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Annals and antiquities of Rajasthan, or The central and western Rajput states of India (Volume 3) online

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ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES
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ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES



OF



RAJASTHAN

OR THE CENTRAL AND WESTERN
RAJPUT STATES OF INDIA



BY



LiEUT.-CoL. JAMES JOD

LATE POLITICAL AGENT TO THE WESTERN RAJPUT STATES



EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND NOTES BY

WILLIAM CROOKE, CLE.

HON. D.SC. OXON., B.A., F.R.A.I.
LATE OF THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE



IN THREE VOLUMES
VOL. Ill



HUMPHREY MILFORD
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK

TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY

1920



CONTENTS

BOOK VIII
SKETCH OF THE INDIAN DESERT

CHAPTER 1

PAGE

General aspect — Boundaries and divisions of the desert — Probable
etymology of the Greek oasis — Absorption of the Ghaggar
river — The Luni, or salt-river — The Rann, or Ran — Distinc-
tion of thai and rui — Thai of the Luni— Jalor — Siwanclii —
Maehola and Morsin — Bhinnial and Sanchor — Bhadrajun —
Mewa — Balotra and Tilwara — Indhavati — Gugadeo-ka-thal
— Thai of Tararoi — Thai of Khawar — ^Mallinath-ka-thal, or
Barnier — Kherdhar — Juna Chhotan — Nagar Gura . . 1257



CHAPTER 2

Chauhan Raj— Antiquity and nobility of the Chauhans of the
desert — Dimensions and population of the Raj — Nagar —
Bakhasar — Tharad — Face of the Chauhan Raj — Water —
Productions — Inhabitants — Kolis and Bhils — Pitals — Thais
of Dhat and Umrasumra — Depth of wells — Anecdote — City
of Aror, the ancient capital of Sind — Dynasties of the Sodha,
the Sumra, and the Samma princes — Their antiquity — In-
ferred to be the opponents of Alexander the Great, and
Menander — Lieutenant of Walid takes Aror — Umarkot : its
history — Tribes of Sind and the desert — Diseases — Narua or
Guinea-worm — Productions, animal and vegetable, of the
desert — Daudputra — Itinerary ..... 1275



vi CONTENTS

BOOK IX
ANNALS OF AMBER, OR DIIUNDHAR

CHAPTER 1

PAfiE

Designations given by Europeans to the principalities of Raj-
putana — DIuindhar known by the name of its cajMtals,
Amber or Jaipur — The country of the Kaclihwahas an aggre-
gate of concjuests by the race so called — Etymology of
Dhundhar — Origin of the Kaclihwahas — Raja Nal founds
Narwar — Dhola Rae expelled, and founds Dhundhar — •
Romantic legend of Dhola Rae — His treachery to his bene-
factor, the Mina lord of Khoganw — Marries a daughter of a
Bargujar chief, and becomes his heir— Augments his terri-
tories, and transfers his government to Ramgarh — Marries a
daughter of the prince of Ajmcr — Is killed in battle with the
Minas — His son Kankhal conquers Dhundhar — Medal Rae
conquers Amber, and other places — Conquests of Hundeo —
Of Kuntal — Accession of Pajun — Reflections on the aboriginal
tribes at this period — The Mina race — ^Pajun marries the
sister of Pritliiraj of Dellii — His military j)rowess — Is killed
at the rape of the princess of Kanauj — Malesi succeeds — His
successors — Pritliiraj creates the Barah-kothris, or twelve
great fiefs of Amber— He is assassinated — Baharmall — The
first to wait on the Muhammadan power— Bhagwandas the
first Rajput to give a daughter to the imperial house — His
daughter marries Jahangir, and gives birth to Khusru —
Accession to Man Singh — His power, intrigues, and death —
Rao Bhao — Maha — Mirza liaja Jai Singh, brother of Raja
Man, succeeds — liepairs the disgraces of his two predecessors,
and renders immense services to the empire — Is poisoned by
liis son — Ram Singh — Bishan Singh .... 1327



CHAPTER 2

Sawai Jai Singh succeeds — Joins the party of Azam Shah — Amber
sequestrated — Jai Singh expels the imperial garrison — His
character — His astronomical knowledge — His conduct during
the troubles of the empire — Anecdote illustrative of the evils
of polygamy — Limits of the raj of Amber at the accession of
Jai Singh — The new city of Jaipur — Conquest of Rajor and
Deoti — Incidents illustrative of Rajput character — Jai Singh's
habit of inebriation — The ^'irtucs of his character — Con-
templates the rite of Aswamcdha — Disj^ersion of his valuable
manuscripts — His death — Some of his wives and concubines
become Satis on his pyre ..... 1841



\



CONTENTS vii



CHAPTER 3



PAGE



The Rajput league — Aggrandizement of Amber — Isari Singh
succeeds — Intestine troubles produced by polygamy — Madho
Singh — The Jats — Their Kajas — Violation of the Amber terri-
tory by the Jats — Battle — Rise of JNIacheri — Decline of the
Kachhwaha power after the death of Madho Singh — Prithi
Singh — Partap Singh — Intrigues at Ills court — The strata-
gems of Khushhaliram, and the Macheri chief — -Death of
Firoz the Filban, paramour of the Patrani — Broils with the
Mahrattas — Partap attains majority, and gains the victory
of Tonga — His difficulties — Exactions of the Mahrattas —
Jagat Singh — His follies and despicable character — 3Iakes
Raskapur, his concubine, queen of half Amber — Project to
depose him prevented by a timely sacrifice — Mohan Singh
elected his successor ...... 1356



CHAPTER 4

Jaipur the last of the Rajput States to embrace the proffered
alliance of the British — Procrastination habitual to the
Rajputs, as to all Asiatics — Motives and considerations which
influenced the Jaipur court in declining our alliance — A treaty
concluded — Death of Jagat Singh — Effects of our interferenc e
in the intrigues respecting the succession — Law of primo-
geniture — The evils attending an ignorance of Rajput
customs — Violation of the law of succession in the placing of
Mohan Singh on the gaddi — Reasons for departing from the
rule of succession — Conduct of the British authorities — The
title of Mohan Singh disjjuted by the legal heir-presumptive
— Dilemma of the Nazir and his faction — The threatened dis-
orders prevented by the unexpected pregnancy of one of the
queens of Jagat Singh — Birth of a posthumous son . . 1366



SHAIKHAWAT FEDERATION
CHAPTER 5

Origin of the Shaikliavati federation — Its constitution — Descent
of the chiefs from Balaji of Amber — Mokalji — Miraculous
birth of his son — Shaikhji — Aggrandizes his territory —
Raemall — Suja — Raesal — His heroism — Obtains grants from
Akbar — Gets possession of Khandela and Udaipur — His
exploits and character — Girdharji — Is cut off by assassina-
tion — Dwarkadas — His extraordinary feat with a lion — Falls
by Khan Jahan Lodi — Birsinghdeo — His authority usurped
by his son — Bahadur Singh — Aurangzeb directs the demoli-
tion of the temple of KJiandela — Bahadur deserts his capital
— Shujawan Singh Raesalot flies to its defence — He is slain,

VOL. Ill b



CONTENTS

PAGE

the temple razed, and the city garrisoned — Kesari — Partition
of the territory between Kesari and Fateli Singh — Fateh
Singh assassinated — Kesari resists the regal authority — Is
deserted in the field and slain — His son Udai Singh taken to
Ajmer — ^Khandela retaken, and restored to Udai Singh, who
is liberated — He resolves to punish the Manoharpur chief — ^Is
baffled by that chief's intrigues — Is besieged by Jai Singli of
Amber — Khandela becomes tributary to Amber . . i;J78



CHAPTER 6

Bindrabandas adheres to Madho Singii in tlie civil wars of Amber
— ^Partition of lands annulled — Self-immolation of the
Brahmans — Consequences to Bindraban, in his contest with
Indar Singh, the other chief of Khandela — Civil war —
Prodigal expiatory sacrifice of Bindraban — He abdicates—
Govind Singh — Is assassinated — Narsinghdas — Rise and
devastations of the Mahrattas — Siege of Khandela — Terms of
redemption — Murder of deputies by the Mahrattas — Indar
Singh perishes in the attempt to avenge them — Partap Singh
— Rise of the Sikar chief — Transactions between Partap and
Narsingh, his co-partner — Partap obtains the whole of
Khandela — Narsingh recovers by stratagem his share of
Khandela — Domestic broils and feuds — General assembly of
the Sadhani and Raesalot chiefs, to counteract the encroach-
ments of Amber — Treaty between the Shaikhawats and the
court of Amber — Violated by the latter — The confederacy
assault the town of the Haldia faction — Narsingh refuses
tribute to the court, and Khandela is sequestrated — -Narsingh
and Partap treacherously made captive, and conveyed to
Jaipur — Khandela annexed to the fisc .... ];J95



CHAPTER 7

Bagh Singh opposes the faithless court of Amber — He is joined by
the celebrated George Thomas — Desperate action — Bagh
Singh |)hucd intlu' fortified palace at Khandela — His garrison,
with ills brother, slain by Hanwant Singh, son of Partap — -
Bagh regains the i)alace — The lands of Khandela farmed by
Amber to two Brahmans — They are exi)elled by the feudatory
Barwatias, who resist the court — They become a banditti —
Sangram Singh, cousin to Partaj), their leader — He avoids the
treachery of the court — -His death — The confederacy imite
in the league against .Jodiipur — -New treaty with the Amber
court — Liberation of Partaj) and Narsingh — Grand union of
the Shaikhawats — Abhai Singh succeeds in Khandela —
Treachery of the court — Hanwant regains (iovindgarh,
Khandela, etc. — Restoration of Khushhaliram to the ministry
of Jaipur — New investitures granted to the feudatories of
Khandela — Abhai and Partap inducted into their ancestral
abodes — Incident illustrative of the defects of the Rajput



CONTENTS



PAGE



feudal system — Khandela assailed by Lachhman Singh, chief
of Sikar— Gallant defence of Hanwant — His death — Sur-
render of Khandela to Lachhman Singh — The co-heirs
exiled — Power and influence of Lachhman Singh — P^oils the
designs of the Purohit — Present attitude of Lachhman Singh
— Subordinate branches of the Shaikhawats — The Sadhanis —
Their territories wi'ested from the Kaimkhanis and Rajputs
— The Khetri branch of the family of Sadhu attains superiority
— Bagh Singh of Khetri murders his own son — Tiie Larkhanis
— Revenues of Shaikhavati ..... 1408



CHAPTER 8

Reflections — Statistics of Amber — Boundaries— Extent — Popula-
tion — Number of townships — Classification of inhabitants —
Soil — Husbandry — Products — Revenues — Foreign army —
The feudallevies ....... ]428



BOOK X

ANNALS OF HARAVATI

BUNDI
CHAPTER 1

Haravati defined — Fabulous origin of the Agnikula races — Mount
Abu— The Chauhans obtain Mahishvati, Golkonda, and the
Konkan — Found Ajmer — Ajaipal — ^Manika Rae — First
Islamite invasion — Ajmer taken — Sambhar founded ; its
salt lake — Offspring of Manik Rae — Establishments in Raj-
putana — Contests with the Muhammadans — -Bilandeo of
Ajmer ; Guga Chauhan of Mahra ; both slain by Mahmiid —
Bisaldeo Generalissimo of the Rajput nations ; his period
fixed ; his column at Delhi ; his alliances — Origin of the
Hara tribe — Anuraj obtains Asi — Dispossessed — Ishtpal
obtains Asir — Rao Hamir — Rao Chand slain — Asir, Alau-d-
din — Prince Rainsi escapes to Chitor ; settles at Bhainsror,
in Mewar — His son Kolan declared lord of the Pathar . 1441

CHAPTER 2

Recapitulation of the Hara princes from the founder Anuraj to
Rae Dewa — He erects Bundi — Massacre of the Usaras —
Dewa abdicates — Ceremony of Yugaraj, or abdication —
Succeeded by Samarsi — Extends his sway east of the Chambal
— Massacre of the Kotia Bliils — Origin of Kotah — Napuji
succeeds — Feud mth the Solanki of Toda — Assassination of
Napuji — Singular Sati — Hamu succeeds — The Rana asserts



CONTENTS

PAGE

his right over the Patar — llaniu demuis, defies, and attacks
him — Anecdote — Birsingli — liini — Rao Banda — Famine —
Anecdote — Banda expelled by his brothers ; converts to
Muhammadanism — Narayandas ])uts his uncles to death, and
recovers his patrimony — Anecdotes of Narayandas — Aids
the Rana of Chitor— Gains a victory — Espouses the niece of
Rana Raemall — His passion for opium — Death- — Rao Suraj-
mall — Marries a princess of Chitor — Fatal result — Aheria or
Spring-hunt — Assassination of the Rao — His revenge — Two-
fold sati — Rao Surlhan — His cruelty, deposal, and banish-
ment — Rao Arjun elected — Romantic death— Rao Surjan
succeeds ........ 146G



CHAPTER 3

Rao Surjan obtains Ranthambhor — Is besieged by Akbar — The
Bundi prince surrenders tlie castle — Becomes a vassal of the
empire — Magnanimous sacrifice of Sawant Hara — Akbar
bestows the title of Rao Raja on the Hara prince — He is sent
to reduce Gondwana — His success and honours — Rao Bhoj
succeeds — Akbar reduces Gujarat — Gallant conduct of the
Haras at Surat and Ahmadnagar — Amazonian band — Dis-
grace of Rao Bhoj — Cause of Akbar's death — Rao Ratan —
Rebellion against the emperor Jahangir — The Hara prince
defeats the rebels — Partition of Haraoti — RIadho Singh
obtains Kotah — Rao Ratan slain — His heir Gopinath killed —
Partition of fiefs in Haraoti — Rao Chhattarsal succeeds — Ap-
pointed governor of Agra — Services in the Deccan — Escalades
Daulatabad — Kalburga — Damauni — Civil war amongst the
sons of Shah Jahan — Character of Aurangzeb by the Bundi
prince — Fidelity of the Hara princes-^Battles of Ujjain and
Dholpur — Heroic valour of Chhattarsal — Is slain, with twelve
princes of Hara blood — Rao Bhao succeeds — Bundi invaded
— Imj)erialists defeated^ — Rao Bhao restored to favour —
Appointed to Aurangabad — Succeeded by Rao Aniruddh —
A|)pointed to Lahore — His death — Rao Budh — Battle of
Jajau — The Hara princes of Kotah and Bundi opposed to
each other — Kotah prince slain — Gallantry of Rao Budh —
Obtains the victory for Bahadur Shah-^Fidelity of the liundi
prince — Compelled to fly — Feud with the jtrince of Amber —
Its cause — Ambitious views of Aml)er — Its political con-
dition — Treachery of Amber — Desperate conflict — Rao Budh
driven from Bundi — Bundi territory curtailed — Rao Budh
dies in exile — His sons ...... 1480



CHAPTER 4

Rao Ummeda defeats the troo|)s of Amber — Conflict at Dablana —
Ummeda defeated and obliged to lly— Death of Hanja, his
steed — Takes refuge amidst the ravines of the Chambal —
Redeems liis capital — Is again expelled from it— Interview



CONTENTS xi

PAGE

with the widow of his father ; she solicits aid from Holkar to
reinstate Ummeda— The Amber prince forced to acknowledge
the claims of Ummeda — He recovers Bundi — Suicide of the
Amber prince — First alienation of land to the Mahrattas —
Madho Singh of Amber asserts supremacy over Haraoti —
Origin of tributary demands thereon — Zalim Singh — jMahratta
encroachments — Ummeda's revenge on the chief of Indargarh;
its cause and consequences — Ummeda abdicates — Ceremony
of Yugaraj, or abdication — Installation of Ajit — Ummeda
becomes a pilgrim ; his wanderings ; cause of their interrup-
tion — Ajit assassinates the liana of Mewar — Memorable Sati
imprecation — Awful death of Ajit — Fulfilment of ancient
prophecy — Rao Bishan Singh succeeds — Ummeda's distrust
of his grandson ; their reconciliation — Ummeda's death —
British army retreats through Haraoti, aided by Bundi —
Alliance with the English — Benefits conferred on Bundi —
Bishan Singh dies of the cholera morbus ; forbids the rite of
Sati — His character ; constitutes the Author guardian of his
son, tlie Rao Raja Ram Singh ..... 1499

KOTAH
CHAPTER 5

Separation of Kotah from Bundi— The Kotah Bhils — Madho
Singh, first ])rince of Kotah — Its division into fiefs — The
Madhani — Raja Mukimd — Instance of devotion — He is slain
with four brothers — Jagat Singh — Pern Singh— Is deposed —
Kishor Singh — Is slain at Arcot — Law of primogeniture set
aside — Ram Singh — Is slain at Jajau — Bhira Singh —
Chakarsen, king of the Bhils — His power is annihilated by
Raja Bhim — Umat triJjc — Origin of the claims of Kotah
thereon — Raja Bhim attacks the Nizamu-1-muIk, and is
slain — Character of Raja Bhim — His enmity to Bundi —
Anecdote — Title of Maharao bestowed on Raja Bhim — Rao
Arjun — Civil contest for succession — Shyam Singh slain —
Maharao Durjansal — First irruption of the Mahrattas —
League against Kotah, which is besieged — Defended by
Himmat Singh Jhala — Zalim Singh born — Siege raised —
Kotah becomes tributary to the Mahrattas — Death of
Durjansal — His character — His hiuiting expeditions — His
queens — Bravery of the Jhala chief — Order of succession re-
stored — Maharao Ajit — Rao Chhattarsal — Madho Singh of
Amber claims supremacy over the Hara princes, and invades
Haraoti — Battle of Bhatwara — Zahm Singh Jhala — The
Haras gain a victory — Flight of the Amber army, and capture
of the ' five-coloured banner ' — Tributary claims on Kotah
renounced — Death of Chhattarsal . . . . 1521



CHAPTER 6

Maharao Guman Singh — Zalim Singh — His birth, ancestry, and
progress to power — Office of Faujdar becomes hereditary in



CONTENTS

PAGE

his family — His ofTice and estate resumed by Guman Singh —
He abandons Kotah — Proceeds to JNIewar — Performs services
to the Rana, and receives the title of Raj Rana, and estates
— Serves against the Mahrattas — Is wounded and made
prisoner — Returns to Kotah — Mahratta invasion — Storm of
Bakliani — Its glorious defence — Sacrifice of a clan — Garrison
of Sohet destroyed — Zaiim Singh em])loyed — His successful
negotiation — Restoration to power — Rao Gimian constitutes
Zalim guardian of his son lammed Singh, who is proclaimed —
The Tika-daur, or ' raid of accession ' — Capture of Kelwara —
Difficulties of the Protector's situation — Cabal against his
power — Destruction of the conspirators — Exile of the nobles
— Sequestration of estates — Conspiracy of Aton — Predatory
bands — Aton surrenders — Exile of the Hara nobles — Curtail-
ment of the feudal interests — Conspiracy of Mohsen — Plan for
the destruction of the Regent and family — Mohsen chief takes
sanctuary in the temple — Is dragged forth and slain — Maha-
rao's brothers implicated in the plot — Their incarceration
and death — Numerous projects against the life of the regent
— Female conspiracy — How defeated — The Regent's pre-
cautions ........ 1534



CHAPTER 7

Zalim regarded as a legislator — His political views on Mewar —
Kotah sacrificed thereto — His tyranny — His superstition —
Makes a tour of his dominions — Establishes a permanent
camp — Trains an army — Adopts European arms and dis-
cipline — Revises the revenue system of Haraoti — The Patel
system described — Coimcil of I'our — Extent of jurisdiction —
The Bohras descril)cd — Their utility in the old farming system
of India — Patels usurp their influence — Depression of the
peasantry — Patels circumvented, imprisoned, and fined — ■
Patel system destroyed — Return to the old system — Moral
estimation of the ])casant of Rajputana — Modes of realizing
the land revenue described — Advantages and disadvantages 1547



CHAPTER 8

Farming system of Zalim Singh — I<^xtent to which it has been
carried — ^Its prosjurity, fallacious and transitory — Details of
the system — Soil of Kotah — The Regent introduces foreign
ploughs — Area cultivated — Net produce — Value — (irain-pits
— Prices, in plenty and famine — Zalim sells in one year grain
to the amomil of a million sterling — Monopoly — The tithe, or
new tax on exported grain — The Jagatya, or tax-gatherer —
Impolicy of this tax — Gross revenue of Kotah — Opium
monopoly — -Tax on widows — On the mendicant — ^(Jourd-tax
— Rrooni-tax — The Regent dcteslcd by the bards — Province
of Kotah at this jjcriod, and at assumption of the government,
contrasted — Question as to the moral result of his improve-
ments ........ 1559



CONTENTS



CHAPTER 9

PAGE

Political system of the Regent — -His foreign policy — His pre-
eminent influence in Rajwara — His first connexion with the
English Government — ^Monson's retreat — Gallant conduct
and death of the Hara chief of Koila — Aid given by the
Regent involves him with Holkar — Holkar comes to Kotah —
Preparations to attack the capital — -Singular interN-iew with
Zalim — Zalim's agents at foreign courts — Alliance with Amir
Khan, and the Pindari chiefs — Characteristic anecdotes —
Zalim's offensive policy — His domestic policy — Character of
Maharao Ummed Singh — Zalim's conduct towards him —
Choice of ministers — Bishan Singh Faujdar — Dalil I\Jian
Pathan — Circumvallation of Kotah — Foundation of the city
Jlialrapatan — Mihrab Khan, commander of the forces . 1569



CHAPTER 10

The Rajput States invited to an alliance with the British Govern-
ment — Zalim Singh the first to accept it — Marquess of Hast-
ings sends an agent to his court — Confederation against the
Pindaris — The Regent's conduct during the war — Approba-
tion and reward of his services — Peace throughout India —
Death of Maharao Ummed Singh — Treaty and supplemental
articles — Sons of Maharao Ummed Singh — Their characters
— Sons of the Regent — State of parties — The Regent leaves
the Chhaoni for Kotah — He proclaims Kishor Singh as suc-
cessor of the late prince — His letter to the British agent, who
repairs to Kotah — ^Dangerous illness of the Regent — ^Plots to
overturn the order of succession — The Regent's ignorance
thereof — Intricate position of the British Government — Argu-
ments in defence of the supplemental articles — Recognition
of all rulers de facto the basis of our treaties — Kislior Singh
refuses to acknowledge the supplemental articles — Conse-
quences — The Regent blockades the Prince, and demands
the surrender of his son Gordhandas — The Maharao breaks
through the blockade — The British agent interposes — Sur-
render and exile of Gordhandas — Reconciliation of the
Maharao and the Regent — Coronation of the Maharao —
Mutual covenants executed — The Regent prohibits dand
throughout Kotah — ^Reflections ..... 1577



CHAPTER 11

Banishment of Gordhandas, the natural son of the Regent — His
reappearance in Malwa — Consequent renewal of dissensions
at Kotah — The troops mutiny and join the Maharao — -The
Regent assaults the castle — Flight of the Maharao and party-
Reception at Bundi — The Maharao's second brother joins the
Regent — Gordhandas' attempt to join the Maharao frustrated



xiv CONTENTS

PAGE

— The Maharao leaves Bundi — General sympathy for him —
He arrives at Brindaban — Intrigues of Gordhandas and
superior native officers of the British Government, who
deceive the Maharao — Beturns to Kotah at the head of a
force — Summons the Haras to his standard — His demands —
Supplemental article of the treaty considered — Embarrassing
conduct of the Begent — The Maharao refuses all mediation
— His ultimatum — British troops march — Junction with the
Regent — Attack the Maharao — His defeat and flight — Death
of his brother Pirthi Singh — Singular combat — Amnesty pro-
claimed — The Hara chiefs return to their families — The
Maharao retires to the temple of Krishna in Mewar — Negotia-
tion for his return — Satisfactory termination — Reflections on
these civil wars — Character and death of Zalim Singh 1595



BOOK XI

PERSONAL NARRATIVE: UDAIPUR TO
KHERODA

CHAPTER 1

Departure from the valley of Udaipiu- — Lake of Kheroda —



Online LibraryJames TodAnnals and antiquities of Rajasthan, or The central and western Rajput states of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 64)