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3. Marks of upon the residence of Jesus at Naza-
Historicity reth. This not only brings Lk's Gospel
in support of the center, but groups
the story around a point of known interest to the
first generation of believers. It is interesting to
note that the residence in Egypt has independent
backing of a sort. There are in existence two
stories, one traced by Origen through Jews of his
own day to earlier times, and the other in the Talm,
which connect Jesus with Egypt and attempt to
account for His miracles by reference to Egyp magic
(see Plummer, "Matthew," Ex. Comm., 17,18).

(2) The fact that the story of the Magi is told
so objectively and with such personal detachment.
Both Jews and early Christians had strong views
both as to astrology and magic in general (see
Plummer, op. cit., 15), but the author of this Gospel
tells the story without emphasis and without com-
ment and from the viewpoint of the Magi. His
interest is purely historical and matter-of-fact .

(3) The portrait of Herod the Great. So far as
Herod is concerned the incident is usually discussed
with exclusive reference to the savagery involved.
By many it is affirmed that we have here a hostile
and unfair portrait. This contention could hardly
be sustained even if the question turned entirely
upon the point of savagery. But there is far more
than savagery in the incident, (a) In the first place
there is this undeniable element of inherent proba-
bility in the story. Practically all of Herod's
murders, including those of his beloved wife and
his sons, were perpetrated under the sway of one
emotion and in obedience to a single motive. They
were in practically every instance for the purpose
of consolidating or perpetuating his power. He
nearly destroyed his own immediate family in the
half-mad jealousy that on occasion drove him to
the very limits of ferocity, simply because they were
accused of plotting against him. The accusations
were largely false, but the suspicion doomed those
accused. The murder of the Innocents was another
crime of the same sort. The old king was obsessed
by the fear of a claimant to his petty throne; the
Messianic hope of the Jews was a perpetual secret
torment, and the murder of the children, in the

attempt to reach the child whose advent threatened
him, was at once so original in method -and so char-
acteristic in purpose as to give an inimitable veri-
similitude to the whole narrative. There are also
other traits of truth. (6) Herod's prompt discovery
of the visit of the Magi and their questions is in
harmony with what we know of the old ruler's
watchfulness and his elaborate system of espionage,
(c) Characteristic also is the subtlety with which he
deals with the whole situation. How striking and
vivid, with all its rugged simplicity, is the story
of the king's pretended interest in the quest of the
strangers, the solemn conclave of Jewish leaders
with himself in the r61e of earnest inquirer, his ur-
gent request for information that he may worship
also, followed by his swift anger (note that iffv-
liciSij, ethumothe, "was wroth," ver 16, is not used
elsewhere in the NT) at being deceived, and the
blind but terrible stroke of his questing vengeance.
All these items are so true to the man, to the
atmosphere which always surrounded him, and to
the historic situation, that we are forced to conclude,
either that we have veracious history more or less
directly received from one who was an observer of
the events described, or the work of an incomparably
clever romancer. Louis Matthews Sweet

INORDINATE, in-6r'di-nat ("ill-regulated,"
hence "immoderate," "excessive"; Lat in, "not,"
ordinatus, "set in order") : Only twice .in AV. In
each case there is no corresponding adj. in the orig-
inal, but the word was inserted by the translators
as being implied in the noun. It disappears in RV:
Ezk 23 11, "in her inordinate love" (RV "in her
doting"); HaSy, '&ghabhah, "lust"; Col 3 6 "in-
ordinate affection" (RV "passion"); irddos, pdthos,
a word which in classical Gr may have either a good
or a bad sense (any affection or emotion of the
mind) , but in the NT is used only in a bad sense
(passion). D. Miall Edwards

INQUIRE, in-kwir' (bXlB , sha'al, "to ask," "de-
sire"; ti\r4<t>, zetto, "to seek"); A form sometimes
employed with reference to the practice of divina-
tion, as where Saul "inquires of" (or "consults")
the witch of Endor as to the issue of the coming
battle (1 S 28 6.7) (see Divination).

In Job 10 6, "to inquire [iBpS , bdkash] after
iniquity" signifies to bring to light and punish for
it, and Job asks distractedly if God's time is so short
that He is in a hurry to find him guilty and to pun-
ish him as if He had only a man's few days to live.

"To inquire of Jeh" denotes the consultation of
oracle, priest, prophet or Jeh Himself, as to a certain
course of action or as to necessary supplies (Jgs 20
27 AV, "to ask"; 1 K 22 5; 1 S 9 9 [T»11, da-
rash]; 10 22 AV; 2 S 2 1; 5 19.23; Ezk 36 37).

"To inquire ["l]52, baJfar] in his temple" (palace)
means to find out all that constant fellowship or
unbroken intercourse with God can teach (Ps 27 4).

Prov 20 25 warns against rashness in making a
vow and afterward considering {bakar, "to make
inquiry") as to whether it can be fulfilled or how it
may be eluded.

In the AV, the tr of several Gr words: diaginosko,
"to know thoroughly" (Acts 23 15); epizeteo, "to
seek after" (Acts 19 39); suzeted, "to seek to-
gether" (Lk 22 23); exetdzo, "to search out" (Mt
10 11). M. O. Evans

INQUISITION, in-kwi-zish'un (TlJn'n, darash,
"to follow," "diligently inquire," "question,"
"search" [Dt 19 18; Ps 9 12], TlJi?a, balfosh, "to
search out," "to strive after," "inquire" [Est 2 23]):
The term refers, as indicated by these passages,
first of all to a careful and diligent inquiry necessary




to ascertain the truth from witnesses in a court, but
may also refer to a careful examination into circum-
stances or conditions without official authority.

INSCRIPTION, in-skrip'shun (vb. ein7p(i<|)<i>,

epigrdpho, "to write upon," "inscribe"): The word
occurs once in EV in Acts 17 23 of the altar at
Athens with the inscription "To an Unknown God."
On inscriptions in archaeology, see Archaeology;
Assyria; Babylonia, etc.

INSECTS, in'sekts: In EV, including the mar-
ginal notes, we find at least 23 names of insects or
words referring to them: ant, bald locust, bee,
beetle, cankerworm, caterpillar, creeping thing,
cricket, crimson, flea, fly, gnat, grasshopper, honey,
hornet, locust, louse, (lice), moth, palmer-worm,
sandfly, scarlet-worm, silk-worm. These can be
referred to about 12 insects, which, arranged sys-
tematically, are: Hymenoptera, ant, bee, hornet;
Lepidoptera, clothes-moth, silk-worm; Siphonap-
lera, flea; Diptera, fly; Rhynchota, louse, scarlet-
worm; Orthoptera, several kinds of grasshoppers
and locusts.

The word "worm" refers not only to the scarlet-
worm, but to various larvae of Lepidoptera, Coleop-
tera, and Diptera. "Creeping things" refers indefi-
nitely to insects, reptiles, and beasts. In the list
of 23 names given above honey and bee refer to one
insect, as do crimson and scarlet. Sandfly has no
place if "lice" be retained in Ex 8 16 ff. Bald
locust, beetle, canker-worm, cricket, and palmer-
worm probably all denote various kinds of grass-
hoppers and locusts. When the translators of EV
had to do with two or more Heb words for which
there was only one well-recognized Eng. equivalent,
they seem to have been content with that alone, if
the two Heb words occurred in different passages;
e.g. z'hhUbh, "fly" (Eccl 10 1; Isa 7 18), and
^arohh, "fly" (Ex 8 21 ff). On the other hand, they
were put to it to find equivalents for the insect
names in Lev 11 22; Joel 1 4, and elsewhere. For
^al^'am (Lev 11 22) they evidently coined "bald
locust," following a statement of the Talm that it
had a smooth head. For gazam and yelelf they im-
ported "palmer-worm" and "canker-worm," two
old Eng. names of caterpillars, using "caterpillar"
for hasll. The AV "beetle" for hargol is absolutely
inappropriate, and the RV "cricket," while less
objectionable, is probably also incorrect. The
Eng. language seems to lack appropriate names for
different kinds of grasshoppers and locusts, and it
is difficult to suggest any names to take the places
of those against which these criticisms are directed.
See under the names of the respective insects. See
also Scorpion and Spider, which are not included
here because they are not strictly insects.

Alfred Ely Day

INSPIRATION, in-spi-ra'shun:

1. Meaning of Terms

2. Occurrences in tiie Bible

3. Consideration of Important Passages

(1) 2 Tim 3 16

(2) 2 Pet 1 19-21

(3) Jn 10 34 f

4. Clirist's Declaration That Scripture Must Be Ful-

5. His Testimony That God Is Author of Scripture

6. Similar Testimony of His Immediate Followers

7. Their Identification of God and Scripture

8. The "Oracles of God"

9. The Human Element in Scripture

10. Activities of God in Giving Scripture

11. General Problem of Origin: God's Part

12. How Human Qualities Affected Scripture. Provi-
dential Preparation

13. "Inspiration" More than Mere "Providence"

14. Witness of NT Writers to Divine Operation

15. "Inspiration" and "Revelation"

16. Scriptures a Divine-Human Book ?

17. Scripture of NT Writers Was the OT

18. Inclusion of the NT

The word "inspire" and its derivatives seem to

have come into Middle Eng. from the Fr., and have

been employed from the first (early in

1. Meaning the 14th cent.) in a considerable num-
of Terms ber of significations, physical and meta-
phorical, secular and religious. The

derivatives have been multiplied and their applica^
tions extended during the procession of the years,
until they have acquired a very wide and varied use.
Underlying all their use, however, is the constant
implication of an influence from without, producing
in its object movements and effects beyond its
native, or at least its ordinary powers. The
noun inspiration," although already in use in the
14th cent., seems not to occur in any but a theo-
logical sense until late in the 16th cent. The
specifically theological sense of all these terms is
governed, of course, by their usage in Lat theology;
and this rests ultimately on their employment in
the Lat Bible. In the Vulg Lat Bible the vb. in-
spire (Gen 2 7; Wisd 15 11; Ecclus 4 12; 2 Tim
3 16; 2 Pet 1 21) and the noun insjriratio (2 S
22 16; Job 32 8; Ps 18 15; Acts 17 25) both
occur 4 or 5 t in somewhat diverse applications.
In the development of a theological nomenclature,
however, they have acquired (along with other
less frequent applications) a technical sense with
reference to the Bib. writers or the Bib. books.
The Bib. books are called inspired as the Divinely
determined products of inspired men; the Bib.
writers are called inspired as breathed into by the
Holy Spirit, so that the product of their activities
transcends human powers and becomes Divinely
authoritative. Inspiration is, therefore, usually
defined as a supernatural influence exerted on the
sacred writers by the Spirit of God, by virtue of
which their writings are given Divine trustworthi-

Meanwhile, for Eng.-speaking men, these terms
have virtually ceased to be Bib. terms. They natur-
ally passed from the Lat Vulg into the

2. Occur- Eng. VSS made from it (most fully
rences in into the Rheims-Douay: Job 32 8;
the Bible Wisd 15 11; Ecclus 4 12; 2 Tim

3 16; 2 Pet 1 21). But in the de-
velopment of the Eng. Bible they have found ever-
decreasing place. In the EV of the Apoc (both
AV and RV) "inspired" is retained in Wisd 15 11;
but in the canonical books the nominal form alone
occurs in AV and that only twice: Job 32 8, "But
there is a spirit in man: and the inspiration of the
Almighty giveth them understanding" ; and 2 Tim
3 16, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God,
and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for cor-
rection, for instruction in righteousness." RV
removes the former of these instances, substituting
"breath" for "inspiration"; and alters the latter
so as to read: "Every scripture inspired of God is
also profitatsle for teaching, for reproof, for correc-
tion, for instruction which is in righteousness,"
with a marginal alternative in the form of, "Every
scripture is inspired of God and profitable," etc.
The word "inspiration" thus disappears from the
Eng. Bible, and the word "inspired" is left in it
only once, and then, let it be added, by a distinct
and even misleading mistranslation.

For the Gr word in this passage — eed-n-vevffTos,
thedpneuslos — very distinctly does not mean "in-
spired of God." This phrase is rather the render-
ing of the Lat, divinitus inspirata, restored from the
Wyclif ("Al Scripture of God ynspyrid is . . . .")
and Rhemish ("All Scripture inspired of God is
. . . .") VSS of the Vulg. The Gr word does not
even mean, as AV tr= it, "given by inspiration of
God," although that rendering (inherited from
Tindale: "All Scripture given by inspiration of
God is . . • ." and its successors; cf Geneva: "The




whole Scripture is given by inspiration of God and
is . . . .") has at least to say for itself that it is a
somewhat clumsy, perhaps, but not misleading,
paraphrase of the Gr term in the theological lan-
guage of the day. The Gr term has, however,
nothing to say of ijispiring or of inspiration: it
speaks only of a "spiring" or "spiration." What
it says of Scripture is, not that it is "breathed into
by God" or is the product of the Divine "inbreath-
ing" into its human authors, but that it is breathed
out by God, "God-breathed," the product of the
creative breath of God. In a word, what is de-
clared by this fundamental passage is simply that
the Scriptures are a Divine product, without any
indication of how God has operated in producing
them. No term could have been chosen, however,
which would have more emphatically asserted the
Divine production of Scripture than that which is
here employed. The "breath of God" is in Scrip-
ture just the symbol of His almighty power, the
bearer of His creative word. "By the word of Jeh,"
we read in the significant parallel of Ps 33 6, "were
the heavens made, and all the host of them by the
breath of his mouth." And it is particularly where
the operations of God are energetic that this term
(whether n^^, ru'^h,, or rTDlBJ, n'shamah) is em-
ployed to designate them — God's breath is the
irresistible outflow of His power. When Paul de-
clares, then, that "every scripture," or "all scripture"
is the product of the Divine breath, "is God-
breathed," he asserts with as much energy as he
could employ that Scripture is the product of a
specifically Divine operation.

(1) 2 Tim 3 16: In the passage in which Paul
makes this energetic assertion of the Divine origin

of Scripture he is engaged in explain-
3. Impor- ing the greatness of the advantages
tant which Timothy had enjoyed for learn-

Passages ing the saving truth of God. He had

had good teachers; and from his very
infancy he had been, by his knowledge of the Scrip-
tures, made wise unto salvation through faith in
Jesus Christ. The expression, "sacred writings,"
here employed (ver 15), is a technical one, not found
elsewhere in the NT, it is true, but occurring cur-
rently in Philo and Jos to designate that body of
authoritative books which constituted the Jewish
"Law." It appears here anarthrously because it
is set in contrast with the oral teaching which Timo-
thy had enjoyed, as something still better: he
had not only had good instructors, but also always
"an open Bible," as we should say, in his hand.
To enhance yet further the great advantage of the
possession of these Sacred Scriptures the apostle
adds now a sentence throwing their nature strongly
up to view. They are of Divine origin and there-
fore of the highest value for all holy purposes.

There is room for some difference of opinion as to the
exact construction of this declaration. Shall we render
' ' Every Scripture' ' or " All Scripture ' ' 7 Shall we render
"Every [or all] Scripture is God-breathed and [there-
fore] profitable," or "Every [or all) Scripture, being
God-breathed, is as well profitable " ? No doubt both
questions are interesting, but for the main matter
now engaging our attention they are both indifferent.
Whether Paul, looking back at the Sacred Scrlptm-es he
had just mentioned, makes the assertion he is about
to add, of them distributively, of all their parts, or col-
lectively of their entire mass, is of no moment: to say
that every part of these Sacred Scriptures is God-breathed
and to say that the whole of these Sacred Scriptures is
God-breathed, is, for the main matter, all one. Nor is
the difference great between saying that they are m all
their parts, or in their whole extent, God-breathed and
therefore profitable, and saying that they are in all their
parts, or in their whole extent, because God-breathed
as well profitable. In both cases these Sacred Scriptures
are declared to owe their value to their Divme origin;
and i n both cases this their Divine origin is energetically
asserted of their entire fabric. On the whole, the prefer-
able construction would seem to be, "Every Scnpture,
seeing that it is God-breathed, is as well profitable.

In that case, what the apostle asserts is that the Sacred
Scriptures, in their every several passage — for it is just
"passage of Scripture" which "Scripture" in this dis-
tributive use of it signifies — is the product of the cre-
ative breath of God, and, because of this its Divine origi-
nation, is of supreme value for all holy purposes.

It is to be observed that the apostle does not stop here
to tell us either what particular books enter mto the
collection which he calls Sacred Scriptures, or by what
precise operations God has produced them. Neither of
these subjects entered into the matter he had at the mo-
ment in hand. It was the value of the Scriptures, and
the source of that value in their Divine origin, which
he reQuired at the moment to assert; and these thmgs he
asserts, leaving to other occasions any further facts con-
cerning them which it might be well to emphasize. It
is also to be observed that the apostle does not teU lis
here everything for which the Scriptures are made val-
uable by their Divine origination. He speaks simply
to the point immediately in hand, and reminds Timothy
of the value which these Scriptures, by virtue of then-
Divine origin, have for the "manofGod." Their spirit-
ual power, as God-breathed, is all that he had occasion
here to advert to. Whatever other qualities may accrue
to them from their Divine origin, he leaves to other
occasions to speak of.

(2) 2 Pet 1 19-21: What Paul tells us here
about the Divine origin of the Scriptures is en-
forced and extended by a striking passage in 2 Pet
(1 19-21). Peter is assuring his readers that what
had been made known to them of "the power and
coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" did not rest on
"cunningly devised fables." He offers them the testi-
mony of eyewitnesses of Christ's glory. And then
he intimates that they have better testimony than
even that of eyewitnesses. "We have," says he,
"the prophetic word" (EV, unhappily, "the word of
prophecy"): and this, he says, is "more sure," and
therefore should certainly be heeded. He refers, of
course, to the Scriptures. Of what other "prophetic
word" could he, over against the testimony of the
eyewitnesses of Christ's "excellent glory" (AV) say
that " we have" it, that is, it is in our hands? And
he proceeds at once to speak of it plainly as "Scrip-
tural prophecy." You do well, he says, to pay
heed to the prophetic word, because we know this
first, that "every prophecy of scripture . . . ." It
admits of more question, however, whether by this
phrase he means the whole of Scripture, designated
according to its character, as prophetic, that is, of
Divine origin; or only that portion of Scripture
which we discriminate as particularly prophetic,
the immediate revelations contained in Scripture.
The former is the more likely view, inasmuch as
the entirety of Scripture is elsewhere conceived and
spoken of as prophetic. In that case, what Peter has
to say of this "every prophecy of scripture" — the
exact equivalent, it will be observed, in this case of
Paul's "every scripture" (2 Tim 3 16) — applies to
the whole of Scripture in all its parts. What he says
of it is that it does not come "of private interpre-
tation"; that is, it is not the result of human inves-
tigation into the nature of things, the product of its
writers' own thinking. This is as much as to say
it is of Divine gift. Accordingly, he proceeds at
once to make this plain in a supporting clause
which contains both the negative and the positive
declaration: "For no prophecy ever came [m "was
brought"] by the will of man, but it was as borne
by the Holy Spirit that men spoke from God." In
this singularly precise and pregnant statement there
are several things which require to be carefully
observed. There is, first of all, the emphatic de-
nial that prophecy — that is to say, on the hypothesis
upon which we are working. Scripture — owes its
origin to human initiative: '^o prophecy ever was
brought — 'came' is the word used in the EV text,
with 'was brought' in RVm — by the will of man."
Then, there is the equally emphatic assertion that
its source lies in God: it was spoken by men, in-
deed, but the men who spoke it "spake from God."
And a remarkable clause is here inserted, and
thrown forward in the sentence that stress may fall




on it, which tells us how it could be that men, in
speaking, should speak not from themselves, but
from God: it was "as borne" — it is the same word
which was rendered "was brought" above, and
might possibly be rendered "brought" here — "by
the Holy Spirit" that they spoke. Speaking thus
under the determining influence of the Holy Spirit,
the things they spoke were not from themselves,
but from God.

Here is as direct an assertion of the Divine origin
of Scripture as that of 2 Tim 3 16. But there is
more here than a simple assertion of the Divine
origin of Scripture. We are advanced somewhat
in our understanding of how God has produced the
Scriptures. It was through the instrumentality
of men who "spake from him." More specifically,
it was through an operation of the Holy Ghost on
these men which is described as '•'bearing" them.
The term here used is a very specific one. It is
not to be confounded with gmding, or directing, or
controlling, or even leading in the full sense of that
word. It goes beyond all such terms, in assigning
the effect produced specifically to the active agent.
What is "borne" is taken up by the "bearer," and
conveyed by the "bearer's" power, not its own, to
the "bearer's" goal, not its own. The men who
spoke from God are here declared, therefore, to have
been taken up by the Holy Spirit and brought by
His power to the goal of His choosing. The things
which they spoke under this operation of the Spirit
were therefore His things, not theirs. And that
is the reason which is assigned why "the prophetic
word" is so sure. Though spoken through the in-
strumentahty of men, it is, by virtue of the fact
that these men spoke "as borne by the Holy Spirit,"
an immediately Divine word. It wiU be observed
that the proximate stress is laid here, not on the
spiritual value of Scripture (though that, too, is seen
in the background), but on the Divine trustworthi-
ness of Scriptiu-e. Because this is the way every
prophecy of Scripture "has been brought," it affords
a more sure basis of confidence than even the tes-
timony of himian eyewitnesses. Of course, if we
do not understand by "the prophetic word" here
the entirety of Scriptm-e described, according to
its character, as revelation, but only that element
in Scripture which we call specifically prophecy,
then it is directly only of that element in Scripture
that these great declarations are made. In any
event, however, they are made of the prophetic
element in Scripture as written, which' was the only
form in which the readers of this Ep. possessed it,
and which is the thing specifically intimated in the
phrase "every prophecy o/ scripture." These great
declarations are made, therefore, at least of large

Online LibraryJames OrrThe International standard Bible encyclopedia → online text (page 28 of 218)