Copyright
James Rush.

The philosophy of the human voice : embracing its physiological history; together with a system of principles, by which criticism in the art of elocution may be rendered inteligible [i.e. intelligible], and instruction, definite and comprehensive to which is added a brief analysis of song and recita online

. (page 29 of 59)
Online LibraryJames RushThe philosophy of the human voice : embracing its physiological history; together with a system of principles, by which criticism in the art of elocution may be rendered inteligible [i.e. intelligible], and instruction, definite and comprehensive to which is added a brief analysis of song and recita → online text (page 29 of 59)
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and lasting foundation of Analytic Elocution. I have not ex-
tended the inquiry, nor presumptuously aimed to aply the princi-
ples founded thereon, to the entire detail of the subject ; being
contented to encourage others towards a work of greater range and
precision, by seting before them what is here acomplishal, in a
case of suposed imposibility. For if the Coai'se-Art of Popu-
larity is not now at work, to make the Fine Arts all his own, I
must hopej there will be some beautiful finishing of that system
for the ordering of speech, which here seems only just begun. He
who chooses to folow the path thus opened, may fortunately find
himself among the first comers to an ungathered field ; a field, un-
visited and unclaimed, only because it is beleved by the indolent,
to be baren or inacessible ; or because the eye of iresolute inquiry
has been turned from the leading star of observ^ation, by the vain
atractions of theory, and the delusive authority of Names. For
what more docs the phrase, ' genius for discovery ' mean, than the
Art of forgeting our personal selves and the praises of others; and
looking broadly, closely, and pcrseveringly at our work ? Too
many of us, alas ! supose we are doing all these tilings, when we
are only closely and pcrseveringly tracing our narow path to noto-
riety; and hunting, sharp-scented, yet often at fault, after the
favorable opinion of mankind.



THE WAVE OF THE VOICE. 309

SECTION XXV.

Oj the Wave of tJie Voice.

The Wave of tlie voice, as briefly explained in the second sec-
tion, is a continuation of the upward into the downward concrete
movement. "We are told by the Grecksj this function was analyt-
icaly known to them. Yet if science did favor them with this
initial means, for furtlier increase of knowledge, they were thrift-
les in the trust, and only hid their talent in the napkin. It is
noticed by modern writei's, particularly by ]\Ir. Steele and Mr.
Walker, under the term, Circumflex acent.

As tlie wave is composed of two oposite courses of the concrete,
each of which may be of difercnt intervals ; and as the direction
of the voice at its outset, and the number of its flexures may varyj
the Reader will find in the history of this sign, numerous sub-
divisions : but still with their details definitely described by the
terms, of their intervals.

The Wave is a very frequent sign of expresion, and performs
important ofices in speech. It therefore becomes him who is wiling
to turn from the falterings of an instinctive elocution, to the fulncs,
and precision of scientific rule, not to overlook the subject of the
wave.

In order to represent this mater clearly, let the several upward
and downward movements of the wave, be caled its Constituents.
The constituents may then be severaly octaves, fifths, thirds,
seconds and semitones, either in an upward or downiward direction.

Further, as the upward and downward concrete may be of varied
extent, it folows that the wave may be constituted of an upward
and downward movement of the same interval ; or these constit-
uents may difer in extent from each other. It may consist of a
rising and a faling third conjoined ; or of a rising second continued
into a faling third. These varied constructions give ocasion for a
distinction of the wave into P^qual, and Unequal.

It will be found on experiment, that the wave with its first
constituent ascending, and its second descending, has a (liferent



310 THE WAVE OP THE VOICE.,

expresion from one, with a reverse course of its constituents. Of
the variations thus produced, let the former case be caled the Direct
wave, the later the Inverted.

I have here represented the wave as consisting of only two con-
stituents. It may have three or even more ; for the Direct may
have a subsequent rising interval, and the Inverted, a subsequent
faling one. When there are but two constituents, it may be caled
the Singlej Avhen three, the Double Avave. Should there be more
than three, as may hapen in rare and peculiar cases, to be pointed
out presently, the Continued wave.

These several forms admit of various combinations with each
other. The equal and the unequal wave may each l)e direct and
inverted, single and double. The double-unequal may have its
three constituents disimilar ; or perhaps two of them, the first and
second, or second and third, or first and third may be alike, which
I do not represent on the table. The direct and inverted, may
each be equal or unequal, single or double. The single and double
may each be equal or unequal, direct or inverted.

Upon a diagram, in the second section, there is a notation of
each of these leading forms of the wave, except the Continued.
As their several varieties can be easily suposcd, and may, from
the maner of the examples, be drawn by the pupil himself, I shall,
in the folowing Tabular views, name, without ilustrating the uses
of all the posible permutations of their several constituents : re-
marking here, that a limited number only, of these changes are of
practical importance in present elocution.



TABULAR VIEW OF THE WAVE.



til



Equal,



Single,



n



w



Double,



Direct,



Inverted, .5 s



I



Direct,



.£•1 ^



i! tfl



.c Inverted, .5 ^



Octave,

Fifth,

Third,

Second,

Semitone,



Octave,

Fifth,

Third,

Second,

Semitone,



Octave,

Fifth,

Third,

Second,

Semitone,



Octave,

Fifth,

Third,

Second,

Semitone,



1 2



Unequal,



o J



•2



Single,



W



•S



Direct,



Double, 0) -



Direct,



5 ti:

c .S



Inverted, C;5



C.5



c .5



Inverted, .c .5



Octave,

Fifth,
Third,
Second,
Semitone,



Octave,

Fifth,

Third,

Second,

Semitone,



Octave,

Fifth,

Third,

Second,

Semitone,



Octave,

Fifth,

Third,

Second,

Semitone,



312 THE WAVE OF THE VOICE.

In the preceding view, only the first constituent of the Unequal
wave is given. Another tabular scheme is subjoined of its second
and third constituents; the intervals in each of the three being
diferent. And I must here rej^eatj these tables represent what
may be performed by the voice, in the multiplicity of its combi-
nations ; a limited number only of which are to be regarded with
reference to their practical purposes in speech.

In thus penetrating the receses of Nature, we must be alowed
to describe her most minute phenomena, however presently useles
it may be. Nearly all the forms of the wave here noticed, might
be made designedly by a skilful efort of intonation ; and perhaps
are made in daily discourse, by the instinctive eforts of speech.
Yet the unequal wave, far as I can perceve, has no particular ex-
presion alloted to each of its several forms ; most of the varieties
represented, being only permutations of constituents, answering
the same purpose. Whether these waves not specialy significant
with us, have ever been used to denote states of mind, or ever
will be, is yet to be told. We have heard, but belief should keep
a skeptic watch on hearing, that the Chinese vary the meaning of
the same elemental or sylabic sound, eight or ten times, by changes
of intonation. Do they draw upon the forms of the folowing table
of the unequal wave ? Under any answer to this^ question, the
analysis of speech, contained in this Work, will enable the Pho-
netic Ethnologist to investigate the subject of his inquiry, with
precision, and with an inteligible result.



TABULAR VIEW OF THE WAVE.



313




Single.



- <



Double.



Direct

or

Inverted,

Direct

or

Inverted,

Direct

or

Inverted,

Direct "
or
Inverted,



Direct

or

Inverted,

Direct

or

Inverted,

Direct

or

Inverted,

Direct

or

Inverted,

Direct

or
Inverted,



Tlip first const!- The oecond con-
tuent being stitiient being
cither a



f Semitone
J second
J third or
(.fifth.



^ r Semitone

I a Fifth. J second

I J third or

' I. octave.

I r Semitone

la Third. J sewnd

[ j fifth or

' V octave.

I' Semitone
>& Second. J third
J fifth or
t octave.

f Second
■ a Semitone. J ^^ird
J fifth or
V. octave.



The thiril con-
stituent being
either a



■ an Octave.



r Semitone /- 2d 3d or 5th.

I second J Sem. .3d or 5th.

^ third or \ Sem. 2d or 5th.

(fifth. ( Sem. 2d or 3d.



a Fifth.



a Third.



-a Second.



{Semitone
second
tliird or
octave.

/• Semitone
J second
\ fifth or

(^ octave.

f Semitone
I third
S fifth or
(^ octave.



/' Second

a Semitone.^ ffor
(^ octave.



/'2d 3d or 8th.
' Sem. 3d or 8th.
I Sem. 2d or 8th.
[^Sem. 2d or 3d.

r2d 5th or 8th.
I Sem. 5th or 8th.
Sem. 2d or 8th.
^ Sem. 2d or 5th.

- 3d 5th or 8th.
Sem. 5th or 8th.
Sem. 3d or 8th.
Sem. 3d or 5th.

3d 5th or 8th.
2d 6th or 8tii.
2d 3d or 8th.
2d 3d or 5th.



21



314 THE WAVE OF THE VOICE.

From a comprehensive view of this table it is manifest^ there
might be other methods of aranging its details. Each of the dis-
tinctions given above might be taken as tlie generic heads of the
wave ; and the others might be included as species. We might
take the five intervals, for heads of as many divisions, and under
each, for instance the octave, consider. First; the equal form of
this interval, and its combination with other intervals into the
unequal form ; Second ; its direct and inverted, and Third, its
single and double forms. Or we might take the distinction into
single and double for the two generic heads, and under each of
these, enumerate the species, as being equal or unequal, direct or
inverted : and so of any otlier asumed order of these distinctions.

I shall, acording to the arangement in the table, divide the
phenomena of the wave into two great clases, the Equal and
Unequal, and subdividing each of these by the terms of the five
intervals of the scale, shall under the heads of these intervals,
consider the direct and inverted, the single and double forms.

The pains taken to define the technical terms of this esay, to-
gether with the exemplification by diagram, in the second section
must have rendered all the movements on the scale, quite familiar
to those who realy desire to learn. Tlie description of the wave
may therefore be so easily comprehended, that without a further
notation, the Reader can readily picture its various forms, as we
shall hereafter aply them.

To learn the purpose, and expresion of the wave, let us recol-
ect that it is compounded of a rising and a faling interval, the
several characteristics of which have already been described. It
will therefore be found, that the Avavc 2)artakes respectively of the
expresion of its various constituents : and further, that its con-
tinuous line of contrary flexures enables the voice to cary on a
long quantity, without the risk of faling into the protracted into-
nation of song.

The expresion of the wave in all its forms, is modified by the
aplication of stress to diferent parts of its course; at the begining,
or at the end, or at the place of junction of its constituents.






THE EQUAL WAVE OF THE OCTAVE. 315

SECTION XXVI.

Of the Equal Wave of the Octave.

The Equal AVavc of the Octave is made by a movement of the
voice, in its ujnvard, and continuously into its downward interval.
It may be either single, consisting of two constituents ; or double,
consisting of three ; tho this double form is scarcely used. It may
also be difercntly constructed, by the first constituent ascending,
and the second descending, forming the dircctj and by a reversed
sucesion, the inverted wave.

The equal wave of the octave in its single form is rarely em-
ployed in serious discourse. If used in the lower range of pitch,
to avoid the sharpnes of the falsete, it gives an apropriate ex-
presion to the highest state of astonishment, admiration and com-
and. When it asumes the higher range, as it is apt to do, it loses
its dignity as an impresive sign. Children sometimes employ it
for mockery in their contentions and jests. Its double form ha.s
the same exprcsion, under a more continued quantity. The re-
verse order of its constituents gives a diferent character, respect-
ively to its single-direct, and to its single-inverted turns ; for the
later by ending in an upward concrete, has the intonation of a
question, under what we called the Interogative Wave ; the former,
by a downward final movement, has the positivencs and surprise
of the simple faling intervals. When the direct and the inverted
wave of the octave is respectively double, the rule of final expresion
will be reversed ; for the double-direct will then end with the
rising or interogative movement.

The double form of the wave, particularly of the octave, claims
atention rather as a part of our physiological history, than as a
subject of oratorical ])ropriety and taste ; and may, in point of use
and expresion, be rather clased with theatrical outrages, and vulgar
mouthings.



316 THE EQUAL WAVE OF THE FIFTH.

SECTION XXVII.

OJ the Equal Wave of the Fifth.

Enough has been said of intervals, to explain the Equal Wave
of the Fifth. Its name is descriptive of its structure. Nor need
it be shown particularly of this, nor indeed of the suceding sec-
tional heads of the wave, in what maner the single and double,
the direct and inverted forms are made.

The equal wave of the fifth, is used as one of the means of
emphatic distinction ; and has therein an expresion varying with
its form. The equal-single-direct wave of the fifth consists of an
ascending and a descending concrete ; the first expressive of in-
terogation, and the last of positiveues and surprise. But a junc-
tion of these oposite constituents takes in a great degree, from the
rising, its indication of a question ; and leaves to the faling, the
full character of its positivenes and surprise. There is however,
another efect of this junction, besides the overruling of interoga-
tion. When a state of mind requiring the simple downward fifth
is grave or dignified, it is expresed by prejoining the rising fifth j
to form a direct wave ; and this direct wave is used instead of the
simple fall, to give time to the sylable that beare it; for should the
emphatic sylable require an extended quantity, the wave takes the
place of the simple interval, which under unskilful intonation
might, in the efort to extend it, pass into the protracted radical, or
vanish of song.

The inverted wave of the fifth has the compound expresion of
surprised interogation, produced by the termination of its last con-
stituent in the upward vanish. And it apoarsj the direct wave of
this, as well as of other wider intervals, retiiins a degree of intero-
gation ; and the inverted, a degree of positivenes and surprise.

There is not much diference between the expresion of the single,
and of the double wave of the fifth, except what arises from a
change of structure by the adition of a third constituent. The
double-direct here assumes an interogative expression, from the
vanishing rise of its last constituent; and the double-inverted has



THE EQUAL WAVE OF THE THIRD. 317

the moaning of surprise from its downward termination. Perhaps
there is a little scorn conveyed by the double form of the equal
wave of the fifth. This is certainly the case when the last con-
stituent receves greater strcs than the others. On the whole how-
ever, this double form is not very frequently used as a sign of
expresion.



SECTION XXVIII.

OJ the Equal Wave of the Third.

The Equal Wave of the Third, in the degree of its expresion,
bears such a relation to the equal wave of the fifth, as the simple
rise of the third bears to the simple rise of that interval.

In all its forms, whether single or double, direct or inverted,
the expresion resembles respectively, but in a more moderate de-
gree, that of the diferent species of the equal wave of the fifth.
From its less impresive character, it is more frequently employed
for emphasis in the admirative and reverentive style, than the fifth
and the octave, which arc especialy apropriate to the earncstnes of
coloquial dialogue, and to the pasionative intonations of the drama.
It also serves, like the other waves, to extend the quantity of syla-
bles in deliberate and dignified discourse; and to preserve, at the
same time, the characteristic equable-concrete of speech.

The equal wave of the Minor third, we have said is not ad-
mLssible into speech ; but if improperly introduced, as it often is,
the efect of its inverted form does not difcr much from that of its
direct.



318 THE EQUAL WAVE OP THE SECOND.

SECTION XXIX.

Oj the Equal Wave of the Second.

We have now to consider the equal wave of the second, which,
if ever the time for a Natural, and thereupon a Scientific System
of Elocution shall come to pass, will be regarded as a very impor-
tant and interesting part of intonation.

The dificulty of perspicuously defining and dividing the details
of a subject, altogether as new to the author himself, as to his
Reader ; and of giving a full description of parts that are element-
ary and closely related, and that must be sucesively explained,
obliged him to procede in the maner of gradual and partial de-
velopmentj of changeful arangementj and of frequent reconsidera-
tion, which produced this first, and so fiir, only full and instructive
method of Analytic Elocution. In improving, or completing many
of those sucesive systems of Science, which thru years or cen-
turies, have been progresively extended, retrenched, and simplifiedj
method after method has been adopted, altered, and rejected ; and
every subsequent observer, knowing the atempts and failure of
his predecesors, has been enabled to suply the deficiencies, and
corect the erors of former clasifications. For plan and purpose,
in this ofered system of intonation, there was no preceding out-
line either of fiction or of truth ; no instructive sketches of cor-
ected erors, to save the author from his own ; and as yet, even no
friendly-enmity of criticism to ' pluck ' them from his pages and
' throw them in his face.' He was therefore at first, and has been,
in preparing suceding editions, obliged to ask the arduous, but
wiling asistance of his own endeavors, to suply his oversights, and
corect his faults : too often a vain and fruitles labor.* In acord-

* "What is here said of the kindly slaps of criticism is no longer literally
true ; thanks to the friendship of enmity ; fur it has corected our over-estimate
of the intelectual capacity of the old elocutionist. I may differ from some of
my Readers, who beleve that truth and jus^tice can never lose thoir dignity,
however they may descend to the comonality of persons and things ; yet I
am wiling, under the privilege of a Note at least, to make, if it so seems, a
sacrifice of dignity and taste to a humorous thot, reminding mo that in



THE EQUAL WAVE OF THE SECOND. 319

ance with the maner of Dividing and Instructing here employed,
our acount of the diatonic melody, regardc



Online LibraryJames RushThe philosophy of the human voice : embracing its physiological history; together with a system of principles, by which criticism in the art of elocution may be rendered inteligible [i.e. intelligible], and instruction, definite and comprehensive to which is added a brief analysis of song and recita → online text (page 29 of 59)