James Stuart.

A history of the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 : and of Dinuzulu's arrest, trial, and expatriation online

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end of March. Of this number, six were women and twenty
children. In addition, ninety-nine were murdered in Mashona-
land, chiefly about the middle of June ; of these, four were
women and three children. There seems to have been little
or no mutilation of bodies by w^ay of obtaining medicines,
for warding off danger, obtaining ascendancy, etc.

The rebels had no settled plan, consequently community
of action between the various groups w^as wanting. They
seemed to be obsessed with the idea that supernatural aid
would be derived by them in some way from the UmHmo.

A large number of Native police, especially such as had
been less than a year in the force, joined the rebels, carrying
off with them the Winchester repeaters with which they had
been supplied. The older hands remained loyal, but were


disarmed. On the other hand, the Makalanga people refrained
from participating in the RebelUon. Such, indeed, was but
in accordance with the neutral attitude observed by them
during the War of 1893.

Hostilities did not terminate until the end of November,
that is, after a campaign of about eight months. The com-
bined forces employed in suppressing the Rebellion were 3,000
in Matabeleland and 2,200 in Mashonaland, including 1,200
Imperial troops.

The casualties among the troops were : Matabeleland —
34 kiUed, 100 wounded ; Mashonaland — 7 killed, 18 wounded.
The number of rebels killed is believed to have considerably
exceeded that of the War, viz. 3,000.

On the conclusion of hostilities, the rebels were directed
to hand in their guns and assegais. They were known to
be in possession of several thousands of firearms — about
2,000 breech-loading rifles and many muzzle-loading guns.
" The Matabele kejit on evading [the order], promising to
give up rifles one day, the next saying that in their own partic-
ular tribe there were none, and making all sorts of excuses.
They were repeatedly told that, unless they came to a decision
shortly and surrendered to our satisfaction, hostilities would
be recommenced and they would be blockaded in the hills. . . .
In [certain] districts they came to surrender, . . . bringing
in 200 or 300 rifles." As to the rest, only another hundred
or so guns, with some 4,000 assegais, were given up, " each
Chief professing he did not know where his men had put
their [guns], and promising to bring all he could. Needless
to say these promises were never fulfilled." ^

" It is worthy of remark that whilst, in the first war, the
Matabele attacked strong positions defended by artillery
and Maxim guns, thereby suffering very heavy loss themselves
but killing very few white men, in the present [rebellion] all
the fighting has been amongst broken ground, and in country
more or less covered with bush, and all the kilHng has been
done with rifles ; for, in the first war, the Natives learnt
the futility of attacking fortified positions, and now only
fight in the bush in skirmishing order, giving but little oppor-
tunity for the effective use of machine guns ; so that, although
a good many rounds have been fired from Maxims at long
ranges, only a very small amount of execution has been done
by them." ^

^ Plumer, An Irregular Corps in Matabeleland. Kegan Paul. 1897,
pp. 195, 199.

2 Selous, Storm and Sunshine in Rhodesia.



(i) Natal Native Horse.

Reference was made in a note in the Introduction to the
Natal Native Pohce organized in 1848. Since their disband-
ment in 1854, no other Native corps has been permanently
established in Natal. In times of trouble, however, apart
from the ordinary Native levies and contingents, settlements
of Native Christians, such as Edendale and Driefontein,
invariably offered their services to the Government. The
fact that these men, a number of whom were Basutos, were
mounted, added greatly to their usefulness. The first occasion
of importance on which they volunteered was the Bushman
Expedition of 1866. During the Langalibalele RebeUion,
1873, they again took part, under Col. A. W. Durnford,i
several being killed in the action at Bushman's River Pass.
By that time, Durnford, who arrived in Natal in June, 1873,
had already begun to take an exceptional interest in the
training of Natives for military purposes. Under his sym-
pathetic control, the people evinced the keenest desire to
assist the Government. The same spirit was shown by
the large contingents of uneducated Natives, recruited and
organized to a great extent by Durnford at the beginning
of the Zulu War, not to refer to those called out on other
occasions under other officers. The men of Edendale and
Driefontein under Jabez Molife ^ and Simeon Kambule ^
respectively, as well as Basutos under Chief Hlubi, served
throughout the 1879 campaign, and rendered very valuable
assistance. They took part in the battles of Isandhlwana,
Kambule, Hlobane and Ulundi, and suffered considerable

The same communities, with Hlubi's Basutos, again volun-
teered during the Boer War, 1899-1901. To these communities
should be added that at Nyanyadu, as well as members of
Chief Ncwadi's tribe. Although, in a " white man's war,"
allowed to serve onl}^ as scouts, drivers and leaders and in
limited numbers, some 150 came from Driefontein alone,
and 200 from Chief Ncwadi. Under Capt. R. C. Samuelson,
N.C., a considerable section of the Drakensberg Mountains
was thoroughly patrolled. A portion of the men Avent through

1 The same that commanded and fell at Isandhlwana in 1879.

2 Enthusiastic and life-long supporters of the movement.


the siege of Ladysmith, whilst conspicuous gallantry was
displayed by individual members of the corps on several
other occasions during the same war.

By 1906, the great majority of those who had served in
the earlier campaigns were, of course, no longer able to turn
out. They, however, strongly influenced their sons to do so
in their stead, with the result that the Natal Native Horse,
under Major G. Moe, U.M.R., with Samuelson as adjutant
and second in command, was raised with surprising rapidity.
On instructions from the Government, Samuelson, by the
2nd April, succeeded in enrolling nearly 1,000 picked men,
including Chiefs and Chiefs' sons. This number was, how-
ever, reduced by the Government to 326. As only about half
the men had horses, the principal difficulty experienced was
in obtaining mounts for the remainder.

The corps did not take the field until the middle of May,
largely owing to its having to be equipped and trained ;
it was consequently unable to take part, like the Nongqai,
in some of the main operations and engagements.

It was found necessary, during the campaign, considerably
to the disappointment of the members, to break the corps
up and distribute sections about the country. To what-
ever command, however, they happened to be attached,
the men proved to be thoroughly reHable and serviceable, and
their conduct exemplary. With better training, which in
common fairness should have been available in some way
before the necessity for recruiting arose, they would have
been even more valuable than they were.

(ii) Zululand Native Police {Nongqai).

This corps was originally formed in April, 1883, under the
authority of the Imperial Government, by Colonel G.
Mansel (late Chief Commissioner of Police, Natal). The 50
non-commissioned officers and men of whom the corps con-
sisted, half of them recruited in Natal, ^ were under the com-
mand of two European officers, and were originally enrolled
as bodj^guard to the Resident Commissioner (the late Sir
Melmoth Osborn, K.C.M.G.). They served with distinction
during the disturbances of 1884. Although attacked at
Maqonga, near Nkandhla, by about 2,500 Zulus — the Resident
Commissioner being with them — they held their ground and
drove off the enemy with considerable loss, and this in spite
of warning as to their probable untrustworthiness from
* Those recruited in Natal were mounted.


John Dunn, a man intimately acquainted with the country.
The force was augmented in succeeding years and became
almost entirely an infantry one. During the Zululand
disturbances of 1888, the men again greatly distinguished
themselves, notably at Ceza, Lower Umfolozi magistracy
and Hlopekulu. On every occasion, though pitted against
overwhelming odds, they fought steadily, effectively and
with the utmost courage, without betraying at any time the
least sign of breach of faith or disloyalty.

The personnel continued to increase from 250 in 1889 to
500 in 1899. During the Boer War, the numbers were again
raised to 600, with 8 European officers, Inspector C. E. Fairlie
taking command. The corps \^as then employed chiefly in
and about Melmoth, in putting the place into a state of
defence and escorting convoys. In September, 1904, it was
suddenly disbanded by direction of the Natal Government.

During such time as the force existed, the men were disci-
plined, drilled and equipped to a large extent on the same lines
as European troops ; they were armed with Martini-Henry
rifles, and Uved in barracks. Each man was obHged to serve
for three years, with the right of re-enlisting. Many took
advantage of the right. It is estimated that, between 1883
and 1904, some 3,000 to 4,000 served in the ranks.

When the 1906 Rebellion broke out, the Government
re-estabhshed the force under Fairhe. With Mansel's assis-
tance, about 100 men were recruited, but only with the
greatest difficulty, owing to their feeling sore at having been
summarily disbanded in 1904. The reader will find several
references in this history to the conspicuous services rendered
by this really excellent body of men, notably at Bobe and
Mome. They were disbanded once more in November, 1906.

The following, from a report by Colonel Mansel, will be
perused with interest : "I wish to bear full testimony to the
value of Zulus as soldiers. Their instincts are wholly military.
When you enlist a Zulu, you have a ready-made soldier. . . .
All you have to do is to teach him how to handle a rifle. This
you can do in about three or four months. He is then as
good as he will ever become. He is, as a rule, the best-
tempered, most easily-managed man in the world ; under-
stands discipline by instinct ; is docile, plucky, proud of
himself and his corps ; kindly-disposed towards his officers ;
full of mettle, and capable of enduring the extremes of march-
ing and hunger. . . . Though often fighting against his
own kith and kin, not a single case of treachery or breach of
faith ever occurred."


(iii) Proposed Creation of a Permanent Native Corps.

The oft-repeated experiment of forming corps of coloured
people inhabiting countries conquered by England, has
apparently met with success in the main. The problem is,
however, by no means an easy one to deal with, and it is
generally owing to inability on the part of the rulers to formu-
late sound and workable schemes that failure has occasionally
attended their efforts. Utilization of often excellent fighting
material, as, for instance, ma}^ be found in the Zulus, is
obviously a matter of importance, and any intention by
a Government to establish such corps is deserving of
careful consideration. But irresolution in a matter of
this kind does more harm than good. Rather not make
any attempt than be half-hearted or lukewarm. It has
been seen that a Native police corjDs was formed as long ago
as 1848, only to be disbanded a few years later without any
reasons being given. Similar half-heartedness is observable in
the foregoing account of the N.N.H. and the Z.N.P.

Any reflecting person will, we venture to think, arrive at
the conclusion that a Native corps, established on a sound
basis, is a wise and necessary provision, and this from several
points of view. It does what nothing else can do so Avell,
namely, proves to the people that the Government has con-
fidence in them (as it unquestionably ought to have) and, by
enabling them to share directly in the defence of the State,
powerfully induces them to take a deep and abiding interest
in the welfare, not only of themselves, but of the entire
community, white and black. Thus the primary object in
establishing a corps is not so much the intrinsic value of the
fighting material recruited, as that it is an outward and
visible sign to Natives in general that the rulers look on their
interests as indissolubty connected with those of Europeans,
which is only another way of saying that a premium is
set on the promotion of patriotism, loyalty and content-
ment. As matters are at present in South Africa, anyone
can see with half an eye that, in the absence of these corps,
the respective Governments have neglected to use material
that lies near at hand. The splendid record of the N.N.H. and
Z.N.P. , and the consistent loyalt}^ of each in all vicissitudes,
are as sure a guarantee as could be desired, that they would
be loyal. If a permanently-established corps be but treated
in a fair and reasonable mamier, it is impossible to see
what object any of its members would have for becoming
mutinous or disloyal.


The martial ardour and courage of the Zulus are world-
famous. Here are born soldiers, if ever there were any such.
Should the Government be unable to adopt the sugges-
tion on a large scale, it might at least try the Zulus. Many
efforts have in the past been made to raise men. The
labours, however, were in each case foredoomed to failure,
because the authorities were not behind the movement, or,
if behind it, then only half-heartedly so.

Amongst those who have interested themselves particularly
in this matter is the late Commandant (Colonel H. T.
Bru-de-Wold) whose views, without professing to be in any
A^ay complete, and admittedly based partly on those of his
predecessors and other men, are briefly as follows : That
the Government should form one or more Native regiments
drawn from the different tribes of Natal and Zululand. Lads
should be recruited at the age of fifteen or sixteen from the
kraals of the most respectable and influential Natives in a
tribe. They should then be formed into a permanent force,
always to be kept in barracks. Each lad should be subject
to long service, viz. 25, 30 or more years.

A Native location, similar to that of Zwartkop in the neigh-
bourhood of Pietermaritzburg, would be suitable for the pur-
pose. Permanent barracks should be erected in the location.

"White officers, who should be married men and be most
carefully selected, should reside in or near the barracks with
their wives. Only those should be chosen whose pride of
race is highly developed.

The Natives (non-commissioned ofl&cers and men) should
be allowed to marry, and the Government might assist them
in finding their lobolo. They should, however, each be Kmited
to one wife. The location should be laid out in plots, con-
veniently situated, each married non-commissioned officer
or man having his house, with adjoining garden for growing
any desired minor articles, but the principal ration should
be supplied by the Government, so that all would be dependent
entirely on the Government for their food. The married
men should be allowed to keep cattle for milk and to breed
horses on their owti account.

Any menial work, such as road-making, erecting buildings,
etc., on the location should be done by hired labour, and not
by the Native soldiers. The men should, however, be required
to keep their respective dwelling-houses in repair. The
reason for such provision is to keep up their pride as soldiers,
and not demean them by putting them on the same level as
ordinary labourers.



After certain periods to be determined upon, those of good
character might be permitted to go on furlough, in the same
way as any other Native in the service of the Government,
when they would receive remuneration in addition to soldier's


The officers' wives would naturally take an interest in the
wives of n.c.o.'s and men, and provide, with the assistance
of the State, for the education of the children. Thus the
institution would, not only subject the men to strict miHtarj^
discipline, but enable their children to be educated and
instructed in civihzed ways of living. And so, in time, a
separate class would be created on a small scale, the members
of which might be designated " The King's Men," whilst the
boys growing up in such environment would themselves
become soldiers. A pride would be fostered in the men,
arising out of a consciousness of being superior to the
ordinary tribes. Although, at the outset, drawn from various
tribes, they would gradually lose their tribal instincts and form
a community of their own. Such influences would probably
be more potent and productive of good than any other existing
agency that could be named. But success would, it is felt,
be dependent primarily on the officers.

There are many other details which might have been
touched on. Attention has been drawn to the matter only
because it seems wTong for the Government to refrain from
identifying itself with an aspiration which is, perhaps, more
deeply rooted in the people than any other. If they are
ever to be trusted, why not make a beginning on some such
lines as these ? To go to them for assistance in time of war,
and yet turn our backs on them in time of peace is not
worthy of our race. A people that is prepared to shed, and
has repeatedly shed, its blood for its rulers, is surely de-
serving of more recognition than the occasional issue of
medals to a few favoured individuals.


Abraham, Maj. J., 219, 242, 381.

Acutt, E. L., 41.

Addison, Lieut. P., 355.

Addison, R. H., 470.

Adendorff, Chief Leader, 324.

Alexander, Cpl. E., 286, 289.

Alexander, Capt. W., 228.

Allan's store, 121.

Allison, Capt. A. B., 11.

Angus, Capt. W. N., 279

Annexation of Zululand to Natal,

Armistice, 331, 394.

Armouries, 59.

Armstrong, Tpr. G., 124.

Armstrong, G. W , 422, 466.

Armstrong, Lieut. R., 352.

Armstrong, Capt. R., 363.

Amott, Lt.-Col. W. : Peyana
354 ; Dinuzulu Expedition,
444 ; Usutu, 450. See also
137, 357, 373, 395.

Arnott's Column : Composition
of, 354 ; Otimati, 354 ; Pe-
yana, 355 ; Thring's Post,

Aston, Tpr. A. H., 172.

Babazeleni, 274.

Badge : Native levies', 218, 289 ;
rebels'. See Tshokobezi. See
also 326.

Bailey, Sir Abe, 65, 329.

Bakeries, Field, 60, 419.

Bambata : Early life and charac-
ter, 157 ; relations with Eu-
ropean neighbours, 158 ;
strength of tribe, 158 ; regi-
ments recruited by, 158 ;
intemperance and extrava-
gance, 159 ; taking of census,
160 ; concerned in faction
fight, 160 ; proposed deposi-
tion of, 160 ; his people object
to poll tax, 161 ; neglects to
conduct tribe to Greytown to
pay poll tax, 161 ; summoned

to Pietermaritzburg, 164 ;
in hiding;, 165 ; deposed, 166 ;
leaves for Usutu, 166, 433 ;
wife and children at Usutu,
167, 433 ; return to Mpanza
and capture of Magwababa,
167 ; commandeering of men
by, 168 ; attacks Magistrate's
party, Mpanza, 168 ; attacks
Police, Mpanza, 171 ; sup-
posed possession of drugs " to
prevent bullets entering,"
176 ; calls on Chiefs to assist,
178 ; Flight of Bambata to
Nkandhla, 178-195; camps
in Mome gorge, 187, 196 ;
joins Sigananda, 197 ; camps
at Cetshwayo's grave, 202 ;
reward for his capture, 212 ;
raids by, 228 ; fight at Bobe,
235 ; meeting held after
Bobe, 236 ; proceeds to Ma-
cala, 236, 237 ; visits Dinu-
zulu with Mangati, 313 ;
at Mome, 301-317 ; death,
310 ; identification of body,
333, 336 ; rumours as to
being alive, 338, 432, 536 ; to
what extent responsible for
Rebellion, 494-501. See also

Bambata's wife : Accompanies
husband to Usutu, 166, 433 ;
escapes from Usutu, 432, 491.

Baqulusi (tribe), 112, 483, 485.

Barker, Lt.-Col. W. F. : Services,
224; in command, T.M.R.,
224 ; at Ntingwe, 238 ; at
Mome, 301-305, 313 ; Little
Noodsberg Hall, 366 ; In-
suze, 367 ; Ponjwana, 372,
416 ; his views on advanced
guards, 416. See also 334,
340, 366.

Barker's Column : Cetshwayo's
grave, 241, 299 ; Nkandhla
forests, 294 ; to prevent



rebels entering Mome gorge,
298 ; at Mome, 301 ; Macala,
334 ; Meseni's ward, 365,
382 ; at wattle plantation
(Newspaper M. Stn.), 366;
strength (July 2), 367 ; In-
suze, 367 ; Ponjwana, 371 ;
Esidumbini, 382 ; concluding
operations and retiim to
Transvaal, 394. See also 239,
359, 366, 385, and Transvaal
Mounted Rifles.

Barter, Capt. E. W., 191, 376.

Basutos, 12, 278, 557.

Bayekana (scout), 297.

Beachy-Head, W., 329.

Beaumont, Sir W. H., 398, 429,
437, 438.

Bejana, Chief, 339, 359.

Bell, Joe, 329.

Bennett, T. R., 122, 460.

Bigby, Capt. W. S. : Appears for
Crown in Rex v. Dinuzulu,
460, 471. See also 136.

Bishop of Zululand, 398.

Blaker, Lieut. G. E., 399.

Blamey, Lieut. A. H. G., 231, 234.

Blauwkrantz River (massacre),

Blood River (battle), 6.

Bobe (action), 231-236.

Boers : Arrival in Natal, 4, 6 ;
war with Zulus, 6 ; battle of
Blood River, 6 ; settle in
Transvaal, 7 ; their Native
policy, 19.

Boer War : Natal Volunteer forces
in, 45 ; effect on Natives of
contact with British soldiers,
98 ; financial depression
caused by, 98 ; Dinuzulu and
Natives in, 112; Holkrantz,
112, 485 ; Dinuzulu's seizure
of Boer cattle and firearms,
485 ; loyalty of Dinuzulu
and other Chiefs during, 516.
See also 10.

Border Mounted Rifles : Forma-
tion, 7 ; mobilization, 137 ;
Trewirgie, 138 ; Peyana, 354 ;
Meseni's ward, 376 ; Izin-
simba, 387 ; Ndhlovu's ward,
391 ; Dinuzulu Expedition,
445. See also 144, 331, 354,

Boshoff, Henri G., 468 ; view as to
Dinuzulu's guilt, 472.

Botha, General the Rt. Hon.
Louis, 112, 475.

Bottomley, Col., 485.

Bouck, Tpr. J. L., 287, 293.

Bousfield, Lt.-Col. H. R., 403.

Boyd- Wilson, Maj. A. B., 249,
333, 336, 341, 400.

Branding of loot stock, 419.

Briggs, Col. C. J., 225.

Brown, Sergt. E. T. N., 172, 175.

Bruce, Lieut. W., 224.

Bni-de-Wold, Col. H. T. : Ser-
vices, 46 ; preparations for
possible outbreak, 46, 47 ;
Commandant of Militia (1905),
47 ; development of Militia
system under, 48 ; authority
to administer martial law,
137, 149, 150 ; revocation of
such authority, 151 ; in-
structions to Colonel McKen-
zie, 140 ; visits troops, Um-
twalume, 145 ; temporarily
relinquishes duties, 285 ;
visits troops, Mapumulo, 394 ;
retirement, 425 ; D.S.O. con-
ferred on, 425 ; arranges for
defence of Natal, Dec, 1907,
440. ^ee also 143, 150.

Bulawayo, 2.

Burial party, 406.

Bushman Expedition, 10.

Bushman's Pass (action), 11.

Bushman's River (massacre), 6.

Butelezi (tribe), 207.

Butler's store, 122, 367.

Bymetown. See Trewirgie.

Cadets, 65.

Cakijana : Accompanies Bambata
to Mpanza, 167 ; incites
Bambata's people to rise,
168 ; at Mpanza, 176 ; fiies
with Bambata to Nkandhla,
182 ; persuades Chiefs to
support Bambata, 196 ; goes
to Macala, 236 ; wounded,
242 ; surrender of, 463, 466 ;
trial, 471 ; degree of com-
plicity in Rebellion, 495, 501 ;
Gence's murder, 502. See
also 505.

Calder, D., 471.

Calverley, Sergt., 296, 335, 414.

Cameron Highlanders, Queen's
Own, 64.

Campbell, Maj. S. G., 230, 361,

Cape Colony : Offers of help from,
64 ; assistance given by,
222, 223.

Cape Mounted Rifles : Maxim
detachment joins Mackay's



column, 341 ; Peyana, 354 ;
Meseni's ward, 376 ; Maxim
transport, 418. See also 402.

Carter, Major S., 180, 257, 409.

Carter, Hon. T. F. : Dinuzulu's
salary, 462 ; appears for
prosecution in Rex v. Dinu-
zulu, 471 ; and in Rex v.
Mankulumana and Mgwaqo,
475. See also 450.

Casualties : Among troops at
Manzipambana, 293 ; Mome,
311 ; sustained by rebels
daring campaign, 311, 523 ;
disparity in, between Etu-o-
pean troops and Natives, 311,
522. See also App. I.

Cattle : In marriages, 30, 31 ;
diseases, 92, 93.

Causes of Rebellion : Causes,
motives, etc., 512-521 ; cattle
diseases, 92, 93 ; rents on
farms, 94 ; Natives at gold-
fields, etc., 97 ; Ethiopian
propaganda, 97, 514, 521 ;
Boer War, 98 ; Poll Tax Act,
101, 520 ; pig-and-white-fowl-
killing order, 103 ; massacre
of Boers at Holkrantz, 112,
485 ; differences in civiliza-
tion between Natives and
Europeans, 513 ; tendency
of Native interests to be over-
looked, 514 ; granting of Re-
sponsible Government, 514 ;
immigration of Europeans
and Indians, 515 ; introduc-
tion of Western Civilization,
518, 536 ; motives and occa-
sions of the Rebellion, 520.

Census, 29, 100, 160, 529.

Online LibraryJames StuartA history of the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 : and of Dinuzulu's arrest, trial, and expatriation → online text (page 49 of 52)