), viz. Kuriet el 'Enab, the
"town of grapes," a flourishing little town about
9 miles W. of Jerus on the carriage road to Jaffa.
The district around is still fairly well wooded (cf



2/'''a7-m = "thickets"). This village is commonly
known as Abu Gkdsh, from the name of a robber
chieftain who, with his family, flour-
3. Sug- ished there in the first half of the last
gested century. Mediaeval ecclesiastical tra-

Identifi- dition has made this place the Anathoth
cations of Jer, and a handsome church from the

time of the Crusades, now thoroughly
repaired, exists here to mark this tradition. This
site suits well as regards the border line, and the
name JCuriet is the exact equivalent of Kiriath; it
also fits in with the distance and direction given
in the Onom, but it cannot be called satisfactory in
all respects. Soba, in the neighborhood, has, on
account of its commanding position, been selected,
but except for this one feature it has no special
claims. The late Colonel Conder has very vigor-
ously advocated the claims of a site he discovered
on the south side of the rugged Wady Ismae'n, called
Khurbet 'Erma, pointing out truly that 'Erma is
the exact equivalent of 'Arim (Ezr 2 25). Un-
fortunately the 2d part of the name would appear
from the references in 1 Esd and in Onom to be that
part which was forgotten long ago, so that the
argument even of the philological — the strongest —
grounds cannot be of much value. The greatest
objections in the minds of most students are the
unsuitability of the position to the requirements of
the Judah-Benjamin frontier and its distance from
the other Gibeonite cities.

The present writer suggests another site which,
in his opinion, meets at least some of the require-
ments better than the older proposals. Standing
on the hill of Beth-shemesh and looking N.W., with
the cities of Zorah (Sur'ah) and Eshtaol (JEshu'a) full
in view, a lofty hill crowned by a considerable
forest catches the eye. The village a little below
the summit is called Beit Mah^ir, and the hilltop
itself is the shrine of a local saint known as Sheikh
el Ajam. So "holy" is the site, that no trees in this
spot are ever cut, nor is fallen brushwood removed.
There is a Wely or sanctuary of the saint, and
round about are scores of very curious and appar-
ently ancient graves. Southward from this site
the eye follows the line of Judaean hills — probably
the Mt. Jearim of Josh 15 10 — until it strikes the
outstanding point of Kesld (Chesalon), some 2 miles
to the S. If the ark was taken here, the people of
Beth-shemesh could have followed its progress
almost the whole way to its new abode. Although
the name, which appears to mean "besieged" or
"confined," in no degree helps, in all the other re-
spects (see 2 above), this site suits well the condi-
tions of Kiriath-jearim.

LiTEBATnBE. — See PEFS, 1878, 196-99; PEF, III.
43-52; HGHL, 225 I; BB. 11, 11 1; Buhl, GAP, Index.
E. W. G. Mastbrman
KIRIA.TH-SANNAH, kir-i-ath-san'a (HSD n:]-)^ ,
Tfiryath §anndh; AVKirjath Sannah): In Josh 15 49
it is called "Debir," and is identical with Kihiath-
SEPHER (q.v.). As TriXis ypa/j.fi.dTav, pdlis grammd-
ton, "city of books," is the reading in LXX, the
most natural explanation is that HSD , ^anndh, is
a copyist's error for ISO , ^epher, but Sayce con-
siders this an ancient Can. name meaning "city
of instruction," and that it occurs in the Am Tab
in the form "Bit' sani."

KIRUTH-SEPHER, kir-i-ath-se'fer (ISO fillip ,
Ifiryath ?epher; tv^ by many, as if it were Heb, as
"house of books." LXX iriXis 7pa|j.|i.dT(Dv, pdlis
grammdton; AV Kirjath Sepher: other suggestions
have been made: "border-town" [Moore] or "toll-
town" [G. A. Smith]): In two || passages (Josh
15 15 f; Jgs 1 11 f), it is mentioned as identical
with Debir (q.v.), which has been frequently
identified with edh-Dhdheriyeh. Sayce would place



1813



THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA



Eiriath-jearim
Kiss



Kiriath-sepher to the W. of Gath. See PEFS,
1893, 33-35.

KIRJATH, ktlr'jath, kir'jath. See Kiriath.

KIRJATH-ARBA, kdr-jath-ar'ba, kir-jath-ar'ba.

See KiBIATH-ARBA.

KIRJATH-BAAL, kAr-jath-ba'al, kir-jath-ba'al.

See KiRIATH-JEARIM.

KIRJATHAIM, kflr-ja-tha'im, kir-ja-tha'im. See
Kiriath AIM.

KISEUS, kis-e'us (Kio-evs, Kisetls; LXX, B
[Swete] reads Keisaios; AV Cisai): The great-
grandfather of Mordecai (Ad Est 11 2). See
KiSH, (5).

KISH, kish (lljip , Jfish; Kts, Kis, Kets, Kels,
"bow," "power"): The name of five persons men-
tioned in the Bible:

(1) The son of Abiel and the father of Saul, the
first king of Israel. He was of the tribe of Benja-
min, of the family of the Matrites (1 S 9 1; 14 51;
cf Acts 13 21; 1 S 10 21). According to 1 Ch 8
33 and 9 39, "Ner begat K." By reading "Ner
begat Abner". (cf 1 S 14 51; 1 Ch 26 28), the
difficulty is at least partly overcome. In 1 Ch 12
1, K. is also mentioned as the father of Saul, and
again in 2 S 21 14, we are told that the sepulcher
of K. was located in the country of Benjamin, in
Zela. His place of residence seems to have been
at Gibeah.

(2) Another K. is mentioned (1 Ch 8 29 f ;
9 35 f ) as the son of Jeiel and his wife Maacah. He
is usually supposed to be the uncle of Saul's father.

(3) A Levite, the son of Mahli the Merarite
(1 Ch 23 21 f; cf 24 29).

(4) Another Merarite Levite in the time of Heze-
kiah (2 Ch 29 12).

(5) The great-grandfather of Mordecai, of the
tribe of Benjamin (Est 2 5). William Baur

KISHI, kish't OV^p, bisM, "snarer," "fowler"):
Father of Ethan, one of the singers David "set over
the service of song" in the house of the Lord (1 Ch
6 31); the "Kushaiah" of 1 Ch 15 17 (cf 1 Ch 6
44).

KISHION, kish'i-on, kish'yon (I^Tpp , Ushyon) :
A city in the territory of Issachar (Josh 19 20),
given to the Gershonite Levites (21 28; AV wrongly
"Kishon"). The || passage in 1 Ch 6 72 reads
"Kedesh" instead of "Kishion." The true reading
is probably lilCnp , Ifidhshon. Conder suggests a
likely identification with Tell Ahu I^edes, not far
from Taanach.

KISHON, ki'shon, kish'on 0110"^?, Ushon;
Kei<r<Sv, Keisdn): The "watercourse" or "torrent
stream" along the banks of which the great battle
was fought between Israel, led by Deborah and
Barak, and the army of Sisera, in the waters of which
so many perished (Jgs 4 7, etc). It is probably
mentioned earUer as "the brook that is before
Jokneam" (Josh 19 11; see Jokneam). It appears
again as the scene of Elijah's slaughter of the
prophets of Baal (1 K 18 40). "The torrent" par
excellence in the district is the modern el-Mulfatta\
a stream which drains all the plain of Esdraelon to
the W. of the watershed — a line drawn from Iksal
to Nain, and thence to el-Fuleh and ZerHn. All the
water E. of this line, from the Nazareth hills. Tabor
and Little Hermon, flows down Wady esh-Sherrar
and Nahr Jalud into the Jordan. The Kishon



collects the streams from the western slopes of Gil-
boa in the rainy season; and the water from the
strong spring at Jenin. Contributions also come
from the copious fountains in the neighborhood
of Megiddo. At Sa'adiyeh, again, some 3 miles
E. of Haifa, its volume is largely increased by
springs "rising at the base of Carmel, on the edge of
the plain of Acre. From Jenin in the S.E., the
deep torrent bed follows a westerly direction, with
numerous windings cutting the plain in two, until
it reaches the pass at the northeastern base of
Carmel. Through the gorge between the moun-
tain and the hills of Galilee it reaches the plain of
Acre. From Sa'adiyeh it flows in a deep sluggish
stream through the marsh-land to the sea near
Haifa. In this part the crocodile is said to have
been seen at times.

In the summer season the water Irom the springs is
largely absorbed by irrigation, and the upper reaches of
the river are soon dry. The bed runs along the bottom
of a trench some 20 ft. deep through the plain. It is
easily crossed at the fords by those who know how to
avoid the localities of the springs. In time of heavy
rains the trench is swiftly filled, and the soft soil of the



Online LibraryJames OrrThe International standard Bible encyclopedia → online text (page 130 of 218)