James Stuart.

A history of the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 : and of Dinuzulu's arrest, trial, and expatriation online

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A HISTORY OF THE ZULU REBELLION, 1906






MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO
DALLAS • SAN FRANCISCO

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO




COLONEL SIR HENRY E. McCALLUM, R.E., G.CM.G
(Governor of Natal, 1 901-1 9U7).



A HISTORY ,50^^^

THE ZULU REBELLION *^^^

1906

AND OF
DINUZULU'S ARREST, TRIAL AND EXPATRIATION



BY

J. STUART

CAPT. NATAL FIELD ARTILLERY; INTELHOENCE OFFICER, 1906-1909
EX-ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR NATIVE AFFAIRS, NATAL



WITH FIVE MAPS, SIX PLANS
AND TWENTY-FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

1913






COPYRIGHT



BY PERMISSION,

TO

HIS EXCELLENCY,
COLONEL SIR HENRY EDWARD McCALLUM,

R.E., G.C.M.G., AIDE-DE-CAMP TO HIS MAJESTY THE KING, ETC., ETC.
GOVERNOR OF NATAL (1901-1907),

WHOSE FIRM AND CAPABLE ADMINISTRATION

OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COLONY,

IN A TIME OF PUBLIC DANGER,

WILL LONG BE REMEMBERED WITH GRATITUDE

BY EVERY NATALIAN.



PKEFACE.

Although the object of this book is stated in the
opening paragraph, it is, perhaps, proper that the
circumstances under which it came to be written should
also be set briefly before the reader.

Towards the end of the campaign, probably the first
to be conducted by a British Colony without the assistance
of the Mother Country,^ the Government of Natal decided
that a history of the military operations should be com-
piled. On being asked, I consented to undertake the task.
But, though promptly entered upon, the greatest diffi-
culty was experienced in carrying it to a conclusion. This
arose from my being a civil servant and being obKged to
continue discharging certain special as well as ordinary
official duties. As, when the Union of South Africa was
established, the work had not been completed, the atten-
tion of the Minister of Defence was drawn to the matter.
General Smuts intimated that the new Government was
unable to ratify the original instructions, and that if
the book was ever to be published (which he personally
hoped would be the case) it would have to be on my
own responsibiHty and at my own expense. In these
circumstances, particularly as an opportunity occurred
of severing my twenty-four years' connection with the
Civil Service, I resolved to go on with it and appeal
for support to those who had taken part in the cam-
paign. This appeal was made to a somewhat limited
extent in 1912, and it is owing very largely to the

1 But see p. 63.



viii PREFACE

guarantee then obtained that the heavy costs of pubhca-
tion have been incurred.

But, although the volume can no longer claim to be an
official publication, it is in the unique position of being
based as much on official information as, perhaps, any
exclusively official history could have been, for I am pleased
to say that considerable assistance has been given by the
Government, especially by all records, e.gr. commanding and
other officers' reports, statistics, maps, etc., being placed
freely at my disposal. The reader will, however, soon
perceive that the subject has been treated with a fulness
and freedom that could hardly have been expected in a
more formal production. Owing, for instance, to having
for years speciahzed in Zulu history, habits, and customs,
I have not hesitated to incorporate information, germane
to the subject, which I felt the reader might msh to have,
especially as some of it is not procurable elsewhere.
Moreover, instead of being Hmited, as at first intended,
to the events of 1906, the narrative includes a detailed
account of the Dinuzulu Expedition, and other topics
incidental to that important sequel of the RebelUon.

Although I had the privilege of serving as intelhgence
officer throughout the campaign, as well as during the
Expedition, and therefore was an eye-witness of many
of the operations, it became necessary, as it was desired
that the history should be comprehensive, to obtain
exact information regarding several actions, operations,
etc., at which I was not present. A party, which included
a first-class surveyor and professional photographer, was
accordingly organized by direction of the Commandant,
as early as November, 1906, for the purpose of visiting
the battle-fields. The members were selected for their
personal knowledge of what had occurred at the places in
question. Quantities of accurate information, not pre-
viously available, were thereupon collected by me at each
spot, the surveyor at the same time preparing the maps
and plans included herein.

So abundant is the material accumulated then, as well
as on various other occasions, that it would have been



PREFACE ix

easy to compile a much larger work than the present one.
That the book is as full as it is, is due to the fact that no
general account exists of an occurrence that must for
long loom large in the history of the Native races of South
Africa. To some extent, owing to my recent intimate
connection with the Native Affairs Department, the
book may even claim to be an introduction to and a
study of some of the more fundamental aspects of the
Native Question — no doubt the greatest problem with
which South African statesmen will ever be called on
to deal.

The main object throughout has been to ensure accu-
racy. Working, as I have had to do, practically alone,
the task has proved long and difficult. This is the sole
reason why the time originally fixed for pubHcation has,
I regret to say, been exceeded by a few months.

I cannot conclude without acknowledging my indebted-
ness and expressing my thanks to the many officers, non-
commissioned officers and men, and others not in the
mihtary service, who, from time to time, have given
valuable information and helpful suggestions or advice.
To name but a few of these would be invidious. I can
only say that the uniform readiness and unfaiHng courtesy
of all to whom I was obliged to appeal have been greatly
appreciated, and have gone a long way towards rendering
the undertaking less arduous than it otherwise would
have been. To say that the greatest assistance has come
from the Government, especially the Militia and Police
Departments in Natal and the Volunteer Department in
the Transvaal, is but to state what will be patent to
everyone.

The despatches from the Governors, Sir Henry McCallum
and Sir Matthew Nathan, to the Secretary of State for
the Colonies in various blue-books have been invaluable.
Captain W. Bosman's and Mr. W. J. Powell's well-known
books have, of course, also been consulted ; the help
derived from them, especially the former, is very gratefully
acknowledged.

My thanks are also due to J. Windham, Esq., and my



X PREFACE

mother for reading several of the chapters and suggesting
various improvements.

The index is the work of Miss M. Marsh, of the Encyclo-
pcedia Britannica staff ; no pains have been spared in
rendering it as complete and accurate as possible.

J. STUART.
London, Ju7ie, 1913.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER PAGE

I. Introduction, . - - -.. i

II. System of Native Administration in Natal, - 18

III. State of Military Organization on the Out-

break OF Rebellion, - - . . . 33

IV. Zulu Military System and Connected Customs

(with a Note on t^e Rebel Organization, 1 906), 67
V. Events and Conditions antecedent to Out-
break OF Hostilities. — Murder of Hunt

AND Armstrong, 92

VI. Mobilization and Demonstrations in Force
(a) IN THE South-west, (6) at Mapumulo. —
Executions at Richmond, - - - - 127

VII. Outbreak at Mpanza, I55

VIII. Flight of Bambata to Nkandhla Forests. — First
Steps taken to cope with the Situation. —

Zulu Customs, 178

IX. The Nkandhla Forests. — Sigananda and his
Tribe. — Dinuzulu's Attitude. — Early Opera-
tions AT Nkandhla. — Murder of H. M.

Stainbank, 204

X. Mobilization of Zululand Field Force. — Mansel

Engages the Enemy at Bobe, - - - 222
XI. Converging Movement on Cetshwayo's Grave. —
Negotiations for Sigananda's Surrender. —
Further Operations, Nkandhla. — Tate Gorge, 237
XII. Operations by (a) Umvoti Field Force, (6) Mac-

kay's Column. — Battle of Mpukunyoni, - 257

XIII. Further Operations by Zululand Field Force. —

Action at Manzipambana. — Enemy decides

to move in Force to Mome, - - - . 280

XIV. Action at Mome Gorge, 299

XV. State of Affairs at Umsinga. — Operations by

Murray- Smith's Column. — Further Opera-
tions by Umvoti Field Force and Mackay's
Column, 318



Xll



CONTENTS



CHAPTER

XVI.



XVII.



XVIII.



XIX.
XX.



XXI.



XXII.



XXIII.



XXIV.



I.
II.
III.

IV.

V.

VI.



IX.
X.



XI.



Concluding Operations, Nkandhla. — Visit of
DiNUzuLu's Indunas to Pietermaritzbubg. —
Position at Mapumulo. — Actions at Otimati
AND Peyana (Hlonono), 333

General Concentration at Thring's Post. —
Actions at Macrae's Store, Insuze and
PoNjwANA. — Converging Movement on Me-
SENi's Ward, 359

Action at Izinsimba, — Concluding Operations. —

DiSBANDMENT. CoURTS -MARTIAL. CoST OP THE

Rebellion, 386

Some Lessons of the Rebellion, - - - 407

Native Affairs Commission. — Visit of Dinuzulu

TO Pietermaritzburg. — Murders of Loyalists.

— Escape of Bambata's Wife and Children

from Usutu. — Remobilization of Militia

TO arrest Dinuzulu, 424

Dinuzulu Expedition. — Surrender of Dinuzulu.
— Calling in of Firearms. — Searching for

Outstanding Rebels, 443

Preliminary Examination and Trial of Dinuzulu.
— Withholding of his Salary. — His Settle-
ment in the Transvaal, . . . . 460
Review of Policy followed in Connection with
Dinuzulu. — His Status. — His Attitude dur-
ing, AND subsequent TO, THE REBELLION, - 477

Conclusion, - - - - 504

APPENDICES.

Casualties, (a) Killed, (b) Wounded, - - - 540

Honours, 543

Strength of Forces, 7th May, 1906, - - - 546
Disposition of Forces, 7th May, 1906, - - 547
State of Transport, 7th May, 1906, - - - 548
Strength of Active Militia called out, Decem-
ber, 1907, 549

Strength of Reserves in the Field, December,

1907, 549

Expenditure, Rebellion and Dinuzulu Ex-
pedition, 550

Zulu Songs sung at Usutu, 551

Causes, Superstitions, etc., Matabele Rebellion,

1896, - - 551

Native Corps, 557

Index, 563



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

(a) ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

Colonel Sir Henry E. McCallum, R.E., G.C.M.G., - Frontispiece

Hon. C. J. Smythe, 16

Hon. Sir Thomas Watt, K.C.M.G., ...... „

Hon. T. F. Carter, K.C,

Hon. H. D. Winter, „

Colonel H. T. Bru-de-Wold, C.M.G., D.S.O., - - - 48

Major-General Sir J. G. Dartnell, K.C.B., C.M.G., - - „

Colonel G. Leuchars, C.M.G., D.S.O., „

Sir Abe Bailey, K.C.M.G.,

Mr. H, M. Stainbank, 124

Mr. Oliver E. Veal, „

Sub-Inspector S. H. K. Hunt, „

Trooper G. Armstrong, - „

Bambata, 188

Cakijana, „

SiGANANDA, ,>

Mangati, „

Brigadier-General Sir D. McKenzie, K.C.M.G., C.B., - 226

Mveli, - - - 430

SiTSHITSHILI, „

Sibindi, „

Mankulumana, „

Bambata's Wife, „

usutu kjraal, - 450

Group : Dinuzulu, Hon. W. P. Schreiner, K.C, and others, - 472



(6) MAPS AND PLANS.

Key Map, and Area of Operations, - - - End of Index

Mpanza, - 172

BoBE, 232

Mpukunyoni, 274

Manzipambana, - - - - 290

Mome, showing Tate Gorge, 310

Otimati, . _ _ . 351

Peyana (Hlonono), ........ 358

Insuze, - 370

PoNJWANA (Sikota's Kraal), - - - - 372

Izinsimba and Macrae's Store, . - -.. 390



ABBREVIATIONS.



B.M.R. -


Border Mounted Rifles.


Cd. -


Command, i.e. " Presented by ' Command ' of




Majesty to both Houses of Parliament."


C.M.R. -


Cape Mounted Rifles.


C.N.A. -


Commissioner for Native Affairs.


D.C.M. -


Distinguished Conduct Medal.


D.L.I.


Durban Light Infantry.


H.F.F. -


Helpmakaar Field Force.


I.L.H. -


Imperial Light Horse.


J.M.R. -


Johannesburg Mounted Rifles.


L. and Y. -


Lancaster and York.


M.C.R. -


Militia Composite Regiment,


N.C.


Natal Carbineers.


N.D.M.R. -


Northern District Mounted Rifles.


N.F.A. -


Natal Field Artillery.


N.M.C. -


Natal Medical Corps.


N.M.R. -


Natal Mounted Rifles.


N.N.C. -


Natal Naval Corps,


N.N.H. -


Natal Native Horse.


N.P.


Natal Police.


N.R.


Natal Rangers.


N.R.R. -


Natal Royal Regiment.


N.S.C.


Natal Service Corps.


N.T.C. -


Natal Telegraph Corps.


N.V.C. -


Natal Veterinary Corps.


O.C.


Offlcer Commanding.


R.H.


Royston's Horse.


S.A.L.H. -


South African Light Horse.


Sc.H.


Scottish Horse.


S.N.A. -


Secretary for Native Affairs.


T.M.R. -


Transvaal Mounted Rifles.


Transport


Natal Transport Corps.


U.D.R. -


Umvoti District Reserves.


U.F.F. -


Umvoti Field Force.


U.M.R. -


Umvoti Mounted Rifles.


U.S.N.A. -


Under Secretary for Native Affairs.


V.D.


Volunteer Decoration.


Z.F.F. -


Zululand Field Force.


Z.M.R. -


Zululand Mounted Rifles.


Z.N.P. -


Zululand Native Police (Nongqai).



His



GLOSSARY.



Commando

Division {District)

Donga -

Iiwpi
Indaba -
Induna -



Isibalo - - -
Ka - -

Kloof -

Kop - - -

Kopje

Krantz - - -

Lagers -

hoopers -

Nkomondala -

Nongqai

Outspan - - -

Spoor
Supreme Chief

Thorn country, the
thorns

Trek



Tshokobezi, properly
umtshokobezi



A Boer military force, usually one recruited from
a particular district.

The magisterial areas in Natal are usually spoken
of as ' divisions,' in Zululand as ' districts/

A channel or hollow worn in the earth by a current

of water ; a gully ; the bank of a river, etc.
A force, — military, hostile, etc.
A story, affair, public inquiry, etc.

An officer. The word, however, connotes in one
context, military, and in another, civil, fimc-
tions. In the case of Dinuzulu it may also be
taken to mean ' political adviser.'

Corvee or compulsory labour.

A preposition, signifying son or daughter of, e.g.
Matshana ka Mondise.

A ravine or gorge.

A peak.

A small hill or peak.

A precipice or cliff.

Enclosures of various kinds erected to serve as
temporary or permanent fortifications.

Large shot, or irregularly-shaped pieces of metal
used instead of shot.

Name of Dinuzulu's body-guard ; formed about
1901.

PoHceman. Members of Z.N.P. Corps. The word,
which really means 'watching,' is probably
derived from uGqainyanga, a moon-gazer, i.e.
night-watchman.

V, To unyoke or unharness ; n. Place where un-
yoking or harnessing occurs.

A recently-formed track.

Title assumed by Governor in his capacity as head
of the Native population.

Country, usually low-lying, covered with stunted
trees of Mimosa (thorn) species.

Travelling by waggon, especially when drawn by
oxen.

Bushy portion of ox or cow-tail, usually white,
worn about the head or neck by adherents of
the Usutu faction among the Zulus ; the
wearer of such badge.



XVI

XJmkumhi

Usutu -

VeU

Viyo

Voorlooper
Voortrekker



GLOSSARY

The close, circular formation in which an impi is
drawn up to be doctored, to receive instruc-
tions, etc.

( 1 ) Name of the tribe or faction recently presided
over by Dinuzulu. (2) The war-cry used by
members of Dinuzulu's tribe, as well as by those
who espoused his or Bambata's cause.

Open, unenclosed country.

A company of warriors, usually varying from
fifty to eighty or more in number.

A person, generally a small Native boy, who leads
a span of oxen.

A pioneer.



INTRODUCTION.

The main object of this book is to describe the mihtary
operations of the Rebellion of 1906-08, a rebelUon in
which a considerable section of the Zulus of Natal and
Zululand took up arms against the Government of Natal.
Such conflict was, of course, between a race of savages
on the one hand, and a number of Europeans or repre-
sentatives of Western Civihzation on the other. An
account of the campaign that ensued might, indeed,
succeed in holding the reader's attention and even afford
information of practical value. However that may be,
whenever great and sudden outbursts of hostility occur
in human society, no one is quite satisfied unless he can,
at the same time, learn something of the inner or under-
lying circumstances under which they came to take place.
Particularly is this the case when, as in the present in-
stance, the hostilities were planned by people with whom
the British race had been in close contact and on terms
of amity for upwards of eighty years. This aspect of
the matter will, therefore, be kept carefully in view, in
the hope that some of that fuller information, which,
it is assumed, every reader naturally desires to have,
may be afforded. In order that this better understand-
ing may be obtained, it is necessary to begin with the
first coming into contact of the colonists with the Zulu
people.

It was in May, 1824, that the first group of Euro-
pean settlers arrived in Natal by sea from the Cape

A



2 THE ZULU REBELLION

Colony.i They found large tracts of country about Port
Natal almost uninhabited. ^ Learning that the King of
that important section of the Bantu family, the great and
terrible Tshaka, then residing in what is now called Zulu-
land, claimed the territory as his, they immediately
repaired to the royal headquarters, Bulawayo,^ obtained
from the despot permission to take up their abode at the
Port and enter into commercial dealings with his people.
Notwithstanding the ease with which a footing was
obtained, their position was, for many years, one of very
considerable insecurity, which, indeed, was inevitable
under the prevaihng mode of government.

The circumstances might have been different had the
Zulu dynasty been long in power. As it was, for barely
a decade had any kingdom existed in those parts, its
existence having been brought about by Tshaka himself
by means of a newly-created and remarkable miUtary
system, to be described in a later chapter, under which
practically every man and youth capable of bearing arms
was bound to serve. As, through the King's aggressive
tactics, the borders of the country were being rapidly
expanded, it can be seen his forces were constantly being
augmented in proportion.

1 Natal was discovered by a Portuguese navigator, Vasco da Gama,
when engaged in his quest for a sea-route to India, on Christmas Day,
1497. But Httle more was heard of the coimtry until Farewell and
Fynn, having proceeded in 1823 as far as St. Lucia Bay and Delagoa
Bay respectively, returned to Cape Town and organized the party
referred to in the text.

2 The notorious Zulu King Tshaka's catastrophic reign began about
1814. Great tribes were, at quick intervals between then and 1820,
driven headlong into Natal, only to sweep the peaceful inhabitants of
the land away with them into the Cape Colony and elsewhere. Three
or four of these appalling exoduses, taking place by no means only on
the south-west boundary of Zululand, soon denuded Natal, and other
adjacent territories, of the greater portion of their aboriginal population.
The country was transformed into a howling wilderness, overrun with
lions, hysenas, and wolves ; and any stray wight, who had succeeded
in evading the Zulu fury and was eking out ,an existence on wild-roots
or shell-fish, was himted by members of his own species, so far de-
himianized, within half-a-dozen years, as to have become converted
into expert and voracious cannibals.

3 It was after this kraal that Mzilikazi, " the lion of the North," named
his own principal kraal — a name subsequently adopted by the Chartered
Company of Rhodesia for the already well-known town established on
the site of the kraal.



INTRODUCTION 3

Owing, then, to the existence, on the north side of the
Tugela, of this large, efficient and highly-organized army
of warlike barbarians, an army whose movements were
dependent on the caprice of as absolute an autocrat as it
is possible to conceive — an army prepared and able, upon
emergency, as was proved upon various occasions, to
mobilize 40,000 to 50,000 men (inhabiting roadless,
mountainous regions) within a week — it became a matter
of vital importance for such state of affairs to be borne
perpetually in mind ; for these early colonists, it must
be remembered, were, from 1824 to 1837, but a handful of
strangers in a strange land. It became their first duty
to maintain a strictly friendly disposition towards the
Zulu monarch, and to avoid, by all means in their power,
a conflict which must have severely crippled them, if it
did not result in the complete annihilation of themselves,
their famihes and dependants.

There were, however, not a few influences at work,
feeble though these were, in the direction of placating the
Zulu monarch, and securing, as far as possible, his con-
tinual friendly co-operation and goodwill. Among these,
practical services of various kinds were rendered by the
pioneers from time to time, in a collective as well as
individual capacity. For instance, they were occasionally
called on to assist in military expeditions ; when not so
engaged, they established and developed a commerce in
sundry commodities, notably blankets, cloth, bangles and
beads of different colours and sizes, in exchange for ivory,
cattle, goats, corn, maize, etc., which proved as beneficial
to the aborigines as it was lucrative for the settlers. Then
again, men like Henry F. Fynn, the first European to
settle permanently in Natal, ministered unceasingly to
the numerous sick, indigent and wounded people, including
the King and his relations, whom he found about him on
every side during his journeys of exploration. In these
and other ways, the foundations of a warm friendship
(soon extended to every member of the party, and, later
on, to all other Europeans that came to Natal) were
gradually and successfully built up. Ahve to the material



4 THE ZULU REBELLION

advantages arising out of having the British settlers so
close at hand — ^for were they not the makers of firearms ?
— not to refer to the intense interest undoubtedly aroused
through his coming into contact with a strange, exceedingly
capable and amicably-disposed race, apparently so situ-
ated at Port Natal as not to be a source of domestic or
poHtical annoyance, Tshaka, on being appealed to, readily
agreed to cede to them, " their heirs and executors," a
tract of country stretching some thirty-five miles along
the coast, north and south of Port Natal, and running
" about one hundred miles backward from the sea-shore," ^
and there, in 1835, at the Port, was laid off the now
beautiful town of Durban.

Thus, the earhest provisions consisted in nought else
than the estabhshment and consolidation of a bond of
friendship between the Httle band of adventurers and the
rulers of the land, and, so long as that bond was faithfully
observed, so long was there peace between the parties,
whatever else might have been the position in respect of
the adjoining states.

From 1824 to 23rd September, 1828 (the date of
Tshaka' s assassination), the British settlers averaged
about twenty-five souls in number. Between the
latter date and 1834 they fell to a smaller figure. But,
from then on to 19th October, 1837,^ when a party of
Boers under Piet Retief arrived at Durban from the
Cape Colony, the numbers, through the coming of traders
and missionaries, and their families, were considerably
increased.

The policy of the pioneers, indeed, could be no other
than, for the time being, to place themselves wholly and
unreservedly under the protection of the Zulu sovereign,
first Tshaka, their declared and, as it proved, real and
constant friend, and subsequently, Dingana, perfidious
autocrat as he soon revealed himself to be. The kindly
feelings entertained by Tshaka towards his Europeans
(abelungu), as he always called them, and the invaluable
services and substantial concessions extended to them up

^ Bird, Annals of Natal 194. ^ Ibid. i.S26.



INTRODUCTION 5

to the day of his assassination, are not borne in mind in
these days as much as they deserve to be. This disposition
carried with it, as a matter of course, an unquahfied
attitude of amity and respect on the part of the entire Zulu
nation, only too eager to render immediate obedience to



Online LibraryJames StuartA history of the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 : and of Dinuzulu's arrest, trial, and expatriation → online text (page 1 of 52)