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James Stevenson.

Illustrated Catalogue Of The Collections Obtained From The Indians Of New Mexico And Arizona In 1879 Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 18 online

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Online LibraryJames StevensonIllustrated Catalogue Of The Collections Obtained From The Indians Of New Mexico And Arizona In 1879 Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 18 → online text (page 1 of 12)
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[Transcriber’s Note:
Punctuation in catalog entries has been silently regularized. Other
errors are noted at the end of the text.
Figures with captions in CAPITALS were printed in color.]


* * * * *


SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY.

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE
OF THE
COLLECTIONS OBTAINED FROM THE INDIANS
OF
NEW MEXICO AND ARIZONA IN 1879.

BY

JAMES STEVENSON.


* * * * *


NOTE.


The following catalogue of the collections made during 1879 was prepared
for the First Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, but owing to
want of space was not included in that volume. Before the necessity of
this action was made apparent the matter had been stereotyped and it was
impossible to change the figure numbers, etc. This will explain the
seeming irregularity in the numbering of the figures - the first one of
this paper following the last one of the above-mentioned report. The
second catalogue, that of the collection of 1880, also included in this
volume, has been made to correspond with the first, the figure numbers
following in regular order.


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

WASHINGTON, _January 3, 1881_.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith an illustrated catalogue
exhibiting in part the results of the ethnologic and archaeologic
explorations made under your direction in New Mexico and Arizona during
the summer of 1879.

As you are already familiar with the mode of travel and the labor
necessary in making such investigations and explorations, as well as the
incidents common to such undertakings, and as I do not consider them of
any special interest or value to the catalogue, I have omitted such
details.

I beg, however, in this connection, to refer to the services of Messrs.
F. H. Cushing, ethnologist of the Smithsonian Institution, and J. K.
Hillers, photographic artist of the Bureau of Ethnology, both of whom
accompanied me on the expedition.

Mr. Cushing’s duties were performed with intelligence and zeal
throughout. After the field-work of the season was completed he remained
with the Indians for the purpose of studying the habits, customs,
manners, political and religious organizations, and language of the
people; also to explore the ancient caves of that region. His inquiries
will prove of the utmost interest and importance to science. Mr. Hillers
labored with equal zeal and energy. His work is of the greatest value in
illustrating some of the most interesting features of our
investigations. He made a large series of negatives depicting nearly
every feature of the Pueblo villages and their inhabitants. The beauty
and perfection of the photographs themselves fully attest the value and
importance of his work.

I would extend most cordial thanks to General Sherman for the special
interest he manifested in our work, and for directions given by him to
the officers of the Army serving in the West to assist us in carrying
out the objects of the expedition; and to the officers who so cordially
rendered such aid.

To General Edward Hatch, commanding the district of New Mexico, we are
indebted for valuable information and material assistance, which were
liberally granted, and to which in great part our success was due. The
party also received valuable aid from Gen. George P. Buell, U.S.A., who
was in command at Fort Wingate during our work at Zuñi, for which I am
pleased to extend thanks. The large number and variety of objects
collected by the members of the expedition, and the many difficulties
incident to such undertakings, as well as the limited time devoted to
the preparation of the catalogue, will account for any imperfections it
may contain.

Hoping, however, that, notwithstanding these, it may serve useful ends
in the continuation of such work,

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES STEVENSON.

Prof. J. W. POWELL,

_Director Bureau of Ethnology_.


CONTENTS.


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 311
INTRODUCTION 319
Articles of stone 320
Articles of clay 322
Vegetal substances 334
Collection from Zuñi 337
Articles of stone 337
Axes, hammers, and mauls 337
Metates, or grain-grinders, and pestles 340
Mortars, pestles, etc 340
Miscellaneous objects 342
Articles of clay 343
Water vases 343
Water jugs and jars 347
Jugs of fanciful forms 349
Pitchers 349
Cups or cup-shaped vessels 350
Eating bowls 350
Cooking vessels 358
Ladles 360
Baskets 360
Paint cups 362
Condiment cups 363
Effigies 364
Statuettes 366
Clays and pigments 367
Vegetal substances 368
Basketry 368
Pads 369
Domestic implements, toys, etc 370
Foods 372
Medicines and dyes 372
Animal substances 373
Horn and bone 373
Skin 373
Woven fabrics 373
Collection from Wolpi 375
Articles of stone 375
Axes, hammers, etc 375
Metates, or grain-grinders, and pestles 376
Mortars, pestles, etc 377
Miscellaneous objects 377
Articles of clay 378
Water vases 378
Water jugs and jars 379
Toy-like water vessels 381
Cups 382
Eating bowls 382
Cooking vessels 385
Toy-like vessels 385
Ladles 385
Miscellaneous 387
Statuettes 387
Vegetal substances 389
Basketry 389
Domestic implements, toys, etc 391
Ornamental objects 393
Statuettes 395
Animal substances 396
Horn and bone 396
Skin 397
Woven fabrics 398
Collection from Laguna 399
Articles of clay 399
Water vases 399
Water jugs and jars 401
Pitchers 401
Effigies 402
Eating bowls 403
Collection from Acoma 404
Articles of clay 404
Water vases 404
Pitchers 405
Eating bowls 405
Collection from Cochiti 405
Articles of clay 405
Water vessels 405
Eating bowls 408
Ornaments, effigies, and toys 408
Collection from Santo Domingo 409
Articles of Clay 409
Water vessels 409
Collection from Tesuke 410
Articles of stone 410
Metates, mortars, etc 410
Articles of clay 410
Water vases 410
Water jugs and jars 413
Pitchers 413
Eating bowls 413
Cooking vessels 414
Toys 414
Vegetal substances 414
Medicines 414
Collection from Santa Clara 415
Articles of clay 415
Water vases 415
Eating bowls 415
Cooking vessels 416
Effigies 416
Collection from San Juan 416
Articles of clay 416
Eating bowls 416
Collection from Jemez 417
Articles of clay 417
Collection from the Jicarilla Apaches 417
Articles of clay 417
Collection from Old Pecos 418
Articles of stone 418
Articles of clay 418
Articles of wood 419
Collection from the Cañon de Chelly 419
Articles of clay 419
Water vessels 419
Bowls 420
Cooking vessels 420
Collection from Pictograph Rocks 420
Articles of clay 420
Collection from other localities 421
Articles of clay 421
Miscellaneous 421
Statuettes 421


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Figs. 347-352. Zuñi grooved axes 338
Fig. 353. Zuñi mortar and pestle 340
Fig. 354. Zuñi crucible 340
Fig. 355. Zuñi skinning-knife 340
Fig. 356. Zuñi sandstone mold 340
Fig. 357. Zuñi spear-head 340
Fig. 358. Zuñi mortar and pestle 340
Figs. 359-360. Zuñi water vases 342
Figs. 361-362. Zuñi water vases 343
Figs. 363-364. Zuñi water vases 344
Figs. 365-366. Zuñi water vases 344
Figs. 367-368. Zuñi water vases 344
Figs. 369-370. Zuñi water vases 344
Figs. 371-372. Zuñi water vases 345
Figs. 373-374. Zuñi water vases 345
Figs. 375-378. Zuñi water vases 346
Fig. 379. Zuñi canteen 347
Fig. 380. Zuñi eating bowl 347
Fig. 381. Zuñi water vase 347
Fig. 382. Zuñi eating bowl 347
Figs. 383-384. Zuñi water vases 347
Figs. 385-387. Zuñi canteens 348
Figs. 388-391. Zuñi canteens 348
Figs. 392-394. Zuñi canteens 349
Figs. 395-397. Zuñi canteens 349
Fig. 398. Zuñi canteen 350
Fig. 399. Zuñi water vase 350
Fig. 400. Zuñi canteen 350
Fig. 401. Zuñi eating bowl 350
Fig. 402. Zuñi canteen 350
Figs. 403-406. Zuñi water pitchers 350
Fig. 407. Zuñi water pitcher 350
Figs. 408-409. Zuñi cups 350
Figs. 410-412. Zuñi eating bowls 350
Figs. 413-415. Zuñi eating bowls 352
Figs. 416-418. Zuñi eating bowls 354
Figs. 419-421. Zuñi eating bowls 356
Figs. 422-424. Zuñi eating bowls 356
Figs. 425-427. Zuñi eating bowls 357
Figs. 428-430. Zuñi eating bowls 358
Figs. 431-436. Zuñi cooking vessels 359
Figs. 437-441. Zuñi ladles 360
Figs. 442-447. Zuñi clay baskets 361
Figs. 448-453. Zuñi clay baskets 361
Figs. 454-457. Zuñi paint cups 364
Figs. 458-459. Zuñi condiment cups 364
Figs. 460-461. Zuñi effigies 365
Figs. 462-463. Zuñi effigies 365
Figs. 464-467. Zuñi effigies 365
Figs. 468-469. Zuñi effigies 365
Figs. 470-471. Zuñi effigies 365
Figs. 472-476. Zuñi effigies 366
Figs. 477-480. Zuñi effigies 366
Figs. 481-483. Zuñi moccasins 367
Figs. 484-485. Zuñi basketry 370
Fig. 486. Zuñi pad 370
Fig. 487. Zuñi toy cradle 370
Fig. 488. Zuñi basketry 370
Fig. 489. Zuñi toy cradle 370
Fig. 490. Zuñi ladle 370
Fig. 491. Zuñi war-club 372
Figs. 492-493. Zuñi dance ornaments 372
Fig. 494. Zuñi rotary drill 372
Fig. 495. Zuñi wooden, spade 372
Fig. 496. Zuñi wooden digger 372
Fig. 497. Zuñi rattle 371
Fig. 498. Zuñi rattle 373
Fig. 499. Zuñi hopple 373
Figs. 500-502. Zuñi woven sashes 373
Fig. 503. Zuñi head dress 374
Figs. 504-507. Wolpi axes 375
Fig. 508. Wolpi metate 375
Fig. 509. Wolpi ancient pipe 378
Fig. 510. Wolpi stone effigy 378
Fig. 511. Wolpi neck ornament 378
Figs. 512-513. Wolpi effigies 378
Fig. 514. Wolpi water vase 379
Figs. 515-516. Wolpi pots 379
Figs. 517-519. Wolpi vessels 381
Figs. 520-522. Wolpi water jars 382
Fig. 523. Wolpi eating bowl 385
Fig. 524. Wolpi cooking vessel 385
Fig. 525. Wolpi ladle 385
Figs. 526-529. Wolpi ladles 386
Fig. 530. Wolpi basket 386
Fig. 531. Wolpi basin 388
Fig. 532. Wolpi vase and bowl attached 388
Figs. 533-534. Wolpi clay statuettes 388
Figs. 535-536. Wolpi baskets 389
Figs. 537-538. Wolpi baskets 390
Fig. 539. Wolpi basket 390
Fig. 540. Wolpi floor mat 390
Figs. 541-542. Wolpi baskets 390
Figs. 543-545. Wolpi baskets 391
Fig. 546. Wolpi weaving stick 392
Fig. 547. Wolpi spindle whorl 392
Fig. 548-549. Wolpi rabbit sticks 392
Fig. 550. Wolpi rake 393
Fig. 551. Wolpi drumstick 393
Fig. 552. Wolpi treasure-box 393
Fig. 553. Wolpi dance gourd 393
Fig. 554. Wolpi treasure-box 393
Figs. 555-558. Wolpi dance ornaments 393
Fig. 559. Wolpi head-dress 394
Fig. 560. Wolpi gourd rattle 394
Fig. 561. Wolpi musical instrument 394
Fig. 562. Wolpi gourd rattle 394
Figs. 563-565. Wolpi ornaments 394
Figs. 566-569. Wolpi effigies 395
Figs. 570-572. Wolpi effigies 396
Fig. 573. Wolpi horn ladle 397
Fig. 574. Wolpi horn rattle 397
Fig. 575. Wolpi perforator 397
Fig. 576. Wolpi arrow straightener 397
Fig. 577. Wolpi wristlet 398
Fig. 578. Wolpi moccasin 398
Fig. 579. Wolpi wristlet 398
Fig. 580. Wolpi riding whip 398
Fig. 581. Wolpi drum 399
Figs. 582-583. Wolpi blanket 399
Fig. 584. Wolpi anklets 399
Figs. 585-587. Laguna water vases 400
Figs. 588-591. Laguna water vases 400
Fig. 592. Laguna water pitcher 400
Figs. 593-596. Laguna water jars 401
Figs. 597-600. Laguna effigies 402
Figs. 601-604. Laguna effigies 402
Figs. 605-609. Laguna effigies 402
Figs. 610-612. Laguna water vases 403
Figs. 613-615. Laguna eating bowls 403
Figs. 616-617. Laguna eating bowls 403
Figs. 618-619. Acoma water vases 404
Figs. 620-622. Acoma water vases 404
Figs. 623-624. Cochiti water vessels 406
Figs. 625-626. Cochiti water vessels 406
Figs. 627-628. Cochiti water vessels 406
Figs. 629-630. Cochiti water vessels 407
Figs. 631-632. Cochiti water vessels 407
Figs. 633-634. Cochiti water vessels 407
Figs. 635-636. Cochiti water vessels 407
Figs. 637-638. Cochiti water vessels 408
Figs. 639-640. Cochiti water vessels 408
Figs. 641-642. Cochiti water vessels 408
Figs. 643-644. Cochiti water vessels 408
Figs. 645-647. Cochiti effigies 409
Figs. 648-649. Santo Domingo drinking vessels 410
Fig. 650. Tesuke mortar and pestle 410
Figs. 651-652. Tesuke water vases 412
Figs. 653-654. Tesuke water vases 412
Fig. 655. Tesuke water jar 414
Fig. 656. Tesuke effigy 414
Fig. 657. Tesuke cooking vessel 414
Fig. 658. Tesuke effigy 414
Fig. 659. Tesuke cooking vessel 414
Figs. 660-662. Santa Clara water vases 416
Figs. 663-664. Santa Clara eating bowls 416
Figs. 665-666. Santa Clara effigies 416
Fig. 667. Santa Clara eating bowl 416
Fig. 668. Santa Clara platter 416
Fig. 669. Santa Clara eating bowl 416
Figs. 670-672. Santa Clara water jars 416
Figs. 673-675. San Juan eating bowls 416
Fig. 676. Jemez water vessel 417
Figs. 677-680. Water vessels from Cañon De Chelly 418
Figs. 681-683. Water vessels from Cañon De Chelly 420
Figs. 684-686. Bowls from Cañon De Chelly 420
Figs. 687-692. Pitchers from Cañon De Chelly 420
Figs. 693-696. Cooking vessels from Cañon De Chelly 420
Fig. 697. Corrugated vessel from Pictograph rocks 420
Map showing location of the pueblos of Arizona
and New Mexico 319


[Illustration:

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY.
J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR.

MAP

SHOWING LOCATION OF THE PUEBLOS
OF ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO]


* * * * *


ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF THE COLLECTIONS
OBTAINED FROM THE INDIANS
OF NEW MEXICO AND ARIZONA IN 1879.

By JAMES STEVENSON.


* * * * *


INTRODUCTION


It is not my intention in the present paper - which is simply what it
purports to be, a _catalogue_ - to attempt any discussion of the habits,
customs, or domestic life of the Indian tribes from whom the articles
were obtained; nor to enter upon a general comparison of the pottery and
other objects with articles of a like character of other, nations or
tribes. Occasionally attention may be called to striking resemblances
between certain articles and those of other countries, where such
comparison will aid in illustrating form or character.

The collection contains two thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight
specimens. Although it consists very largely of vessels and other
articles of pottery, yet it embraces almost every object necessary to
illustrate the domestic life and art of the tribes from whom the largest
number of the specimens were obtained. It includes, in addition to
pottery, implements of war and hunting, articles used in domestic
manufactures, articles of clothing and personal adornment, basketry,
trappings for horses, images, toys, stone implements, musical
instruments, and those used in games and religious ceremonies, woven
fabrics, foods prepared and unprepared, paints for decorating pottery
and other objects, earths of which their pottery is manufactured,
mineral pigments, medicines, vegetable dyestuffs, &c. But the chief
value of the collection is undoubtedly the great variety of vessels and
other articles of pottery which it contains. In this respect it is
perhaps the most complete that has been made from the pueblos. Quite a
number of articles of this group may perhaps be properly classed as
“ancient,” and were obtained more or less uninjured; but by far the
larger portion are of modern manufacture.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

These consist of pestles and mortars for grinding pigments; circular
mortars, in which certain articles of food are bruised or ground;
_metates_, or stones used for grinding wheat and corn; axes, hatchets,
celts, mauls, scrapers &c.

The cutting, splitting, pounding, perforating, and scraping implements
are generally derived from schists, basaltic, trachytic, and porphyritic
rocks, and those for grinding and crushing foods are more or less
composed of coarse lava and compact sandstones. Quite a number of the
metate rubbing stones and a large number of the axes are composed of a
very hard, heavy, and curiously mottled rock, a specimen of which was
submitted to Dr. George W. Hawes, Curator of Mineralogy to the National
Museum, for examination, and of which he says:

“This rock, which was so extensively employed by the Pueblo Indians for
the manufacture of various utensils, has proved to be composed largely
of quartz, intermingled with which is a fine, fibrous, radiated
substance, the optical properties of which demonstrate it to be
fibrolite. In addition, the rock is filled with minute crystals of
octahedral form which are composed of magnetite, and scattered through
the rock are minute yellow crystals of rutile. The red coloration which
these specimens possess is due to thin films of hematite. The rock is
therefore fibrolite schist, and from a lithological standpoint it is
very interesting. The fibrolite imparts the toughness to the rock,
which, I should judge, would increase its value for the purposes to
which the Indians applied it.”


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Online LibraryJames StevensonIllustrated Catalogue Of The Collections Obtained From The Indians Of New Mexico And Arizona In 1879 Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 18 → online text (page 1 of 12)