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James S Muraoka.

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Melamine laminate


S-10


95


88


0.44


Epoxy laminate


s-n


Lost


Lost





Rubber vacuum tube











1.31



Jy Dried and tested in a room in which the relative humidity was kept at 20%
and the temperature was kept at 23°C.

2/ Tested by a model A-2 durometer, NCEL No. 78 had a control reading of
74 and an exposed reading of 72; NCEL No. 79 had a control reading of
72 and an exposed reading of 72.



37




Figure 30. Cellulose acetate butyrate plastic film damaged by borers.




Figure 31. Burlap (jute fibers) severely decayed by microorganisms.



38




Figure 32. Rubber and plasHc electrical tape wrappings over
plastic rods and tubes.

The plastic electrical tape wrappings were neither damaged by the effects of
the deep sea environment nor by any biological activity, although there was some
hydroid growth over them. When the tape was removed from several plastic rods,
it still had good adhesive quality and was In good condition.

When the rubber and plastic tape wrappings containing small wood pieces
(Figure 33) were cut and the enclosed wood removed and examined, the wood was
found to be in excellent condition. Although the wood wrapped under the rubber
tape was completely dry, the wood wrapped under the plastic tape was saturated
with water.

0. 015-Inch Insulation on No. 16 Wire . There was some hydroid growth over
the straight and also over the coiled wire specimens (Figure 34). In the laboratory
the Insulations were examined under a microscope for signs of any deterioration.
The silicone rubber insulation was damaged slightly by the nibbling and biting action
of some marine organisms, but the other Insulations, such as neoprene. Government
rubber styrene, polyvinyl chlorides and polyethylene, were not damaged. The
silicone rubber cement used to cover the ends of the wire specimens was not damaged.
Electrical tests, such as insulation resistance and voltage breakdown, were conducted
on these wire specimens. The results of the electrical tests are presented in Table 9.



39



^__j^^_^_^.,,___,,__^,;_,_j__::,^ ._, , ^ , ^ ^ jIM | i j i| H tjl j i i 1 1 i j IQ



(a) Wood pieces enclosed.




(b) Wood pieces exposed.

Figure 33. Rubber and plastic electrical tape wrappings over smal
wood pieces.



40



Table 9. Insulation-Resistance and Voltage-Breakdown Tests



Insulating Material
(15 mils thick)


Insulation Resistance (meg)


Voltage
Breakdown'^'


Before Exposure i^


After Exposure^


Expose


d About 0.5 Foot Above the Sediment




Straight Wires








Polyethylene


20,100,000


300,000


Did not fail


Polyvinyl chloride


4,400,000


1,200,000


Did not fail


Silicone rubber


6,200,000


12,000


Failed


GR-S (SBR)4/


5,500,000


12,500


Did not fail


Neoprene


36,000


8,000


Did not fail


Coiled Wires








Polyethylene


20,100,000


1,000,000


Did not fail


Polyvinyl chloride


4,400,000


50,000


Did not fail


Silicone rubber


6,200,000


50,000


Did not fail


GR-S (SBR)^


5,500,000


10


Did not fail


Neoprene


36,000


20,000


Did not fail


Exp


osed About 3 Feet At


)ove Sediment




Straight Wires








Polyethylene


20,100,000


5,000,000


Did not fail


Polyvinyl chloride


4,400,000


725,000


Did not fail


Silicone rubber


6,200,000


230,000


Did not fail


GR-S (SBR)4/


5,500,000


250,000


Did not fail


Neoprene


36,000


15,000


Did not fail


Coiled Wires








Polyethylene


20,100,000


240


Did not fail


Polyvinyl chloride


4,400,000


45,000


Did not fail


Silicone rubber


6,200,000


150


Failed


GR-S (SBR)4/


5,500,000


2,400,000


Did not fail


Neoprene


36,000


19,000


Did not fail



]_/ Average of eight tests.

2/ Average of two tests.

3/ Tested at 1,000 volts AC for 10 seconds.

4/ Government rubber styrene (styrene butadiene rubber)



41




Figure 34. Glass microscope slides and electrical wire Insulations.



Electrical Cable Insulation for Single Conductors and Muiticonductors . The
insulations of the 10-inch-long electrical cables (Figure 35) were examined under
a microscope for signs of any blodeterioration and for any physical effects of the
deep sea environment.

Blodeterioration due to borer activity was more pronounced (especially in the
area of a wood bait piece) on a set of electrical cable insulations which were
exposed about 0.5 feet above the sediment layer than on an Identical set of insula-
tions which were exposed about 3 to 4 feet above the sediment. The insulating
materials which were damaged by the borers under a wood bait piece were nylon,
silicone rubber, vinyl resin rubber, and fluorlnated ethylene propylene (FEP). The
borers had penetrated the FEP insulation, exposing the wire conductor to the seawater
environment.

The insulating materials which were neither affected by borer activity nor by
the deep sea environment were bakelite, natural rubber, neoprene rubber, and
polyethylene.

In addition to damage caused by the borers under the wood bait piece, the
surface of the silicone rubber Insulations were damaged by the nibbling and biting
action of some marine organisms.



42




Figure 35. Single conductor and multiconducl-or electrical cables
with wood bait pieces.

A light to moderate growth of hydroids was present on the insulations, with
some of the hydroids growing to about 3/4 Inch long. No detrimental effects on
the materials were noted at the site of hydrold attachment.

Laminated Plastics . The 1 x6x 1/8-inch laminated plastic materials made of
epoxy, phenolic, and malamine resin filled with either cotton fabrics, paper, glass
fabrics, or nylon fabrics were not damaged by biodeterioration or by the deep sea
environment. The moisture absorbed by the plastics was determined by weighing
each of the test specimens before and after exposure in the sea. The results are
presented in Table 8.

Glass . A considerable amount of hydrold growth was found adhering to the
top and the bottom sides of the glass slides (Figure 36). When the growth was
removed and the glass surface cleaned and examined under a microscope, the
surface of the glass was smooth and no etching or frosting of the surface by micro-
organisms was evident.



43




Figure 36. Close-up view of a microscope slide with hydroid growth.



SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

1. Large gooseneck barnacles were found attached to the polyethylene rope floating
on the surface. Hydroids were also found on the rope from the surface to the bottom
in trace to moderate amounts. A round worm was found on the surface of a concrete
sinker.

2. Attachment organisms such as hydroids and Tubularia sp. were found In small
amounts on certain metal specimens and on all of the nonmetallic specimens. A
single sea anemone was found securely attached to a metal test panel. Typical
fouling organisms found in shallow water, such as bryozoa, barnacles, and tunicates,
were not found attached to any of the test panels.

3. Two species of marine borers, identified as Xylophago washingtona Bartsch and
Xylophaga duplicate Knudsen, were found in wood specimens. These borers were
responsible for the deterioration of the following materials: (1) wood; (2) plastic
rods (area under the wood bait pieces) such as Delrin, nylon, polycarbonate. Teflon,
cellulose acetate, polyethylene, acrylics, and polystyrene; (3) vinyl tubes; (4) manilo
rope specimens; and (5) cellulose acetate butyrate sheet.



44



4. Marine microorganisms were responsible for the deterioraHon of (1) cotton and
manlla rope specimens, (2) burlap (jute fibers), and (3) possibly vinyl plastic tube
(NCEL No. 66).

5. Electrical cable insulation composed of silicone rubber was deteriorated by the
nibbling and biting action of some marine animals. However, silicone rubber cement
used to seal the ends of the wire specimens was not damaged.

6. The following materials in various forms and for various uses were not affected
by marine organisms: (1) rubber vacuum hose; (2) nylon nuts and bolts; (3) nylon
and polypropylene ropes; (4) ethyl cellulose cable clamps; (5) neoprene, butyl, and
natural electrical cable insulations; (6) various plastic laminated sheets; (7) glass
microscope slides; and (8) bisphenol-fumarate polyester resin laminate.



CONCLUSIONS

1. The following materials are susceptible to total biological destruction and are
not suitable for use in the deep ocean: untreated pine, fir, and plywoods (treated
wood may not be affected); manila and cotton ropes; jute fibers; and electrical
cable insulation composed of a silicone rubber.

2. The following materials are probably not susceptible to biological deterioration
in the deep ocean: rubber vacuum tubing; acrylic sheet, nylon nuts and bolts;
nylon and polypropylene ropes; ethyl cellulose clamps; laminated plastic sheets;
glass slides; electrical cable insulation composed of neoprene, butyl, and natural
rubber, and polyvinyl chloride; and bisphenol polyester laminated plastic.

3. The 3-foot-long plastic rods and tubes (except vinyl tube, NCEL No. 66), the
polyvinyl chloride pipe, and the electrical cable insulation (except silicone rubber)
may be suitable for use in the deep ocean environment if they are not placed in
direct contact with wood.



FUTURE PLANS

The research program to determine the effects of the deep sea environment
on engineering materials is continuing.

A STU (11-2) which was exposed for a period of 13 months at a depth of
2,370 feet was recovered In May 1966. The materials on this STU are currently
being examined, tested, and evaluated for biodeterloratlon. A report on the
findings will be published.



45



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Dr. Ruth D. Turner, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University,
identified the marine borers. Dr. Jan Kohlmeyer, Institute of Fisheries Research,
University of North Carolina, examined the wood specimens for the presence of
deep sea fungi. Dr. A. M. Kaplan and Mr. Morris R. Rogers, U. S. Army Natick
Laboratories, Natick, Mass., arranged for the identification of the microorganisms.



REFERENCES

1. U. S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Technical Report R-428: Deep-ocean
blodeterloration of materials — Part III. Three years at 5,300 feet, by J. S. Muraoka.
Port Hueneme, Calif., Feb. 1966.

2. . Technical Report R-329: Deep-ocean blodeterloration of materials —

Part I. Four months at 5,640 feet, by J. S. Muraoka. Port Hueneme, Calif.,
Nov. 1964.

3. •. Technical Report R-456: Deep-ocean blodeterloration of materials —

Part IV. One year at 6,800 feet, by J. S. Muraoka. Port Hueneme, Calif.,
June 1966.

4. . Technical Report R-393: Deep-ocean blodeterloration of materials —

Part II. Six months at 2,340 feet, by J. S. Muraoka. Port Hueneme, Calif.,
Aug. 1965.



5.- . Technical Report R-369: Design, placement, and retrieval of

Submersible Test Units at deep-ocean test sites, by R. E. Jones. Port Hueneme,
Calif., May 1965.

6. L. H. Hyman. The invertebrates. Protozoa through Ctenophora. Vol. 1.,
New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1940, p. 616.

7. R. D. Turner. "The family Pholadidae in the western Atlantic and the eastern
Pacific, Part II — Martesiinai, Jouannetiinae, and Xylophaglnae," Johnsonia,
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, vol. 3, no. 34, Mar. 29,
1955, pp. 65-160.

8. J. Knudsen. "The bathyal and abyssal Xylophaga," jji Galathea report,
vol. 5, 1961, pp. 163-209.

9. J. S. Muraoka. "Deep-ocean boring mollusk," BioScience, vol. 15, no. 3,
Mar. 1965, p. 191.

10. R. D. Turner. "Some results of deep water testing," abstract in Annual reports
for 1965, American Malacological Union, Marinette, Wis., pp. 9-11.



46



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MR. R. F. MCALLISTER, PROFESSOR OF OCEANOGRAPHY. FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY,
BOCA RATON, FLA. 33A32

DR. EVELYN SINHA, EDITOR, OCEANIC COORDINATE INDEX, 7730 HERSCHEL AVENUE,
LA JOLLA, CALIF. 92037

ROBERT Q. PALMER, LOOK LABORATORY, UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII, 811 OLOMEHANI STREET
HONOLULU, HAWAII 96813

DR. KEN PREISS, GEOLOGY AND CIVIL ENGINEERING, DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY,
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILL. 61803

OFFICER IN CHARGE, U.S. NAVAL BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER
OAKLAND, CALIF. 94625

COMMANDING OFFICER, NROTC UNIT, RENNSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, TROY, NEW
YORK 12181

OFFICER IN CHARGE, U.S. NAVAL SUPPLY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY, NAVAL
SUPPLY CENTER, ATTN. LIBRARY, BAYONNE, NEW JERSEY 07002

COMMANDER, AMPHIBIOUS FORCE, U.S. ATLANTIC FLEET, U.S. NAVAL BASE, NORFOLK,
VIRGINIA 23511

OFFICER IN CHARGE, U.S. NAVAL SUPPLY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY, NAVAL
SUPPLY CENTER, BAYONNE, NEW JERSEY 07002

COMMANDER, NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD, ATTN. METALLURGICAL LABORATORY, CODE 3204,
PORTSMOUTH, VIRGINIA 23709

CHIEF CHEMIST (CODE 3205), NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD, PORTSMOUTH, VA. 23709

HEAD OF LABORATORIES, CODE 305, BOSTON NAVAL SHIPYARD, BOSTON, MASS. 02129

MR. S. SIROTTA, CODE 0322A, NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND, WASHINGTON,
D.C. 20390

MR. E.M. MACCUTCHEON, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SERVICES ADMINISTRATION, COAST
GEODETIC SURVEY, U.S. DEPT. OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON SCIENCE CENTER, ROCKVILLE,
MARYLAND 20852

MR. JOHN R. SAROYAN, CODE 303P, SAN FRANCISCO BAY NAVAL SHIPYARD, VALLEJO,
CALIF. 94592

MR. J.R. MOSES, CODE 46, MATERIALS DIVISION, NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING
COMMAND CONTRACTS, MID PACIFIC, FPO SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 96610

CAPT. L.N. SAUNDERS, CEC, USN, COMMANDING OFFICER AND DIRECTOR, U.S. NAVAL
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY, PORT HUENEME, CALIFORNIA 93041


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Online LibraryJames S MuraokaDeep-ocean biodeterioration of materials (Volume pt.5) → online text (page 3 of 4)