its future Scholars, as to supose they will all merely regard with
retrospective vanitj', what has been done, and not extend their
views to other and deeper resources of their art. But in looking
forward to the establishment of English versification, on the basis
of quantity, we must alow a limitation of the poet's abundance,,
for the substituted excelence of his (iivr but finished lines. Our
measure is now drawn from the two diferent sources of acent and
quantity. To construct a rythmus by quantity alone, will recpiire
220 THE INTONATION AT PAUSES.
more rejections, and a wider search in composition; more copious-
nes in the comand of apropriate words ; greater readines and acu-
racy of ear, in measuring the relationships of time; and longer
labor for the acomplishment of a shorter work. I am here speak-
ing of the great results of the pen. Of these, as of all enduring
human productions, labor joined with time, must be the eficient
means ; and must deservedly divide the merit of the achievement,
with the wisdom that invoked their aid. Let him who could
patiently deVote a life, to laying-up store of ' goodly tliots ' for
Paradise Lost, unravel the idler's fable about that ' inspiration,' of
the so-called imortal works of man. Let them, who to the energy
of intelect have joined the strong body of laborious care, say,
wherein consists the true life, and the embalming of fame : let
them touch the sleeve of early and voluminous authorship, and
whisper one of the useful secrets, for acomplishing more that may
wisely instruct and endure, and less that with ambitous haste, may
only teach itself to sadly failj and perish.
Of the Intonation at Pauses.
The term Pause in elocution, is aplied to an ocasional silence in
discourse, greater than the momentary rest between sylables.
Pauses are used for the clearer, and more emphatic display of
thot and pasion, by separating certain words or agregates of words
from each other.
The philosophy of grammar consistently with those two great
Categories, Matter and Motion, has reduced all the words of uni-
versal language to two coresponding clases : the Substantive, de-
noting Things that exist ; and the Verb, denoting the various
conditions of their Actions : all the other Parts of Speech being
only specifications of the atributes of these things ; and the predi-
cation of their actions, with regard to time, place, degree, maner.
THE INTONATION AT PAUSES. 221
and all their posible relationships. Panses divide into sections, the
continued line of words Avhich severaly describe these existences
and a*;encies, with their relationships : the restricted uterance,
within these pauses, giving a sectional unity to the impresion on
the ear, and a clear perception to the mind, by their temporary
limitation to a single subject of atention. The division of dis-
course, by means of this ocasional rest, prevents the feeblenes or
obscurity of impression, resulting from an unbroken movement of
speechj no less remarkably than the skilful disposition of color,
and light, and space, significantly distinguish the pictured objects
and figures of the canvas, from the unmeaning positions and
actions of a chaos and a crowd.
The sections of discourse separated by pauses, vary in extent
from a smgle word, to a full member of a sentence. There may
be some purposes of expresion which require a slight pause even
between sylables. It was shown that a full opening of the radical,
must be preceded by an oclasion of the voice. The accented sylaljle
of the word at-tack being an imutable quantity, can receve a marked
emphatic distinction, only by an abrupt explosion of the radical
after a momentary pause.
The times of the several pauses of discourse vary in duration,
from the slight inter-sylabic rest, to the full separation of sucesive
paragraphs ; the degrees being acomodated to the requisitions of
the greater or less conection of thot, and to the peculiar demands
All the parts of a conected discourse should both in subject and
in structure bear some relation to each other. These relations being
severaly nearer, or more reraotej gramatical Points were invented
to mark their varying degrees. The comon points however, very
indefinitely efect their purposes in the art of reading. They are
described in books of elementary instruction, principaly with ref-
erence to the time of pausing; and are adressed to the eye, as
indications of gramatical structure. It is true, the symbols of
interogation, and exclamation are said to denote peculiarity of
' tone.' But as there is in these cases, no notice of the character,
or degree of the vocal movements, the extreme generality of the
statement afords neither preceptive nor practical guide to the ear.
The full eficacy of Points should consist in directing the apropriate
222 THE IXTOXATIOX AT PAUSES.
intonation at pauses, no less than in marking their temporal rests ;
and a just definition of the term Punctuation would perhaps, be
as properly founded on the variety of efect, produced by the
phrases of melody, as by a diference in duration. Before Mr.
Walker, no writer, far as I can ascertain, had formaly taught the
necesity of regarding the inflections of the voice, in the history of
It is important with regard to an agreeable efect upon the ear,
as well as to thot and expresion, to aply the proper intonation at
pauses. The phrases of melody have here a definite meaning, and
often mark a continuation or a completion of the thot, when the
style and the temporal rest alone, would not to an auditor, be de-
cisive. At the same time, the purpose of the pause being various,
an apropriate intonation must by its coresponding changes, pre-
vent the monotony, so comon with most readers, at the gramatical
divisions of discourse.
The eifect of Pause, in separating parts of discourse, by a sus-
pension of the voice, will be ilustrated in the next section, on
Grouping : and I now describe the sucesions of the various
melody at the diferent places of rest.
The triad of the cadence denotes a completion of the preceding
sentence, and is therefore inadmisible, except at a proper gramatical
period. It does not however folow that it must always be there
aplied; for in those forms of composition caled loose sentences,
and inverted periods, members with this complete and insulated
meaning, are sometimes foundj to which an aditional and related
clause may be subjoinedj and consequently not admiting the down-
ward terminating phrase.
Tlie rising tritone, by a movement directly contrary to that of
the downward triad of the cadence, indicates the most ime