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had dug for his brothers.

By the final testament of Herod, as ratified by
Rome, the kingdom was divided as follows : Arche-
laus received one-half of the kingdom, with the
title of king, really "ethnarch," governing Judaea,
Samaria and Idumaea; Antipas was appointed
"tetrarch" of Galilee and Peraea; Philipj "tetrarch"
of Trachonitis, Gaulonitis and Paneas. To Sa-
lome, his intriguing sister, he bequeathed Jamnia,
Ashdod and Phasaelus, together with 500,000
drachmas of coined silver. All his kindred were
liberally provided for in his will, "so as to leave
them all in a wealthy condition" (Ant, XVII,
viii, 1). In his death he had been better to his
family than in his life. He died unmourned and
unbeloved by his own people, to pass into history
as a name soiled by violence and blood. As the
waters of Callirhoe were unable to cleanse his cor-
rupting body, those of time were unable to wash
away the stains of a tyrant's name. The only time
he is mentioned in the NT is in Mt 2 and Lk 1.
In Mt he is associated with the wise men of the
East, who came to investigate the birth of the
"king of the Jews." Learning their secret, Herod
found out from the ' 'priests andscribesofthe people' '
where the Christ was to be born and ordered the
"massacre of the innocents," with which his name
is perhaps more generally associated than with any
other act of his life. As Herod died in 4 BC and
some time elapsed between the massacre and his
death (Mt 2 19), we have here a clue to the ap-
proximate fixing of the true date of Christ's birth.
Another, in this same connection, is an eclipse of
the moon, the only one mentioned by Jos (Ant,
XVII, vi, 4; text and note), which was seen shortly
before Herod's death. This eclipse occurred on
March 13, in the year of the Julian Period, 4710,
therefore 4 BC.

Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great
and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. Half Idu-
maean, half Samaritan, he had there-
3. Herod fore not a drop of Jewish blood in his
Antipas veins, and "Galilee of the Gentiles"

seemed a fit dominion for such a prince.
He ruled as "tetrarch" of Galilee and Peraea (Lk
3 1) from 4 BC till 39 AD. The gospel picture we
have of him is far from prepossessing. He is super-
stitious (Mt 14 If), foxlike in his cunning (Lk 13
31 f) and wholly immoral. John the Baptist was
brought into his life through an open rebuke of
his gross immorality and defiance of the laws of
Moses (Lev 18 16), and paid for his courage with
his life (Mt 14 10; Ant, XVIII, v, 2).

On the death of his father, although he was
younger than his brother Archelaus (Ant, XVII,
ix, 4 f ; BJ, II, ii, 3), he contested the will of Herod,
who had given to the other the major part of the
dominion. Rome, however, sustained the will
and assigned to him the "tetrarchy" of Galilee
and Peraea, as it had been set apart for him by
Herod {Ant, XVII, xi, 4). Educated at Rome
with Archelaus and PhiUp, his half-brother, son
of Mariamne, daughter of Simon, he imbibed
many of the tastes and graces and far more of the
vices of the Romans. His first wife was a
daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But he sent
her back to her father at Petra, for the sake of
Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip, whom he
had met and seduced at Rome. Since the latter
was the daughter of Aristobulus, his half-brother,
and therefore his niece, and at the same time the




wife of another half-brother, the union between
her and Antipas was doubly sinful. Aretas repaid
this insult to his daughter by a destructive war
(Ant, XVIII, V, 1). Herodias had a baneful influ-
ence over him and wholly dominated his life (Mt
14 3-10). He emulated the example of his father
in a mania for erecting buildings and beautifjdng
cities. Thus he built the wall of Sepphoris and
made the place his capital. He elevated Bethsaida
to the rank of a city and gave it the name "Julia,"
after the daughter of Tiberius. Another example
of this inherited or cultivated building-mania was
the work he did at Betharamphtha, which he called
"Julias" (Ant, XVIII, ii, 1). His influence on his
subjects was morally bad (Mk 8 15). If his life
was less marked by enormities than his father's, it
was only so by reason of its inevitable restrictions.
The last glimpse the Gospels afford of him shows
him to us in the final tragedy of the life of Christ.
He is then at Jerus. Pilate in his perplexity had
sent the Saviour bound to Herod, and the utter
inefficiency and flippancy of the man is revealed
in the account the Gospels give us of the incident
(Lk 23 7-12; Acts 4 27). It served, however, to
bridge the chasm of the enmity between Herod
and Pilate (Lk 23 12), both of whom were to be
stripped of their power and to die in shameful exile.
When Caius Caligula had become emperor and
when his scheming favorite Herod Agrippa I,
the bitter enemy of Antipas, had been made king
in 37 AD, Herodias prevailed on Herod Antipas
to accompany her to Rome to demand a similar
favor. The machinations of Agrippa and the ac-
cusation of high treason preferred against him,
however, proved his undoing, and he was banished
to Lyons in Gaul, where he died in great misery
{Ant, XVIII, vii, 2; BJ, II, ix, 6).

Herod Philip was the son of Herod the Great and

Cleopatra of Jerus. At the death of his father he

inherited Gaulonitis, Traohonitis and

4. Herod Paneas (Ant, XVII, viii, 1). He was
Philip apparently utterly unlike the rest of

the Herodian family, retiring, digni-
fied, moderate and just. He was also wholly free
from the intriguing spirit of his brothers, and it is
but fair to suppose that he inherited this totally
un-Herodian character and disposition from his
mother. He died in the year 34 AD, and his
territory was given three years later to Agrippa I,
his nephew and the son of Aristobulus, together
with the tetrarchy of Lysanias (Ant, XVIII, iv, 6:
XIX, V, 1).

Herod Archelaus was the oldest son of Herod the
Great by Malthace, the Samaritan. He was a man

of violent temper, reminding one a great

5. Herod deal of his father. Educated like all
Archelaus the Herodian princes at Rome, he was

fully familiar with the life and arbi-
trariness of the Rom court. In the last days of his
father's life, Antipater, who evidently aimed at the
extermination of all the heirs to the throne, accused
him and Philip, his half-brother, of treason. Both
were acquitted (Ant, XVI, iv, 4; XVII, vii, 1).
By the will of hi? father, the greater part of the
Herodian kingdom fell to his share, with the title
of "ethnarch." The will was contested by his
brother Antipas before the Rom court. While
the matter was in abeyance, Archelaus incurred
the hatred of the Jews by the forcible repression of
a rebellion, in which some 3,000 people were slain.
They therefore opposed his claims at Rome, but
Archelaus, in the face of all this opposition, received
the Rom support (Ant, XVII, xi, 4). It is very
ingeniously suggested that this episode may be
the foundation of the parable of Christ, found in
Lk 19 12-27. Archelaus, once invested with the
government of Judaea, ruled with a hard hand, so

that Judaea and Samaria were both soon in a chronic
state of unrest. The two nations, bitterly as they
hated each other, became friends in this common
crisis, and sent an embassy to Rome to complain
of the conduct of Archelaus, and this time they were
successful. Archelaus was warned by a dream of
the coming disaster, whereupon he went at once to
Rome to defend himseH, but wholly in vain. His
government was taken from him, his possessions
were all confiscated by the Rom power and he him-
self was banished to Vienna in Gaul (Ant, XVII, xiii,
2, 3). He, too, displayed some of his father's taste
for architecture, in the building of a royal palace
at Jericho and of a village, named after himself,
Archelais. He was married first to Mariamne, and
after his divorce from her to Glaphyra, who had
been the wife of his half-brother Alexander (Ant,
XVII, xiii). The only mention made of him in
the Gospels is found in Mt 2 22.

Of Herod, son of Herod the Great and Mariamne,
Simon's daughter, we know nothing except that
he married Herodias, the daughter of his dead half-
brother Aristobulus. He is called Philip in the NT
(Mt 14 3), and it was from him that Antipas lured
Herodias away. His later history is wholly un-
known, as well as that of Herod, the brother of
Philip the tetrarch, and the oldest son of Herod the
Great and Cleopatra of Jerus.

Two members of the Herodian family are named
Agrippa. They are of the line of Aristobulus, who
through Mariamne, granddaughter
6. Herod of Hyrcanus, carried down the fine of
Agrippa I the Asmonean blood. And it is worthy
of note that in this line, nearly extin-
guished by Herod through his mad jealousy and
fear of the Maccabean power, the kingdom of Herod
came to its greatest glory again.

Herod Agrippa I, called Agrippa by Jos, was the
son of Aristobulus and Bernice and the grandson
of Herod the Great and Mariamne. Educated at
Rome with Claudius (Ant, XVIII, vi, 1, 4), he was
possessed of great shrewdness and tact. Returning
to Judaea for a little while, he came back to Rome
in 37 AD. He hated his uncle Antipas and left
no stone unturned to hurt his cause. His mind
was far-seeing, and he cultivated, as his grandfather
had done, every means that might lead to his own
promotion. He, therefore, made fast friends with
Caius Caligula, heir presumptive to the Rom
throne, and his rather outspoken advocacy of the
latter's claims led to his imprisonment by Tiberius.
This proved the making of his fortune, for Caligula
did not forget him, but immediately on his accession
to the throne, liberated Agrippa and bestowed on
him, who up to that time had been merely a private
citizen, the "tetrarohies" of Philip, his uncle, and
of Lysanias, with the title of king, although he
did not come into the possession of the latter till
two more years had gone by (Ant, XVIII, vi, 10).
The foolish ambition of Herod Antipas led to his
undoing, and the emperor, who had heeded the
accusation of Agrippa against his uncle, bestowed
on him the additional territory of Galilee and Peraea
in 39 AD. Agrippa kept in close touch with the
imperial government, and when, on the assassina-
tion of Caligula, the imperial crown was offered to
the indifferent Claudius, it fell to the lot of Agrippa
to lead the latter to accept the proffered honor.
This led to further imperial favors and further ex-
tension of his territory, Judaea and Samaria being
added to his domain, 40 AD. The fondest dreams
of Agrippa had now been reaUzed, his father's fate
was avenged and the old Herodian power had been
restored to its original extent. He ruled with great
munificence and was very tactful in his contact
with the Jews. With this end in view, several
years before, he had moved Caligula to recall the




command of erecting an imperial statue in the city
of Jerus; and when he was forced to take sides in the
struggle between Judaism and the nascent Christian
sect, he did not hesitate a moment, but assumed the
r61e of its bitter persecutor, slaying James the apostle
with the sword and harrying the church whenever
possible (Acts 12) . He died, in the full flush of his
power, of a death, which, in its harrowing details
reminds us of the fate of his grandfather (Acts 12
20-23; Ant, XIX, viii, 2). Of the four children he
left (BJ, II, xi, 6), three are known to history —
Herod Agrippa II, king of Calchis, Bernice of im-
moral celebrity, who consorted with her own
brother in defiance of human and Divine law, and
became a byword even among the heathen (Juv.
Sat. vi. 156-60), and Drusilla, the wife of the Rom
governor Felix (Acts 24 24). According to tradi-
tion the latter perished in the eruption of Vesuvius
in 79 AD, together with her son Agrippa. With
Herod Agrippa I, the Herodian power had virtu-
ally run its course.

Herod Agrippa II was the son of Herod Agrippa
I and Cypres. When his father died in 44 AD he
was a youth of only 17 years and con-
7. Herod sidered too young to assume the gov-
Agrippa II ernment of Judaea. Claudius there-
fore placed the country under the care
of a procurator. Agrippa had received a royal
education in the palace of the emperor himself
(Ant, XIX, ix, 2). But he had not wholly for-
gotten his people, as is proven by his intercession
in behaU of the Jews, when they asked to be per-
mitted to have the custody of the official high-
priestly robes, till then in the hands of the Romans
and to be used only on stated occasions {Ant, XX,
i, 1). On the death of his uncle, Herod of Calchis,
Claudius made Agrippa II "tetrarch" of the terri-
tory, 48 AD (BJ, II, xii, 1; XIV, iv; Ant, XX, v,
2). As Jos teUs us, he espoused the cause of the
Jews whenever he could (Ant, XX, vi, 3). Four
years later (52 AD), Claudius extended the do-
minion of Agrippa by giving him the old "tetrar-
chies' ' of Philip and Lysanias. Even at Calchis they
had called him king; now it became his official title
{Ant, XX, vii, 1). Still later (55 AD), Nero added
some GaUlean and Peraean cities to his domain.
His whole career indicates the predominating influ-
ence of the Asmonean blood, which had shown itself
in his father's career also. If the Herodian taste
for architecture reveals itseU here and there {Ant,
XX, viii, 11; IX, iv), there is a total absence of the
cold disdain wherewith the Herods in general treated
their subjects. The Agrippas are Jews.

Herod Agrippa II figures in the NT in Acts 25
13; 26 32. Paul there calls him "king" and ap-
peals to him as to one knowing the Scriptures. As
the brother-in-law of Felix he was a favored guest
on this occasion. His relation to Bernice his sister
was a scandal among Jews and Gentiles alike {Ant,
XX, vii, 3) . In the fall of the Jewish nation, Herod
Agrippa' s kingdom went down. Knowing the
futility of resistance, Agrippa warned the Jews not
to rebel against Rome, but in vain {BJ, II, xvi, 2-
6; XVII, iv; XVIII, ix; XIX, iii). When the
war began he boldly sided with Rome and fought
under its banners, getting wounded by a sling-stone
in the siege of Gamala {BJ, IV, i, 3). The
oration by which he sought to persuade the Jews
against the rebellion is a masterpiece of its kind
and became historical {BJ, II, xvi). When the in-
evitable came and when with the Jewish nation
also the kingdom of Herod Agrippa II had been
destroyed, the Romans remembered his loyalty.
With Bernice his sister he removed to Rome,
where he became a praetor and died in the year 100
AD, at the age of 70 years, in the beginning of
~ 'an's reign.

LiTERATUHE. — Jos, Ant and BJ; Strabo; Dio Cassius.
Among all modern works on the subject, Schiirer, The
Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (5 vols) is per-
haps still the best.

Heney E. Doskeb

HERODIANS, hS-ro'di-anz ('HpcpSiavot, Hero-
dianoi): A party twice mentioned in the Gospels
(Mt 22 16||Mk 12 13; 3 6) as acting with the
Pharisees in opposition to Jesus. They were not a
religious sect, but, as the name implies, a court or
political party, supporters of the dynasty of Herod.
Nothing is known of them beyond what the Gospels
state. Whatever their political aims, they early
perceived that Christ's pure and spiritual teaching
on the kingdom of God was irreconcilable with
these, and that Christ's influence with the people
was antagonistic to their interests. Hence, in
Galilee, on the occasion of the healing of the man
with the withered hand, th6y readily joined with
the more powerful party of the Pharisees in plots to
crush Jesus (Mk 3 6) ; and again, in Jerus, in the
last week of Christ's life, they renewed this alliance
in the attempt to entrap Jesus on the question of
the tribute money (Mt 22 16). The warning of
Jesus to His disciples to "beware of the leaven of
Herod" (Mk 8 15) may have had reference to the
insidious spirit of this party. James Orb

HERODIAS, he-ro'di-as ('HpoSids or 'HpcySids,

Herodids): The woman who compassed the death
of John the Baptist at Machaerus (Mt 14 1-12;
Mk 6 14-29; cf also Lk 3 19.20; 9 7-9). Accord-
ing to the Gospel records, Herodias had previously
been married to Philip, but had deserted him for
his brother Herod the tetrarch. For this Herod
was reproved by John (cf Lev 18 16; 20 21), and
Herod, therefore, to please Herodias, bound him
and oast him into prison. According to Mt 14 5
he would even then have put John to death, but
"feared the multitude," which regarded John as a
prophet. But Mk 6 19 f relates it was Herodias
who esp. desired the death of John, but that she
was withstood by Herod whose conscience was not
altogether dead. This latter explanation is more
in harmony with the sequel. At Herod's birthday
feast, Herodias induced her daughter Salome, whose
dancing had so charmed the tetrarch, to ask as her
reward the head of John the Baptist on a charger.
This was given her and she then brought it to her

Herodias was daughter of Aristobulus, son of
Herod the Great, by Mariamne, daughter of Hyr-
canus. Her second husband (of above) was Herod
Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea (c 4r-39 AD),
son of Herod the Great by Malthace. Herod Anti-
pas was thus the step-brother of Aristobulus, father
of Herodias. Regarding the first husband of Hero-
dias, to whom she bore Salome, some hold that the
Gospel accounts are at variance with that of Jos.
In Mt 14 3; Mk 6 17; Lk 3 19, he is called Philip
the brother of Herod (Antipas). But in Mt 14 3
and Lk 3 19 the name Philip is omitted by certain
important MSS. According to Jos, he was Herod,
son of Herod the Great by Mariamne daughter of
Simon the high priest, and was thus a step-brother
of Herod Antipas (of Jos, Ant, XVIII, v, 4). It is
suggested in explanation of the discrepancy (1) that
Herod, son of Mariamne, bore a second name
Philip, or (2) that there is confusion in the Gospels
with Herod-Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, who
was the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra, and
who was in reality the husband of Salome, daughter
of Herodias (cf also A. B. Bruce, Expos Gr Test.,
I, 381; A. C. Headlam, art. "Herod" in HDB, II,
359, 360). According to Jos {Ant, VIII, vii, 2;
XVIII, vii, 1) the ambition of Herodias proved the
ruin of Herod Antipas. Being jealous of the power
of Agrippa her brother, she induced Herod to de-




mand of Caligula the title of king. This was refused
through the machinations of Agrippa, and Herod
was banished. But the pride of Herodias kept her
still faithful to her husband in his misfortune.

C. M. Kehr
HERODION, he-ro'di-on ("HpuSCwv, Herodion;
WH 'HpuSCuv): A Rom Christian to whom Paul
sent greetings (Rom 16 11). The name seems to
imply that he was a freedman of the Herods, or a
member of the household of Aristobulus, the grand-
son of Herod the Great (ver 10). Paul calls him
"my kinsman," i.e. "a Jew" (see Junias, 1).

HERON, her'un (nS5l!?, 'anaphah; xO'pO'SpuSs,
charadrios; Lat Ardea cinerea) : Herons are men-
tioned only in the abomination lists of Lev 11 19
(m "ibis") and Dt 14 18. They are near relatives


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^ ^ -.


h ,









^^^^^^- '$

- ^^^^

Heron {Ardea cinerea).

of crane, stork, ibis and bittern. These birds, blue,
white or brown, swarmed in Europe and wintered
around Merom, along the Jordan, at the head-
waters of the Jabbok and along its marshy bed in
the dry season. Herons of Southern Africa that
summered in the Holy Land loved to nest on the
banks of Merom, and raise their young among the
bulrushes, papyrus, reeds and water grasses,
although it is their usual habit to build in large trees.
The white herons were small, the blue, larger, and
the brown, close to the same size. The blue were
31 ft. in length, and had a 5-ft. sweep. The beak,
neck and legs constituted two-thirds of the length
of the body, which is small, lean and bony, taking
its appearance of size from its long loose feathers.
Moses no doubt forbade these birds as an article of
diet, because they ate fish and in older specimens
would be tough, dark and evil smeUing. The very
poor of our western and southeastern coast states
eat them. Gene Stratton-Pokter

HESED, he'sed, SON OF. See Ben-hbsed.

HESHBON, hesh'bon (paUJn , ^es/ifton; 'Eo-epiv,
Hesebon) :. The royal city of Sihon king of the Amor-
ites, taken and occupied by the Israelites under
Moses (Nu 21 25 f, etc). It lay on the southern
border of Gad (Josh 13 26), and was one of the
cities fortified by Reuben (Nu 32 37). It is reck-
oned among the cities of Gad given to the Merarite

Levites (Josh 21 39). In later Ht. (Isa 15 4; 16
8f; Jer 48 2.34.45; 49 3) it is referred to as a
city of Moab. It passed again into Jewish hands,
and is mentioned by Jos {Ant, XIII, xv, 4) as
among their possessions in the country of Moab
under Alexander Jannaeus. The city with its
district called Hesebonitis, was also under the juris-
diction of Herod the Great (Ant, XV, vii, 5, where
it is described as lying in the Peraea). Onom
places it 20 Rom miles from the Jordan. It is rep-
resented by the modern Hesban, a ruined site in the
mountains over against Jericho, about 16 miles E-
of the Jordan. It stands on the edge of Wady
Hesban in a position of great strength, about 600
ft. above 'Am Hesban. The ruins, dating mainly
from Rom times", spread over two hills, respectively
2,930 ft. and 2,954 ft. in height. There are remains
of a temple overlooked from the W. by those of a
castle. There is also a large ruined reservoir; while
the spring in the valley forms a succession of pools
(Cant 7 4). The city is approached from the valley
by a steep path passing through a cutting in the
rock, which may have been closed by a gate (Con-
der, Heth and Moab, 142). On a hill to the W.,
el-Kwmlyeh, is a collection of dolmens and stone
circles (Musil, Arabia Petraea, I, 383 ff).

W. EwiNG

HESHMON, hesh'mon (lliaffin, heshmon): An
unidentified place on the border of Judah toward
Edom (Josh 15 27). This may have been the
original home of the Hasmoneans.

HETH, hath (n) : The eighth letter of the Heb
alphabet; transliterated in this Encyclopaedia as
h (guttural h). It came also to be used for the
number 8. For name, etc, see Alphabet.

HETH, heth (nn , heth) : In Gen 23 10 the an-
cestor of the Hittites. As the various peoples who
occupied Canaan were thought to belong to one
stock, Gen 10 15 (1 Ch 1 13) makes Heth the
(2d) son of Canaan. In Gen 23 the "sons of Heth"
occupy Hebron, but they were known to have come
there from the north. A reference to this seems to
be preserved in the order of the names in Gen 10
15.16, where Heth is placed between Sidon and the
Jebusites. See Hittites.

HETHLON, heth'lon ('ii'jnn, hethlon; Pesh
heihron): Name of a place associated with Zedad
on the ideal northern boundary of Israel, as given
in Ezk 47 15 and 48 1, but not named in Nu 34
8, while the LXX evidently tr'' the text it had. In
accordance with the opinion they hold as to the
boundary hne of Northern Israel, van Kasteren and
Buhl seek to identify Hethlon with 'Adlun on the
river Qasmiyeh. Much more in harmony with the
line of the other border towns given is its identifi-
cation with Heitala to the N.E. of Tripoli. The
"way of Hethlon" would then coincide with the
Eleutherus valley, between Homs and the Mediter-
ranean, through which the railway now runs, and
to this identification the LXX seems to give testi-
mony, indicating some path of "descent" from the
"'a. W. M. Christie

HEWER, hu'er (3ph, hotebh): Applies esp. to a
wood-worker or wood-gatherer (cf Arab, hattab,
"a woodman") (Josh 9 21.23.27; 2 Ch 2 lb;"Jer
46 22). Gathering wood, like drawing water' was
a menial task. Special servants were assigned to
the work (Dt 29 1 1 ) . Joshua set the Gibeonites to
hewing wood and drawing water as a punishment
for their trickery, whereas were it not for the oath
which the Israelites had sworn, the Gibeonites
would probably have been killed. See Drawer
OF Water.




S^n, hagabh, from the root "to cut" or "to
carve," applies to hewers of stone in 1 K 6 15;
2 K 12 12; 1 Ch 22 15; 2 Ch 2 18.

James A. Patch
HEXATEUCH, hek'sa-tuk: This word, formed
on the analogy of Pentateuch, Heptateuch, etc, is
used by modern writers to denote the

1. Evidence first six books of the Bible (i.e. the

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