James Pedder.

The farmer's land-measurer or pocket companion [electronic resource] : showing at one view the content of any piece of land from dimensions taken in yards with a set of useful agricultural tables online

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B 3



fl?S







GIFT OF




, PERT.



OF THE



^COLLEGE OF /

FARMER'S LAND-MEASURER,



, AT oira YEEW, tmi



CONTENT OF ANY PIECE OF LAND,



DIMENSIONS TAKEN IN YAttDS.

WITH A 6ST 0?

USEFUL AGBICULTUEAL TABLES

:. !*

BY JAMES PEDDER,
//

EDITOR OF THE BOSTON CULTIVATOR.



NEW YORK:
C. M. SAXTON, AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHEE

ifcse.




lEflterdd accordiflg to Act of Congress, in the yea? ISSS, by

C, M. SAXf ON,

In the Office of the Olerk of the District Cotirt of ths United States firf Oj
Southern District of Nr* Yofk,



ADVERTISEMENT.

THE present work is offered to the Agricultural com-
munity, with perfect confidence. After the most rigid
test of experience, it is found to be accurate in all its
parts, and of the most simple application to all circum-
stances. It will prove itself an invaluable "Companion"
to the real, practical man ; giving him the information
he seeks in comparatively an instant of time, without
the labour of working over long sums ; and its applica-
tion can be made while engaged in the labours of the
field, without previous preparation.

To the possessors of large tracts of land in the West,
or open country, its use will soon create a necessity for
its aid ; for, to be enabled to set off any quantity of
land in a field containing, perhaps, a hundred acres, in
a few minutes of time, merely by stepping it and putting
down four stakes ; as also, to ascertain as quickly the
quantity of land that has been ploughed, or planted, or
cleared, out of the same tract ; is an advantage, not to
be appreciated until it shall have been enjoyed.

It is printed in the present form and size, that it mighl
become " The Farmer's Pocket Companion" in reality.

C. M. SAXTON,
152 Fulton Street, New York.
(3)



PREFACE.

THIS work consists of Tables, so constructed as tc
give the content of any regular piece of land, measuring
from one yard in length and breadth, to five hundred,
by the addition of not more than three sums. And
should the length or breadth exceed five hundred yards,
its content may readily be found, by observing the rules
which will be given in the course of the work. And to
render the book as useful as possible, the preference is
given to the use of yards, rather than to rods, or chains
and links : as all farmers can tell the length and breadth
of a piece of land by pacing or stepping it ; therefore, in
most cases, the content of a field might thus be. known,
without using rod or chain, sufficiently exact for paying
labourers' wages; ascertaining the quantity of land
ploughed in any given time ; manuring, or apportioning
seed at the time of sowing, as well as for harvesting
the crops ; without the necessity of employing a person
to survey and measure thus settling trifling disputes
between masters and workmen, to the satisfaction of
both, without calling in the aid of a third party.

There is added a table, which shows at one view what
width is necessary to form a square of land of one acre,
1* (5)



Vi PREFACE.

from one yard in length to five hundred. This is another
mode of ascertaining the quantity of seed sown per acre ;
and the convenience of these tables will be very great,
in showing the quantity of corn, grain, roots, &c., grown
upon an acre ; for it is only to step off, in any average
part of the field, eleven yards square, and weigh or
measure the produce, and forty times that quantity will
be the exact product of an acre : thus, if a bushel of
barley, &c., be obtained from eleven yards square, the
crop per acre will be ten bags of four bushels each, or
forty bushels : then, by stepping the remainder of the
field, and turning to the tables, the product of the whole
field can be ascertained most easily. Again, if such a
piece of land namely, eleven yards square produce
three bags of potatoes, the produce per acre will be
one hundred and twenty bags. Beets, turnips, carrots,
parsneps, &c., may be weighed, and the quantity ascer-
tained in a few minutes, by the same means. And when
a farmer intends to plough an acre of land for his day's
work, it is only to ascertain the length of the land by
stepping, turn to the table to find the width necessary to
form the acre, step that also, and place a rod at the spot ;
and he will derive much pleasure and interest from wit-
nessing the progress which he is making towards the
fulfilment of his task. This plan can be adopted at the
time of harvest, creating great emulation amongst the
persons employed, particularly if bands of workmen are
engaged in different parts of the field ; and in this way



PREFACE. Vll

lightening materially their labour, by keeping alive a
spirit of rivalry.

Added to these, are Tables for Manuring Land, showing
how many loads will be required to cover an acre, the
heaps being dropped at given distances, and the number
of heaps in a load being first ascertained. A Table,
showing the number of Plants required to plant an Acre.
A Time Table, showing most accurately how to keep the
time of any number of workmen, with the greatest ease
and facility. Tables for Ploughing, &c., &c. ; and a
Table of the Measurement of the Bushel, showing when
it is too large and when too small, according to the
imperial standard of measurement ; with many other
things which will be found of great interest to the agri-
culturist.

JAMES PEDDER :
January, 1854.



CONTENTS.



Introduction, and Measurement of Land Page 9

First Table for Measuring Land, from 1 to 500 yards 21
Second Table, showing width required for an Acre,

from 1 to 500 yards 122

Tables for Manuring Land 129

Table of Planting distances 134

Table for Ploughing 135

Overseer's Account of Time 136

Corn in the crib Right Angle 137

Span Level, for Draining 138

The Imperial Bushel Table 139

Measurement of Live Cattle 144



THE

FARMER'S POCKET COMPANION.



METHOD OF MEASURING LAND.

THE content of land is estimated in acres, roods, and
perches, forty of which perches make one rood, and four
roods make one acre. In adding any different quantities
of land into one sum, if the perches amount to more than
forty and under eighty, set down the odd perches above
forty, and carry one to the roods ; if the perches exceed
eighty and are under one hundred and twenty, set down
the odd perches above eighty, and carry two to the roods ;
and so on, carrying one to the roods for every forty
perches, and setting down the remainder under the
perches. And if the roods, when added together, amount
to more than four, carry one to the acre for every four
roods, and set down the remainder under the roods.
The following examples will suffice for elucidation :

First Example. Second Example, Third Example.

A. R. P. A. R. P. A. R. P.

8 1 16 3 2 14 5 2 18

3 2 24 4 3 15 4 1 36

1 2 14 319 6 28

13 2 14 11 2 38 16~1 2



In theirs* example, the perches when added together
amount to fifty -four ; these being one rood and fourteen
perches, I set down the fourteen under the perches, and
carry one to the roods, which will make the roods si>,
or one acre two roods, which is the reason of the two
being placed under the roods, the one being carried to



10



METHOD OF



the acres, which will then be found to be thirteen say
therefore, 13 acres 2 roods and 14 perches.

Second example The perches amount to thirty-eight ;
these being less than forty, or one rood, I set down the
thirty-eight under the perches, and carry none to the
roods : the roods amounting to six, I set down two to
the roods, and carry one to the acres, which will be
found to be eleven say therefore, 1 1 acres 2 roods and
38 perches.

Third example The perches amount to eighty-two,
I now set down two under the perches, and carry two
to the roods, which will make the roods five : I therefore
set down one under the roods, and carry one to the
acres, which will then be sixteen say therefore, 16 acres
1 rood and 2 perches.

It will now be shown how the content of various
pieces of land and of different figures may be found by
the following tables :

When the piece to be measured is a A

square, like the annexed figure, measure
the length and breadth in the middle,
as there described. Now, suppose the
length from A to B to be 174 yards,
breadth from C to D 87 yards, then turn
to the column in the tables under 174 .
yards long, take out the sum which
stands opposite 80 yards in width, and
also out of the same column the sum
which stands opposite 7 yards wide, and
the two sums added together will give
you the content of the field, namely,
-thus:



B

A. R. P.

174 yards long, 80 yards wide 2 3 20

174 yaids long, 7 yards wide 01



Content, 3 20



MEASURING LAND,



11



Or, if a field of the same fgure be 287 yards long and
154 yards Wide, the content will be

A. R. P.

(100 yards wide 5 3 29

287 yards long, J 50 do 2 3 34

( 4 do 88

Content, 9 21



Again If the field be wider at one end
than at the other, as in the figure here re-
presented, measure the length in the mid-
dle, as in the first example, from A to B,
and the breadth in the middle from C to D,
and find the content as before. Now, sup-
pose the length to be 303 yards, breadth
124 yards, the content will be



C 100 yards wide .
808 yards long, { 20 do



A. R. P.

.6 1 18
1 1 4




( 4 ....do 1

Content, 7 3 23



But the breadth in the middle might have been found
by measuring both ends and adding them together, and
taking half their sum for a mean breadth thus : If the
larger end be 146 yards wide, and the lesser end be 102
yards wide, their sum would be 248 yards, the half of
which is 124 yards for a mean breadth, as above ; but
the method above described is a shorter way to come at
the result.



13



METHOD OF



Once more If one side of a piece of
land be longer than the other, take the
length and breadth exactly in the mid-
dle, and you will be able to find the con-
tent precisely as in the last example.
Now, suppose the length from A to B
318 yards, the breadth from C to D 129
yards f

A. R. P.
C 100 yards wide. 6 2 11

318yardslong3 20 ....do 1 1 10

( 9 ....do 2 15

Content, 8 1 36




The content of the triangle
is found by measuring the
longest side, and also the
nearest or perpendicular dis-
tance from the said side to
the corner opposite to the
said side ; and in finding the
content, observe to take only
one half the perpendicular fl,
for a mean width. Now, sup-
pose the longest side, B C, be 417 yards, and the per-
pendicular, A D, be 326 yards, the half of which is 163
yards for a mean width ; then

A. R. P.

C 100 yards wide, is 8 2 19

417 yards long and { 60 ... .do 5 27

I 3 ....do. 1 1

Content of triangle, 14 7

And the content of any field, having four straight side&
may be found by the same rule : measure the distance



MEASURING LAND.



13



across the field from one longest corner to the other,
which will throw it into two triangles; then measure
the nearest or perpendicular distance from each of the
other corners, to the line measured across the longest
part of the field, and find the content of the two triangles
as before: or, add the two perpendicular distances to-
gether, and take half the
sum, which may be con-
sidered a mean width,
and the line measured
across the field being(j,
the length thus :

If the distance A B be
298 yards, the perpen-
dicular distance C E 117
yards, and the perpen-
dicular D P 113 yards,
then 117 and 113 added
together make 230, the
half of which is 1 15 yards
for a mean width ; then




298 yards long and



A. R. P.

100 yards wide, is 6 25
10 - - do ....... 2 19

5 ....do ....... 1 9



Content, 7 13



A field of any number of sides may be divided into
triangles by measuring lines across it ; and its content
may then be found by the foregoing rules.

2



METHOD OF



14

If the field
have five sides,
the lines A C
and C E will
divide it into
three triangles,
and its content
is then found as
follows: Sup-
pose A C 402
yards, BG154,
E F 162, E C
303, and D H
137 Now, to
find the content
of the parts A
B, C E, we have
B G 154, and E P 162, the sum of which is 306, and the
half of this is 158 for a mean width ; then

A. R. P.

C 100 yards wide, is 8 1 9
402 yards long and 1 50 do 4 24

/ 8 do 2 26




Content of the parts A B, C E, 130 9

And to find the content of the triangle E C D, we have
D H 137 yards, the half of which is 68 yards for a mear
Width, and the length E C 303 yards

A. R. P.

303 yards long and 60 yards wide 33 1

...do do... 8 do 02



Content of triangle E C D,
do. of the other part,



4 1
13



Whole content, 17 1 20



MEASURING LAND. 15

And in the same manner, a field of six, seven, or eight
sides, may be divided into triangles by measuring lines
across it ; but to those unacquainted with land survey-
ing, it would be best to take, if a ploughed field, a num-
ber of ridges at a time, and find their content by some
of the first rules ; then take more ridges and find their
content also, until all the ridges are taken, and the sum-
ming up of the whole will be the content of the field.



Hitherto, the fences have always been considered as
straight; but as it frequently happens that pieces of
land are bounded by curved lines or fences, it is neces-
sary to show how the content of such pieces can be
found by these tables. And to do which, first set up a
mark at each corner of the field ; or, if the fence or line
bend inward, then, as near the corner as possible, so as
to be able to see the mark at the other end of the said
fence or line, without being prevented by the curvature
of the same : then find the content of the piece within-
side of the said mark by some of the foregoing rules,
and for the curved part measure the distance in a straight
line from one mark to the other, against each of the
curved fences observing to set down the distance that
your mark stands from the said fence where you first set
off: and also note down the distance which the straight
line you are measuring is from the fence or line, at every
fifty yards distance in length ; but if the fence be very
irregular, take down the distance at every twenty or
thirty yards in length, and also the distance at the end
of the straight line ; and in finding the content of the
curve, set down every distance twice which was taken
from the fence, except the distances taken at each end,
which set down only once ; then add them all together,
and divide the sum by the number of lines added upj
which gives the mean width of the curve, and the straight
line measured against it is the length ; thus



16



METHOD OF



Suppose a field to be in the
shape of the figure annexed, the
length in the middle being 148
yards, the end A B 88 yards,
the end C D 94 yards, and the
straight line B D 154 yards; the
distance from the straight line to
the curve at B nothing, at E 18
yards, at P 13 yards, and at the
end D, nothing: then, for the
content of the square part the
length is 148 yards, and the two
ends when added together make
182 yards, the half of which is
91 for the mean width. Again, -
for the curve, the length is 154; and the off-sets,
aforesaid rule, will stand thus


18
18
13
13





j
\E



D

by the



6)62

10 the mean width of the curve.
A. R. P.
;;^

154 yards long and 10 do 1 11

Whole content, 3 16



MEASURING LAND.

Again, suppose a piece
of land of the following
shape and dimensions:
A D 232 yards, B E 143
yards, C F 84 yards, and
B D 200 yards ; the distance
from the straight line B D
to the curve at B, nothing,
at G 15 yards, at H 8 yards,
at I nothing, and at the end
D 14 yards; also, the line
A C 160 yards long, and

the distance from the end , ^ _ _

A of the straight line to the
curve 23 yards, at L nothing, at M nothing, and at the
end C 11 yards. From these dimensions, the content is
found in the following manner : The two perpendicular
distances B E and C F, when added together, make 227,
the half of which is 113 for a mean width of the square
part : and to obtain a mean width of the curves, the off-
sets will stand in the following manner :





15
15
8
8


14



23





11



8)60 6)34

Mean of curve B D, 7 Mean width of curve A O, 6
2*



18 METHOD OF

A. R. P.

C 100 yards wide, is 4 3 7
232 yards long and J 10 ....do 1 37

( 3 ....do 00 23

200 yards long and 7 do 016

160 do 6 ....do 0032

Content of the whole field, 5 3 25

The content of various pieces of land of stiH more
difficult measurement may be readily found by these
tables; but as the present work is designed for the
practical Farmer, and not for the surveyor, the subject
need not be farther pursued.

If the length of a piece of land be more than 500 yards,
the content may easily be found by the tables: first
marking off 500 yards in length, and adding the width,
and then taking the remaining length above the 500
yards in length : and the sums added together will give
the content of the whole field. Now, if for instance, the
field be 738 yards long, and width 576, say -

A. R. P.

500 yards wide, is 51 2 24

500 yards long and 70 do 7037

6 ....do 2 19

500 ....do 24 2 14

238 yards long and 70 do 3 1 31

6 ....do 1 7

Content of the field, 87 3 12

To prove the truth of any of the following tables,
multiply the length and breadth together, and divide the
product by 4840 the number of square yards contained
in an acre, and the quotient gives the number of acres ;
then multiply what remains by 4, and the product di-
vided as before gives the roods ; and the last remainder,



MEASURING LAND. 19

if multiplied by 40 and divided in like manner, gives the
perches. Thus, by making use of the last example,
where the length was 738 yards, and the width 576 yards

738
576



4428
5166
8690

A. fi. P.

4840)425088(87 3 12
38720



37888
33880



16032
14520

1512
40

60480
4840

12080

9680

2400



N. B. Where the parts of a perch do not amount to
one-half, they are omitted in the following tables; but
if they exceed one-half, then they are set down as a
whole perch.



21



TABLES

FOR

FINDING THE CONTENT

OF ANY

PIECE OF LAND,

FROM

DIMENSIONS TAKEN IN YARDS.



22


From 1 to 5 Yards Long.




1


2


3


4


5


Width.


Yards Long.


Yards Long.


Yards Long.


Yards Long.


Yards Long.


Yard*.


Ji. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


1


000


000


000


000


000


2


000


000


000


000


000


3


000


000


000


000


000


4


000


000


000


1





5


000


000


000


001





6


000


000


001


001





7


000


000


001


001





8


000


001


001


001





9


000


001


001


001





10


000


001


001


001


002


20


001


001


002


003


003


30


1


002


003


004


005


40


001


003


004


005


007


50


002


003


005


007


008


60


002


004


006


008


10


70


002


005


007


009


012


80


003


005


008


11


13


90


003


006


009


12


15


100


003


007


10


0013


17


200


007


013


20


26


33


300


010


020


030


010


1 10


400


13


026


010


1 13


1 26


500


017


33


1 10


1 26


023



23


From 6 to 10 Yards Long.


Width.


6

Yards Long.


7

Yards Long.


8

Yards Long.


9

Yards Long.


10

Yards Long.


Yards.


A. R. P.


A P P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


I


000


000


000


000


000


2


000


000


001


1


001


3


001


001


001


001


001


4


001


001


001


001


001


5


1


1


001


001


002


6


001


001


002


002


002


7


001


002


002


002


002


8


002


002


002


002


003


9


002


002


002


003


003


10


002


002


003


003


003


20


004


005


005


006


007


30


006


007


008


009


10


40


008


009


0011


12


013


50


10


12


13


15


17


60


12


14


16


018


020


70


14


16


19


021


023


80


016


019


021


24


026


90


18


021


024


027


030


100


020


023


026


30


033


200


010


1 6


1 13


1 30


1 26


300


1 20


1 29


1 39


020


2 19


400


1 39


2 13


226


2 39


3 12


500


2 19


2 36


3 12


3 29


105



24


From 11 to 15 Yards Long.


Width.


11

Yards Long.


12

Yards Long.


13

Yards Long.


14

Yards Long.


15

Yards Long.


Yards.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


I


000


000


000


000


000


2


1


001


001


1


001


3


001


001


001


001


001


4


001


002


002


002


002


5


002


002


002


002


002


6


002


002


003


003


003


7


003


003


003


003


003


8


003


003


003


004


004


9


003


004


004


004


004


10


004


004


004


005


005,


20


007


008


009


009


10


30


Oil


12


13


014


15


40


15


16


017


19


020


50


18


020


021


023


025


60


022


024


026


028


30


70


025


028


30


32


035


80


029


032


34


37


010


90


33


36


39


012


1 5


100


36


010


1 3


016


1 10


200


1 33


1 39


026


2 13


2 19


300


2 29


2 39


039


3 19


329


400


325


3 39


1 12


1 025


1 038


50C


1 022


1 038


1 1 15


1 1 31


128



25


1 From 16 to 20 Yards Long.


Width.


16

Yards Long.


17

Yards Long.


18

Yards Long.


19

Yards Long.


20

Yards Long.


Yards,


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A, R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


1


001


001


001


001


001


2


001


001


001


001


001


3


002


002


002


002


002


4


002


002


002


003


003


5


003


003


003


003


003


6


003


003


004


004


004


7


004


004


004


004


005


8


004


004


005


005


005


9


005


005


005


006


006


10


005


006


006


006


007


20


Oil


Oil


012


013


13


30


16


17


18


019


20


40


021


022


024


25


26


50


26


028


30


31


033


60


32


34


36


38


010


70


037


039


012


014


016


80


012


015


018


1 10


1 13


90


018


1 11


1 14


1 17


1 20


100


1 13


1 16


1 20


1 23


1 26


200


226


232


239


036


312


300


339


1 9


1 19


1 028


1 038


400


1 1 12


1 1 25


1 1 38


1 2 11


1 2 24


500


1 224


131


1 3 18


1 334


2 Oil



26


From 21 to 25 Yards Long.


Width.


21

Yards Long.


22

Yards Long.


23

Yards Long.


24

Yards Long.


25

Yards Long.


Yards.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


I


1


1


001


1


001


2


001


001


002


002


002


3


002


002


002


002


002


4


003


003


003


003


003


5


003


004


004


004


004


6


004


004


005


005


005


7


005


005


005


006


006


8


006


006


006


006


007


9


006


007


007


007


007


10


007


007


008


008


008


20


14


15


15


16


17


30


021


022


023


24


25


40


02S


29


30


32


33


50


35


36


38


010


Oil


60


012


014


016


018


1 10


70


019


1 11


1 13


1 16


1 18


80


1 16


1 18


1 21


1 23


1 26


90


1 22


1 25


1 28


1 31


1 34


100


1 29


1 33


1 36


1 39


023


200


3 19


3 25


3 32


3 39


105


300


118


1 1 18


1 1 28


1 1 38


128


400


1 2 38


1 3 11


1 324


1 3 37


2 Oil


500


2 027


2 1 4


2 1 20


2 1 37


2 2 13



27


From 26 to 30 Yards Long.


Width.


26

Yards Long.


27

Yards Long.


28

Yards Long.


29

Yards Long.


30

{ ard Long.


Yards.


A. R. P.


A. R, P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


A. R. P.


I


1


1


001


1


001


2


002


002


002


002


002


3


003


003


003


003


003


4


003


004


004


004


004


5


.0 4


004


005


005


005


6


005


005


006


006


006


7


006


006


006


007


007


8


007


007


007


008


008


9


008


008


008


009


009


10


009


009


009


10


10


20


17


18


19


19


020


30


026


27


028


029


30


1 3 4 5 6 7 8

Online LibraryJames PedderThe farmer's land-measurer or pocket companion [electronic resource] : showing at one view the content of any piece of land from dimensions taken in yards with a set of useful agricultural tables → online text (page 1 of 8)