James Talboys Wheeler.

An analysis and summary of Old Testament history and the laws of Moses, with a connection between the Old and New Testaments (1880) online

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Online LibraryJames Talboys WheelerAn analysis and summary of Old Testament history and the laws of Moses, with a connection between the Old and New Testaments (1880) → online text (page 1 of 35)
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Westcott & Thomson,

Stereotypers and Electrotypers, Philada.


As complete Analytical Contents and tables will be found at the be-
ginning of each book, and a Comprehensive Index at the end of the
volume, it is presumed that the present condensed contents will be
found sufficient for reference.


Preface 7

Introductory Outline of the History and Geography of the

Countries noticed in the Old Testament 11

Outline op the Critical History of the Old Testajient 28

Jewish Months 31

Chp.onological Table 33

THE PENTATEUCH, or Five Books of Moses 35

Genesis: Patriarchal history from the birth of Adam till the
death of Joseph. B. C. 4004 to 1635: about two thousand
three hundred and sixty-nine years 35

I. History of the world prior to Abraham 36

II. Lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph 44

Exodus : History of the Jews as a nomad family from the death
of Joseph until the building of the tabernacle and consecra-
tion of the priesthood. B. C. 1635 to 1490 : about one hun-
dred and forty-five years 68

I. History of the Exode from Egypt, the journey to Si-
nai, and the delivery of the Law 69

II. The Moral and Civil Law 80

Jewish Constitution 86

III. The Ceremonial Law — viz. 1. The Tabernacle 89

Leviticus : History of the Levitical priesthood, sacrifices, etc.
B. C. 1490 : about one month — viz. from the building of the
tabernacle to the numbering of the people 98



The Ceremonial Law continued from Exodus — viz. :

2. Priests, Levites, and Nethinim 96

3. Sacrifices, oblations, and meat- and drink-offerings 100

4. Annual feasts and festivals; sabbatical year and jubilee. 107

5. Vows 113

6. Purifications 116

Numbers : History of the Israelites from the delivering of the
Law at Sinai to the conquest of the country east of the Jor-
dan. B. C. 1490 to 1451 : about thirty-eight years and nine
or ten months 120

I. Wanderings in the wilderness 120

II. Conquest of the country east of the Jordan 124

Deuteronomy : Repetition and confirmation of the Law. B. C.
1451 : about two months 130

The last acts of Moses 130

Canaan prior to its conquest by the Israelites 133


Joshua : History of the conquest of Canaan and settlement in
the country under Joshua. B. C. 1451 to 1426 : about twen-
ty-five years , 136

I. Conquest of Canaan 136

II. Settlement in Canaan 141

Judges : History of the Jews as a federative republic. B. C.
1425 to 1095: about three hundred and thirty years 145

I. Period prior to the Judges 145

II. The seven servitudes or tyrannies, and the fifteen judge-

siiips 149

(This period includes the first ten chapters in 1 Samuel.)

Ruth : An episode in the history of the Judges. About B. C.
1320 162

1 AND 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings: History of the Jews under
a monarchy. B. C. 1095 to 588 : about five hundred and eight
years 163

I. History of the single monarchy 169

Saul 169

David 178

Solomon 191

Prefatory review of the history of the divided mon-
archies 199

II. History of the divided monarchies of Judah and Israel. 201
First Period : from the revolt of the ten tribes until
Jehu destroyed the dynasty of Ahab in Israel,
and slew Ahaziah in Judah 201



Second Period: from the simultaneous accession of
Jehu in Israel and usurpation of Athaliah in Judah
until Israel was carried away captive by the Assyr-
ian power 215

Third Period: from the Assyrian captivity of Israel

until the Babylonian captivity of Judah 225

History of Assyria 238

1 AND 2 Chronicles. B. C. 4004 to 536 : about three thousand
four hundred and sixty-eight years 238

History of the Chaldee-Babylonian empire during the seventy
years' captivity, forming a connection between the 2 Kings
and 2 Chronicles and the book of Ezra. B. C. 606 to 536 241

Ezra : History of the edict of Cyrus and first return from cap-
tivity under Zerubbabel, and the governorship of Ezra. B. C.
536 to 445 : about ninety years 244

Nehemiah : History of the government of Nehemiah. B. C.
445 to 420: about twenty-five years 253

Esther: An episode. About B. C. 461 to 451 255

Chronology of the kings of Media and Persia, with their names
as given in Scripture and in profane history 257


Job 258

Psalms 262

Proverbs 263

ecclesiastes 264

Solomon's Song 265


The Four Greater Prophets 267

i. Isaiah 267

2. Jeremiah (Prophecies and Lamentations) 271

3. Ezekiel 272

4. Daniel 272

The Twelve Minor Prophets — viz. 1. Hosea; 2. Joel; 3. Amos;
4. Obadiah; 5. Jonah ; 6. Micah ; 7. Nahum ; 8. Habakkuk ;
9. Zephaniah; 10. Haggai; 11. Zechariah ; 12. Malachi 278


MENTS, including the history of the Jews from the admin-
istration of Nehemiah to the'birth of Jesus Christ 288




I. Jewish history from Nehemiah to the revolt under

the Maccabees 290

11. History of the Maccabees, or Asamonean princes 299

III. History of the Jews under the Herodians to the com-
mencement of the New Testament history 32i

Jewish sects 330


1 Esdras; 2 Esdras ; Tobit; Judith; Rest of the chapters of
the Book of Esther; Wih^dom of Solomon; Ecclesiasticus,
or Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach ; Book of Baruch ;
Song of the Three Children; History of Susanna; Bel and
the Dragon ; Prayer of Manasses; 1 and 2 Maccabees 332

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS, including the Cambridge Exam-
ination Papers for various years, in chronological order 335


HtC. DEC 18faO



The success which attended the publication of an
Analysis and Summary of Herodotus has induced the
author to compile an Analysis and Summary of Old Tes-
tament History on a similar plan. Accordingly, the pres-
ent work contains an Analytical Summary of all the most
important events recorded in the Old Testament Scrip-
tures, arranged in chronological order, but retaining the
canonical division into books. Each book of this Sum-
mary is separated into divisions, excepting where one
book contains merely a repetition of the history of a pre-
ceding one ; and each of these divisions is again subdi-
vided into paragraphs, all of which have the Contents
appended in a peculiar type. These Contents are also
thrown together and reprinted at the beginning of each
book ; fiill references are also given at the end of each
paragraph to the chapters or verses in the Bible in which
the original facts are recorded.

By means of these Analytical Contents the biblical
student can at once see the exact scope and subject-mat-
ter of each book, and by reading the Summary he will
easily call back a multitude of facts and events the rela-
tion of which frequently spreads through several chapters
in the original ; whilst the references will at once enable
him to obtain from his Bible a more extended account



of any particular period of the history which he may

In carrying out this general design every opportunity
has been seized for explaining or illustrating any obscure
part of JcAvish history, and particularly those portions
which are more frequently the subjects of college exam-
inations. The authorized chronology of our marginal-
reference Bibles, which is based upon that of Archbishop
Usher, is added to every page ; the history of the divided
monarchies of Judah and Israel is printed in parallel
columns ; the scriptural and profane names of the kings
of Media and Persia are given at page 257 ; a chrono-
logical table of the prophets, at page 266 ; a table of the
principal prophecies, intimations, and types of the Mes-
siah, at page 283; examination-questions, including the
Cambridge examination-papers in Old Testament history
for various years, in chronological order, at page 335 ;
and a complete index of names, places, etc., at the end
of the volume. To these are added an introductory out-
line of the geography, political history, etc., of every
country mentioned in the Old Testament, and an outline
of the critical history of the Scriptures; together with
chronological tables. Moreover, in order to complete the
book as an analysis of Jewish history, tw^o connecting
chapters have been inserted : I. A history of the Chal-
dee-Babylonian empire during the seventy years' cap-
tivity, which forms a connection between. 2 Kings and
2 Chronicles and the book of Ezra ; II. Jewish history
from the governorship of Nehemiah to the taking of Je-
rusalem by Titus, which forms a connection between the
Old and the New Testaments. A comprehensive analysis
of the Mosaic laws and ordinances has also been included.
The moral and civil law is classified under each com-
mandment, both for the convenience of reference, and
because by such arrangement they are made to form a


very useful and practical commentary upon the Deca-
logue. This classification is based upon a harmony of
the Mosaic law, taken from a manuscript presented to St.
John's College by Archbishop Laud, and reprinted in
Hornets Introduction, and other similar works. The cer-
emonial law has been chiefly arranged according to the
classification of Michaelis.

In conclusion, the author must acknowledge his many
obligations to the following works : to the valuable Intro-
duction to the Study of the Holy ScrijDtures, by the Rev.
T. H. Home ; The Historical Researches and Manual of
Ancient History, by Professor Heeren, of the University
of Gottingen ; the Commentaries of Patrick, Lowth,
Whitby, etc.; the Oxford Chronological Tables, publish-
ed by the lamented Mr. D. A. Talboys ; and the Works
of Dean Prideaux, Jahn, Calmet, Michaelis, Tomline,
Bishoji Home, etc., etc.

J. T. W.


In giving to the Christian public" this very remarkable
book, it is believed a great kindness will be done to every
lover of the Bible. The analysis and arrangement seem
to be almost perfect, and withal so simple that a child
may understand them. To the student of the Bible The
Analysis and Summary will supply a place which, it is
believed, no other book can fill. The full merit of this
book is to be found not only in the almost incredible
amount of information it contains, but in the wonderful
arrangement of the author, by which the reader can find
just what he wants and when he wants it. To all mem-
bers of Bible classes, teachers in Sabbath and secular
schools, and in all family instruction, this book, it is fully
believed, will prove one of the best of human helps in

the study of the word of God.

^^p OU-TilNE





The "World" of ihe Old Testament — in four divisions; viz.

I. Egypt.
Boundaries and divisions. — Political history. — Religion.— Commerce
and manufactures.

II. Countries between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates.

1st. Asia Minor — in twelve provinces.

2d. Syria Proper. — Geography. — Political history.

3d. Phoenicia. — Geography. — Political history. — Colonies. — Sea
trade. — Land trade. — Home manufactures.

4th. Arabia. — Geography. — Political history. — Divisions : Moabites,
Ammonites, and Edomites.

5th. Palestine. — Geography: divisions — viz. 1st. Into twelve tribes ;
2d. Into a single monarchy; 3d. Into the two monarchies of Judah and
Israel; 4th. Into five districts. — The Philistines. — Political history : 1.
The nomad state, 1921-1426; 2. The federative republic, 1426-1095 ; 3.
The single monarchy, 1095-975; 4. The divided monarchy of Judah
and Israel, 975-588: 5. The province and principality, B. c. 588 to A. D.
70, — Productions. — Commerce.

III. Countries hettceen the Euphrates and the Tigris.
1st. Mesopotamia, or Aram, or Padan-aram.
2d. Armenia, containing the garden of Eden.

3d. Babylonia, or the land of Shinar. — Geography. — Political his-
tory. — Commerce.



IV. Coxintries between the Tiyria and Indus.

Eleven provinces, sometimes forming one empire. — Character of the
great Asiatic empires. — Ruling empires of South-western Asia : A'iz.
1st. AssvHiA. — Gleography of Assyria Proper. — Political history.
2d. Media. — Geography. — Political history.
3d. Persia. — Geography. — Political history. — Religion.


1. The "World" of the Old Testament.— The nations
whose history is noticed in the Old Testament lay between
the 40th degree north lat. and the equator, and were included
in the tracts of South-western Asia and the territory of Egypt."^'
The " world" of Old Testament history was therefore bounded
on the east by the rivers Oxus and Indus; on the south by
the Indian Ocean ; on the west by the Libyan desert (Saha-
ra) ; and on the north by the Caspian and JEuxine Seas, with
the intervening range of Caucasus, whose lofty summits
were never crossed by any Asiatic conqueror before Genghis

This region may be divided into four tracts — viz. 1. Egypt ;
2. Countries between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean
and Eed Seas ; 3. Those between the Euphrates and the Ti-
gris ; 4. Those between the Tigris and the Indus.

2. I. Egypt : Boundaries. — Egypt is redeemed from the sur-
rounding desert by the waters of the Nile, and is bounded on
the north by the Mediterranean ; on the east by the Eed Sea ;
on the south by the Nubian desert and Ethiopia ; and on the
west by the Libyan desert.

3. Divisions. — 1st. Upper or Southern Egypt, or Thehais, ex-
tending from Syene to Chemmis; crowded with temples, pal-
aces, tombs, huge obelisks, colossi, sphinxes, etc. Capital,

2d. Central Egypt, from Chemmis to Cercasorus; divided
into seven nomoi or governments ; contained the pyramids
of Gizeh and Lake Moeris. Capital, Memphis.

3d. Lower or Northern Egypt, comprising the Delta and land
on both sides. Full of cities, of which Sais was the most re-
markable ; but subsequently Alexandria became the capital,
and the first trading city in the world.

* Some allusions are made to the "isles of the sea," which included
the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean (Isa. xi. 11 ; Ezek. xvii. 3,
etc.); also to "Javan," or "Greece" (Isa. Ixvi. 19, etc.), and to " Tar-
shish " or " Tartessus." a Tyrian colony on the southern coast of Spain.
Isa. xxiii., etc. India is twice mentioned in the book of Esther, but
must have been unknown to the Jews.


4. Political History.— Egypt was governed by a monarchy
and sacerdotal aristocracy.

1. The Pharaohs. — 1st dynasty — Menes and his successors.
2d dynasty— Shepherd-kings, who were Bedouin Arabs, and
termed Hyksos. 3d dynasty— Sesostris the Great to the
overthrow of the oligarchy of twelve princes, about B. c. 650;
Shishak (probably Cephrines) invaded Judah in the reign
of Rehoboam, b. c. 972 (sect. 375). 4th dynasty— Psammeti-
chus, sole king to the conquest of Egypt by Carabyses, B. c.
650-525. Pharaoh-Necho, who defeated Josiah (sect. 528),
and Pharaoh-Hophra, or Apries, who tried to assist Zedekiah
(sect. 548), belonged to this time.

2. The Persians, 525-323.— Y^^jV^ was conquered by Cam-
byses, and was a Persian province, though frequently Revolt-
ing, until the overthrow of the empire by Alexander the
Great, who died b. c. 323.

3. The Ptolemies, 323-30. —Viol^mj Lagus, first governor,
and afterward king, of Egypt, which remained an independ-
ent monarchy until the death of Cleopatra, b. c. 30, when it
became a Roman province.

5. Religion.— Animal idolatry; but different animals were
sacred in different districts, except Apis, who was the nation-
al god of all Egypt.

6. Commerce, Manufactures, etc. — Imports. — Gold, ivory,
and slaves from Ethiopia ; incense from Arabia; wine from
Greece and Phoenicia; salt from the African desert.

Exports.— Corn, linen, and cotton. The Egyptians did not
themselves export these wares; the African caravans were
chiefly composed of nomad hordes.

Manufactures. — Weaving, dyeing, working in metal, and

Productions. — The byblus, from which the papyrus was pre-
pared ; the lotus ; flax ; various kinds of grain, pulse, etc.;
no lofty trees but the date and sycamore.

7. II. Countries between the Mediterranean and the
Euphrates.— These comprise— 1st. Asia Minor; 2d. Syria
Proper; 3d. Phoenicia; 4th. Arabia; and 5th. Palestine.

8. 1st. Asia Minor. — Anciently consisted of twelve provinces,
which are mentioned only in the New Testament— viz. Bithy-
nia, Paphlagonia, Pontus, Mysia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia, Pisidia
and Pamphylia, Cilicia, Phrygia and Lvcaonia, Galatia, and

9. 2d. Syria Proper: Geography.— Syria, or Aram, in its
widest signification, included not only all the countries be-
tween the Mediterranean and the Euphrates, but also those
between the Euplirates and the Tigris, and even Assyria
Proper, and was thus the first habitation of mankind after
the deluge, and included the birthplace of Abraham, and prob-



ably the garden of Eden. Syria Proper was, however,
bounded on the east by the Euphrates, west by the Mediter-
ranean, north by Cilicia, and south by Phcenicia, Palestine,
and Arabia Deserta. Cities, Damascus, Antioch, Riblah,
Helbon, Hamath, Seleucia, Tadmor or Palmyra, Baal-Gad
or Heliopolis, now Baalbec, and Tiphsah or Thapsacus.
E-ivers, Abana, Pharpar, and Orontes.

10. Political History. — 1. Independent States, ante lO^O. —
Syria Proper was divided into cantons, such as Zobah, Da-
mascus, Hamath, Geshur, Reliob, Ishtob, Maachah, etc., and
these were governed by petty kings.

2. A Jewish Province, dr. 1040-975. — David reduced Syria
to a Jewish province, but in Solomon's reign Rezon seized
Damascus and erected a kingdom.

3. Kingdom of Damascus^ 975-740. — The kingdom of Da-
mascus now comprised the greater portion of Syria; the
kings of the other cities became tributary, and it soon be-
came a flourishing monarchy, and extended its boundaries
chiefly at the expense of the divided monarchies of Judah
and Israel (see sect. 491) ; but it was at length overthrown by
the Assyrian conqueror Tiglath-pileser.

4. A Dependent State, 740-6Jf,. — Syria was successively in
subjection to Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia, and was at
length reduced by Alexander the Great ; but after his death,
B. c. 323, it formed part of the kingdom of Syria, which ex-
tended from the Mediterranean to the Indus, and was gov-
erned by the Seleucidae until B. c. 64, when it became a
Roman province.

11. 3d. Phoenicia : Geography. — Phoenicia was a moun-
tainous tract extending along the shore between Syria
Proper and the Mediterranean. Cities, Tyre, built first on
the mainland, afterward on an island, Sidon, Byblus, Bery-
tus, Tripolis, and Aradus. Mountains, Lebanon, consisting
of two parallel ridges, Libanus and Anti-Libanus, which
extended from Sidon to Damascus, and enclosed the fertile
vale of Coele-Syria, now Baalbec.

12. Political History. — Consisted of several cities and their
territories under separate governments, of which Tyre was
the head.

1. Tyrian kings, dr. 1050-586. — This line of kings, extract-
ed by Josephus from Menander, commenced with Abical, the
contemporary of David, and concluded with the sacking of
Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. Hiram, successor of Abical, allied
with David and Solomon. Three remarkable females be-
longed to this line : Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal I., and
wife of Ahab — paganized Israel; Athaliah, daughter of
Jezebel and Ahab — usurped Judah; Dido, sister of Pygma-
lion — founded Carthage.


2. Tributary to Persia, 586-332. — New Tyre was afterward
founded, with tributary kings under the Persian rule, but was
taken by Alexander the Great, b. c. 332.

3. Decline. — Phoenicia was now ruined and its trade trans-
ferred to Alexandria. It often changed its Syro-Grecian
and Egypto-Grecian masters, and at length fell into the hands
of the Romans.

13. Colonies. — The Phoenicians were originally pirates and
anciently possessed many islands in the Archipelago, but
were expelled by the Greeks. They subsequently formed
settlements on the south of Spain — Tartessus, Gades, Car-
teia ;■ on the north coast of Africa — Utica, Cai-thage, Adru-
mentum; on the north-western coast of Sicily— Panormus
and Lilybaeum ; and also probably settled in the Persian
Gulf, on the islands of Tylos and Aradus — Bahrein.

14. Sea Trade. — The Phoenicians sailed — 1st. To North
Africa and Spain for silver; 2d. Beyond the Pillars of Her-
cules to Britain and the Scilly Isles for tin, and probably
amber ; 3d. They joined the Jews under Solomon in voyages
from Elath and Eziongeber on the Red Sea to Ophir — i. e.
the rich lands in the south, particularly Arabia Felix and
Ethiopia (sect. 357); 4th. From the Persian Gulf to India
and Ceylon ; 5th. On voyages of discovery, and, particularly,
they circumnavigated Africa.

15. Land Trade. — This was mostly carried on by caravans —
viz. 1st. With Arabia for spices and incense, imported from
Arabia Felix, Gerrha, and the Persian Gulf; 2d. Through
Palmyra to Babylon, which opened an indirect communi-
cation, by way of Persia, with Lesser Bukharia and Lit-
tle Thibet, and probably with China; 3d. With Armenia
and neighboring countries for slaves, horses, cojipcr uten-
sils, etc.*

16. Home Manufactures. — 1st. Stuffs and dyes, particular-
ly the purple dye made from the juice of a marine shell-fish,
and of every possible shade ; 2d. Manufactures of glass and
toys, much used in their commercial barterings with uncivil-
ized nations. The invention of letters is attributed to the

17. 4th. Arabia : Geography. — A peninsula abounding in
vast sandy deserts, and chiefly occupied by the nomad de-
scendants of Ishmael ; but its northern and eastern coasts
rendered it a most important seat of trade.

18. Divisions. — Int. North, Arabia FetrcBa, extending from
Palestine to the Red Sea, and inhabited by the southern
Edomites,Amalekites, Midianites, Hivites, Amorites, Kenites,

* The twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel contains an exact and in-
teresting account of Phoenician commerce.


Horim, Maonim, and Cushites, called Ethiopians in Scrip-
ture. Capital, Petra. Mountain, Sinai.

2d. Inland. Arabia Deserta, with Euphrates on the east and
Mount Gilead on the west, and comprehended the Itureans,
Nabatheans, people of Kedar, etc. The Rephaim, Emim,
Zuzim, and Zanzummim (Gen. xiv. 5; Deut. ii. 10, 11) an-
ciently possessed the territories afterward occupied by the
Moabites, Ammonites, and Edomites.

3d. South, Arabia Felix, bounded on the east by the Per-
sian Gulf, south by the Indian Ocean, and west by the Red
Sea. Rich in spices and perfumes, particularly frankin-
cense, and rich also as being the ancient staple for Indian
merchandise. Probably included the territory of the queen
of Sheba.

19. Political History. — Arabians are divided into two
classes: 1st. Dwellers in cities; 2d. Nomads. Abimelech,
king of Gerar, was visited by Abraham and Isaac. Moses,
after slaying the Egyptian, fled to the Midianites, descend-
ants of the fourth son of Abraham and Keturah, who subse-
quently joined the Amalekites and other nomad Arabs in
ravaging Palestine (sect. 279). The Amorites, Amalekites,
and others were conquered by Moses. The Moabites, Am-
monites, and Edomites were petty kingdoms frequently at
war with the Israelites, and lay on the east of the Jordan,

20. Moabites. — Incestuously descended from Lot ; defeated
the giants Emim, and occupied a territory on the banks of
the Arnon. Capital, Ar or Ariel, called also Rabbah-Moab
and Kirharesh. Idols, Chemosh and Baal-peor. Lost terri-
tory to the Amorites, but not attacked by Moses, though

Online LibraryJames Talboys WheelerAn analysis and summary of Old Testament history and the laws of Moses, with a connection between the Old and New Testaments (1880) → online text (page 1 of 35)