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EDITED BY

Professor CHARLES F. KENT, Pn.I)., 0/ Brown University,

AND

Professor FRANK K. SANDERS, Ph.D., of Yale University.

Volume IV.

HISTORY



THE JEWISH PEOPLE

During the Maccabean and Roman Periods (including
New Testament Times)



The Historical Series for Bible Students.

Edited by Professor CHARLES F. KENT, Ph.D., of Brown University,
and Professor FRANK K. SANDERS, Ph.D., of Yale University.



IN response to a widespread demand for non-technical yet scholarly and reli-
able guides to the study of the history, literature, and teaching of the Old
and New Testaments, and of the contemporary history and literature, this series
aims to present in concise and attractive form the results of investigation and
exploration in these broad fields. Based upon thoroughly critical scholarship, it
will emphasize assured and positive rather than transitional positions. The series
as a whole is intended to present a complete and connected picture of the social,
political, and religious life of the men and peoples who figure most prominently in
the biblical records.

Each volume will be complete in itself, treating comprehensively a given sub-
ject or period. It will also refer freely to the biblical and monumental sources,
and to the standard authorities. Convenience of size, clearness of presentation,
and helpfulness to the student, will make the series particularly well adapted for
(i) practical text-books for college, seminary, and university classes; (2) hand-
books for the use of Bible classes, clubs, and guilds ; (3) guides for individual
study ; and (4) books for general reference.



I. HISTORY OF THE HEBREW PEOPLE.

1. The United Kingdom. Sixth edi- Charles F. Kent, Ph.D., Professor of

tioii. Biblical Literature and History, Brown

2. The Divided Kingdom. Sixth edi- University.

tion.

n. HISTORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE.

3. The Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Charles F. Kent, Ph.D. Professor of

Periods. Biblical Literature and History, Brown

University.
James S. Riggs, D.D., Professor of Bib-

4. The Maccabean and Roman Period lical Criticism, Auburn Theological Sem-

(including New Testament Times). inary.

III. CONTEMPORARY OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY.

5. History of the Egyptians. James H. Breasted, Ph.D., Assistant

Professor of .Semitic Languages and
Egyptology, The University of Chicago.

6. History of the Babylonians and As- George S. Goodspeed, Ph.D., Professor

Syrians. of Ancient History, The University of

Chicago.

IV. NEW TESTAMENT HISTORIES.

7. The Life of Jesus. (In press.) Rush Rhees, Professor of New Testament

Interpretation, Newton Theological Sem-
inary.

8. The Apostolic Age. George T. Purves, Ph.D., D.D., Pro-

fessor of New Testament Literature and
Exegesis, Princeton Theological Semi-
nary.

V. OUTLINES FOR THE STUDY OF BIBLICAL
HISTORY AND LITERATURE.

9. From Earliest Times to the Cap- Frank K. Sanders, Ph.D., Professor

tivity. of Biblical Literature, Yale University.

10. From the Exile to 200 A. D.



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VISH .VXD COXTI5MPORAKV CHKONOLOGV PROM 176 B. C. TO 70 A.



A HISTORY



OF



THE JEWISH PEOPLE



DURING THE MACCABEAN AND ROMAN PERIODS

{INCLUDING NEW TESTAMENT

TIMES)



BY



JAMES STEVENSON RIGGS, D.D.

PROFESSOR OF BIBI.If'AL CRITICISM, AUBURN THEOLOGIC.\X
SKMINAKY



WITH MAPS AND CHART



NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

1900



Copyright, 1900,
By Charles Scribner's Sons.



Saniijcrsitg ^vcss:
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge, U. S. A.



CHARLES E. ROBINSON, D.D.

WHOSE AFFECTION AND COUNSEL HAVE BEEN AMONG
THE CHOICE BLESSINGS OF MY LIFE



PKEFACE

As part of the history of the Jews from earliest days
to the time when Christianity became independent of
Judaism, the story of the Maccabean revolt and of the
Roman domination has often been told. From the
fact, however, that a large part of the story belongs
to inter-testamental times, its interest has often been
overshadowed by that of the strictly biblical history.
Now the earnest historical study of the life and times
of Jesus has brought us to a clearer realization of the
vital importance of an understanding of the whole
development of post-exilic Judaism. Every record
of events and every piece of literature contributing
toward that understanding has, therefore, been studied
anew. In the light of the results of this study, we
have attempted to tell the story. Whatever may be
the comparative worth of these periods, they are cer-
tainly not surpassed in the annals of history in pathetic
suffering and indomitable heroism. The brave struggle
of a nation for the maintenance of its convictions is
always of the deepest interest. Thereby not only its
character, but also the value of its convictions is re-
vealed. Pre-eminently is tlie study of these thrilling
periods of the history of the Jews the study of just
such a revelation, Judaism was under a searching
test. Its beliefs and hopes were tried as by fire. Old



viii PREFACE

faiths became more explicit, and national hopes were
intensified. Indeed, the very conditions were brought
about which made it impossible for Jesus to gain the
ear of the nation and to save it from itself. While,
therefore, this work is meant to be a history of the
Jewish people for two hundred and forty years of its
existence, it is no less a contribution toward the
interpretation of the gospels in so far as a knowledge
of the faiths, conditions, and aims of Judaism can be
interpretative of the form and method of the activity
of Jesus.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge my indebtedness
to Professors Charles F. Kent, Ph.D., and Frank K.
Sanders, Ph.D., for their valuable critical suggestions
and for their cordial assistance whenever needed.



JAMES STEVENSON RIGGS.
Auburn, Feb. 9, 1900.



CONTENTS



PART I

THE MACCABEAN PERIOD OF JEWISH HISTORY



THE HISTORICAL SOURCES AND LITERATURE OF THE
PERIOD

Sections 1-10. Pages 1-13

Section 1. Limits of the period. 2. Sources of information.
3. The First Book of Maccabees. 4. The Second Book of
Maccabees. 5. The Jewish War and Antiquities of Josephus.
6. The Book of Daniel and the Book of Enoch. 7. The main
literary interest of Alexandrian Judaism. 8. The beginnings
of philosophic harmonization in Alexandria. 9. The Book of
Wisdom. 10. The Sibylline Oracles.

II

THE CAUSES AND OCCASION OF THE MACCABEAN
UPRISING

Sections 11-26. Pages 14-28

Sectiox 11. The spiritual forces in conflict. 12. Hellenism in
Judea. 13. The uncompromising spirit of Judaism. 14. The
increasing antagonism of Judaism to Hellenism. 15. Antio-
chus Epiphanes and the high-priesthood. 16. The treachery
of Menelaus. 17. Jason's venture and its terrible issue in
Jerusalem. 18. The Romans meet Antiochus in Egypt. 19.
The disastrous result of that meeting to the Jews. 20. Jerusa-
lem's destruction and the flight of many of its citizens. 21.



X CONTENTS

The time of sifting ; the impulse toward expanding the canon
of Scripture. 22. The faith that would not swerve. 23.
The fidelity of Mattathias in Modein. 24. The uplifting
of the standard of Judaism. 25. The beginning of the strug-
gle. 26. The company of the Hasideans and the death of
Mattathias.

Ill

THE SUCCESSFUL STRUGGLE FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

Sections 27-43. Pages 29-44

Section 27. The sons of Mattathias. 28. The victories of Judas
over ApoUonius and Seron. 29. The army under Nicanor,
Ptolemy, and Gorgias that was to root out the Jews. 30. Its
double discomfiture. 3L The battle of Bethsur. 32. The
restoration and rededication of the temple. 33. Judaism
takes fresh courage ; it guards anew the temple and inquires
after its sacred writings. 34. Judas devotes attention to neigh-
boring hostile peoples. 85. The successful campaigns in
Galilee and across the Jordan. 36. The unfortunate attempt
of Joseph and Azarias. 37. The death of Antiochus Epiph-
anes. 38. The ensuing rivalries in the Syrian court. 39.
The battle of Bethzacharias. 40. The second part of the
Book of Enoch. 41. Judaism's dark hour. 42. Unexpected
deliverance and complete religious freedom. 43. The situation
in Judea.

IV

THE LONG CONTEST FOR POLITICAL FREEDOM

Sections 44-57. Pages 45-57

Section 44. The new reason for conflict ; the high-priest Alcimus.
45. Startling changes in the Syrian court. 46. Bacchidcs
installs Alcimus, and the Hasideans suffer. 47. The mischiev-
ous activity of Alcimus. 48. The battle of Capharsalama.
49. The victory of Adasa and "Nicanor's Day." 50. Judas
appeals to Rome. 5L An alliance formed and Syria warned,
52. The defeat and death of Judas. 53. The Hellenists tri-
umph for a while; Jonathan chosen leader of the nation. 54.
Jonathan repulses Bacchides. 55. Alcimus again shows his



CONTENTS XI

Hellenistic aims. 56. The Hellenists conspire ao;ainst Jona-
than, who affects an alliance with Bacchides. 57. Jonathan
makes Michmash his capital and cements his power.



THE ATTAINMENT OF INDEPENDENCE

Sections 58-71. Pages 58-71

Section 58. A court comedy in Syria in which Jonathan has a
part. 59. Jonathan's splendid gains from rivalries in Syria.
60. Jonathan defeats Apollonius near Jamnia. Gl. Demetrius
II. becomes King of Syria. 62. Jonathan obtains more terri-
tory and privileges. 63. Jonathan's jn-oof of friendship to
Demetrius. 64. Antiochus, son of Alexander, wins the support
of Jonathan, who afterward defeats Demetrius. 65. Jonathan
renews friendship with Home and Sparta. 66. The land is
guarded against Demetrius. 67. The citadel cut off by a wall.
68. Tryphon's treachery and Jonathan's imprisonment. 69.
Simon takes the leadership; Jonathan murdered. 70. The
national situation at this time. 71. Judea gains political
independence.

VI

JUDAISM IN SYRIA AND EGYPT

Sections 72-88. Pages 72-86

Section 72. The twofold relationship of the Jews in Antioch and
Alexandria. 73. The flight of Onias to Egypt. 74. The
temple near Leontopolis. 75. The relation of this temple to
the temple in Jerusalem. 76. The real reason for building the
temple in Egypt. 7 7. The true genius of Egyptian Judaism.
78. The two facts which help to explain the character of nearly
all Graeco-Jewish literature. 79. The acquaintance of the
Jews with the literature of the Greeks. 80. The philosophic
interest of the Alexandrian Jews. 81. The work of Aristobu-
lus. 82. The general character of the Book of Wisdom. 83.
Its great theme. 84. Wisdom in its relations to God. 85. The
comprehensiveness of the term on its human side. 86. The
teachings of the book about God and the life beyond. 87.
The message of the Sibyl. 88. Outline of Book III. of Sibyl-
line Oracles and the purpose of the book.



XU CONTENTS



VII



THE HAPPY DAYS OF SIMON'S REIGN

Sections 89-98. Pages 87-96

Section 89. Simon's vigorous action in capturing Gazara, Bethsur,
and the citadel in Jerusalem. 90. Changes attendant upon the
capture of the citadel and Simon's successful administration of
affairs. 91. His encouragement of commerce and agriculture.
92. The unparalleled honor given him by the people. 93. Re-
newed alliance with Rome ; its value. 94. Simon's coinage of
money. 95. Fresh troubles in Syria, in which Simon becomes
involved. 96. Jonathan and Judas, sons of Simon, defeat a
Syrian army. 97. The treacherous murder of Simon and his
sons. 98. The record of First Maccabees.

VIII

TERRITORIAL EXPANSION UNDER JOHN HYRCANUS

Sections 99-105. Pages 97-104

Section 99. John Hyrcanus, Simon's son, becomes leader and
seeks to avenge the murder of his father. 100. Antiochus
Sidetes besieges Hyrcanus in Jerusalem, but concludes a treaty
of peace. 101. The probable influence of Rome. 102. The
changes in Syrian affairs give Hyrcanus opportunity to establish
himself in power. 103. He engages foreign troops, makes
several successful expeditions, and destroys the Samaritan
temple. 104. Compels the Idumeans to be circumcised. 105.
He lays siege to Samaria and carries the northern boundary of
the kingdom to Carmel and Scythopolis.

IX

INTERNAL DIVISIONS AND THE GROWTH OF PARTIES

Sections 106-117. Pages 105-116

Section 106. The effect of territorial expansion upon the varied
interests of the nation. 107. The party of the Pharisees.
108. Their doctrine of Providence. 109. "Their, doctrine of the
future life. 110. The party of the Sadducees. 111. Their
doctrines of Providence and of the future life. 112. The effect



CONTENTS Xiii

of their creed upon their political activity. 113. The Essenes.

114. The origin of the peculiar teachings promulgated by them.

115. The breach of Ilyrcanus with the Pharisees. 116. The
method by which he opposed them. 117. The general character
of his administration.



THE REVIVAL OF HELLENISM AND THE STRUGGLE OF
PARTIES

Sections 118-130. Pages 117-126

Section 118. The leading rpiestion of the time. 119. Aristobulus,
the son of Hyrcanus, usurps the rulership and favors anti-
Pharisaic tendencies. 120. His brief reign of one year ended
by a fatal illness. 121. He is succeeded by the infamous Alex-
ander Jannjeus. 122. His unsuccessful wars by which all the
gains of the past were imperilled. 123. The timely interfer-
ence of Cleopatra. 124. Successful expeditions to the east of
the Jordan and into Philistia. 125. Janneeus insults the people
at the Feast of Tabernacles, and a terrible massacre follows.
126. The Pharisees stir up rebellion against him; civil war for
six years. 127. Jannajus is defeated at Shechem and becomes
relentless against the Pharisees. 128. He becomes involved in
Syrian troubles. 129. A period of successful campaigns is
followed by his death in 78 B.C. 130. The results of his reign.

XI

FATAL DISSENSIONS AND THE COMING OF THE
ROMANS

Sections 131-146. Pages 127-139

Section 131. Alexandra and the Pharisees. 132. How the
interests of the law were furthered. 133. The revengeful spirit
of the Pharisees. 134. Threatened invasion of Tigranes of
Armenia. 135. Aristobulus and the Sadducees get possession
of strongholds. 136. Alexandra dies. 137. Aristobulus com-
pels Hyrcanus IT., the rightful successor, to give him the ruler-
ship, and the Pharisees are ignored. 138. Antipater, the
Idumean, interferes, and Aristobulus is besieged upon the
temple mount. 139. Scaurus, the Roman general, sides with



XIV CONTENTS

Aristobuliis. 140. Hyrcanus, Aristobulus, and the people make
appeal to Pompey. 141. Pompey, being resisted by Aristobu-
lus, resolves to take the city by force. 142. Aristobulus seizes
the temple mount, but is finally overcome by the Romans.
143. The administrative changes which made void the work of
years. 144. The estimate of it all by the Pharisees. 145. The
Psalms of Solomon ; their teaching regarding the Messiah.
146. Their teaching about the resurrection and immortality of
the righteous.

PART II

THE ROMAN PERIOD OF JEWISH HISTORY



THE HISTORICAL SOURCES AND LITERATURE OF THE
PERIOD

Sections 147-159. Pages 143-153

Section 147. The limits of the period. 148. The sources of
information. 149. The value of Josephus for this period.
150. The twofold value of the New Testament witness. 151.
Rabbinical literature. 152. The Mishna, Talmuds, Midrashim,
and Targums. 153. What may be learned from these Jewish
works. 154. Sources of knowledge from the Roman side of
the relations of Rome to Judea. 155. The two lines of de-
velopment in the mental life of the nation. 156. The Psalms
of Solomon. 157. The Assumption of Moses, — the voice of
conservative Phariseeism. 158. The Book of Jubilees. 159.
Later works which reveal the methods and hope of Judaism.

II

THE TROUBLOUS TIMES OF HYRCANUS II.

Sections 160-178. Pages 154-169

Section 160. The Jews in Rome and the attitude of the people
in Judea. 161. The real value of Pompey's conquest of Judea
and his policy. 162. The manner of acceptance of the con-
quest by the Pharisees, the people and the Hellenistic centres.
163. The first manifestation of national discontent. 164. The



CONTENTS XV

policy of Gabinius, the proconsul of Syria. 165. The revolu-
tion under Aristobulus I. 16G. The uprising under Alexander
and the increased power of Antipater. 167. The new Triumvi-
rate in Rome, Csesar, Pompey, and Crassus ; how it affected
Judea. 168. The civil wars in Rome ; Caesar crosses the
Rubicon. 169. Aristobulus poisoned. 1 70. Pompey defeated
at Pharsalia ; Caesar supports Cleopatra and gains mastery of
Alexandria. 171. Antipater's substantial support of Cassar.
172. Changes brought about in Judea through Antipater's
friendship to Caesar. 173. Antipater's bold assumption of
authority. 1 74. Herod's policy in Galilee ; he is summoned to
Jerusalem for trial. 175. The political confusion consequent
upon the assassination of Cjesar. 176. Mark Antony's policy
and Herod's gain from promptly following it. 177. Antipater
poisoned ; estimate of his character and work. 1 78. Changes
in the Roman sovereignty and the results in Judea.

Ill

THE LAST OF THE HASMONEANS

Sections 179-189. Pages 170-178

Sfxtion 179. The Parthian invasion of Syria in 41 B.C. 180.
Antigonus uses the occasion to regain the throne. 181. Herod,
learning of the death of Phasael, Hies for safety to Masada.
182. Antigonus master of the situation, but unable to maintain
himself. 183. Herod seeks out Antony, and while in Rome is
appointed King of the Jews. 184. He lands at Ptolemais in
39 B.C., and conquers Galilee and Joppa. 185. He advances
upon Jerusalem, but is poorly supported by the Romans. 186.
He makes direct appeal to Antony. 187. He meets reverses,
but still resolutely pushes forward his cause. 188. He marries
Mariamne. 189. With the help of Sosius, Herod besieges and
captures Jerusalem ; Antigonus beheaded.

IV

HEROD, THE KING OF THE JEWS

Sections 190-205. Pages 179-190

Section 190. The sharp contrasts in Herod's character and their
reflection in the life of Jerusalem. 191. The two guiding prin-
ciples of his whole career. 192. The initial acts of his actual



XVI CONTENTS

kingship. 193. He appoints Ananel high-priest and closely
watches Hyrcanus. 194. Alexandra, daughter of Hyrcanus,
secures by diplomacy the appointment of her son, Aristobulus
III., as high-priest. 195. Aristobulus murdered at Jericho.
196. Herod is summoned before Antony. 19 7. Herod gains
the favor of Antony. 198. Salome arouses suspicions of Herod
against Mariamne. 199. Cleopatra is given all the cities south
of the Eleutherus River. 200. Octavian denounces Antony
before the Roman Senate. 201. In the battle of Actium,
B.C. 31, Octavian becomes sole master of the Roman world ;
Herod at once supports him. 202. Herod gives substantial
proof of his new allegiance. 203. Octavian accepts Herod as
an ally. 204. Herod puts Mariamne to death. 205. Herod's
terrible remorse, illness, and fury against Alexandra and the
sons of Babas.

Y

HEROD UNDER AUGUSTUS

Sections 206-221. Pages 191-202

Section 206. The tendency of the Roman world toward the issue
reached in the supremacy of Augustus. 207. The double rela
tionship of Herod's position. 208. The two large duties laid
upon Herod by Augustus. 209. The tidal wave of Hellenism
over Jerusalem. 210. Herod establishes fortresses. 211. His
system of espionage. 212. The better side of Herod's pur-
poses. 213. The supreme ambition of all his striving. 214.
How his passion for building found expression. 215. His
measures to develop the business of the country. 216. The
great harbor at Caesarea. 217. The Hellenizing influences
about his court. 218. His proposition to build a new temple
and the probable motive actuating him. 219. The manner and
the time of the work upon this temple. 220. The general
character of it and Judaism's appropriation of it. 221. The
insult of the golden eagle.

VI

IN THE DAYS OF HEROD THE KING
Sections 222-234. Pages 203-214
Section 222. The glory of Herod's reign and the one significant
impossibility in it. 223. The education of Herod's sons and
their reception in Judea. 224. The visit of Agrippa, the com-



CONTENTS XVll

missioner of Augustus, to Judea. 225. Herod's domestic
troubles. 226. The dark treachery of Antipater, Herod's son
by Doris, his first wife. 227. Herod's quarrel with Syllaeus
and his rescue from disgrace by Nicolas of Damascus. 228.
The miscliievous Lacedaemonian, Eurycles, who compasses the
death of Herod's sons, Aristobulus and Alexander. 229. The
continual treachery of Antipater. 230. Herod discovers the true
character of Antipater. 231. The young man is summoned
from Rome, tried, and put to death. 232. Herod's illness, the
report of his death, and the consequent activity in removing
profanations from the land. 233. His determination to make
the land mourn at the time of his death. 234. The Babe in
the manger in Bethlehem.



VII

THE INNER LIFE OF THE NATION

Sections 235-256. Pages 215-231

Section 235. The characteristics by which we can estimate the
nation's inner life. 236. The antagonisms which reveal its
power. 237. The foundation of faith laid in childhood. 238.
The only education for the mass of Jewish boys. 239. The true
school of the nation. 240. The officials and order of service in
the synagogue. 241. The synagogue and the scribes. 242. The
scribes and their threefold task. 243. The bearing of the law
upon life; the Halacha and Haggada. 244. The Halacha, the
complete expression of Judaism ; two much-discussed themes in
the Mishna. 245. The golden days of scribism. 246. The
administrative functions of the scribes. 247. The honor which
they received and the spirit they cherished. 248. The result
of their labors in the life of the nation. 249. The bearing of
scribal teaching upon the temple worship. 250. The char-
acter of the higher classes of priests ; the two forces devitaliz-
ing the worship of the Holy Place. 251. The hope of the
nation in the Messiah. 252. The Messiah of the second part
of the Rook of Enoch; of the fourth part; of the Psalms of
Solomon. 253, The only way to bring the glorious day of the
Messiah's presence. 254. The Messianic hope in Alexandrian
literature. 255. The teachings which intensified the charm of
this hope. 256. The nation and its hopes.



xviii CONTENTS



VIII



HEROD'S SONS AND KING AGRIPPA

Sections 257-275. Pages 232-245

Section 257. The provisions of Herod's will. 258. The desper-
ate beginning of Archelaus in Judea. 259. Varus sent from
Antioch to quell rebellion ; the robbery of the temple by Sa-
binus. 260. The rapid spread of revolt in the land. 261. The
settlement of Herod's will. 262. The sad condition of affairs
facing Antipas and Archelaus upon their return from Home.
263. The short and tyrannical rule of Archelaus. 264. The
character of Antipas and the price he paid for royal favor.

265. Some of the notable public buildings erected by Antipas.

266. His amour with Herodias and its consequences. 267. He
is defeated by Aretas. 268. The accession of Caligula and
Herod's banishment to Gaul. 269. The character of Philip
and his successful reign. 270. Agrippa's early career. 271.
Agrippa receives favors from Caligula, who soon after causes
widespread trouble by his insanity. 272. After Caligula's
assassination, Agrippa helps Claudius to the throne. 273. The
value of Agrippa's short reign to Judaism. 274. His politic
course of procedure. 275. His sudden death at Caesarea.

IX

IN THE HANDS OF ROME

Sections 276-290. Pages 246-257

Section 276. The earnest but mistaken desire of the people to be
added to the province of Syria. 277. The arrangement of


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Online LibraryJames Stevenson RiggsA history of the Jewish people during the Maccabean and Roman periods : (including New Testament times) → online text (page 1 of 23)