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A manual of orchidaceous plants cultivated under glass in Great ..., Volume 2 online

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f. Fl. Brit Ind. VI. p. 29. Polychilos Comu-ceryi, Kohl et Hasaelt, OreL ja^.

ed Breda, t 1 (1827). lindley, KoL Orch. PolychUos, No. 1 (1868). Miqnel, Fl.

ind. bat. III. p. 681. Bot. Mag. t, 6570.

The following interesting account of the geographical distribution
of Phalcenopsis Oomu-cervi and its environment in situ, communicated
to the Oardeners' Chronicle by Major-General B. S. Berkeley, afifords
at least one phase of orchid Ufe in a tropical jungle^ of which we still
know too little : —



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PHALSNOFSIB. 27

"This curious orchid is found in abundance on the stunted bushes in
the swampy islands at the mouth of the river Irawaddy. In this situation,
being exposed to the sun during the dry season, it loses its leaves, its
roots being kept plump by the night dews, and it consequently has a
distinct resting season. When growing in the shade it has no resting
season, loses none of its leaves, and continues in flower throughout the
year.

" Phalasnopsis Comu-cervi is found from Akyab (lat. 19' N.) throughout the

whole of Lower Burmah, and southwards down to Tavoy, Mergui, and Perak,

also in Java, occasionally on the hills, abounding in the plains, flourishing

luxuriantly in the dense shade of the forest, where it is protected from

dry winds. In 1870 the Bamboos in the jungle between Pegu and

Shoagun flowered, and, as is the habit of many Bamboos, the clumps

died and rotted down, thus rendering it possible to penetrate into a forest

which had been closed for years. The few scattered trees growing in

the Bamboo jungle were Mango trees ; the trunks of these trees were

found covered with huge masses of P. Ccmvrcervi^ growing in the densest

shade, where they had been unmolested for many years. The plants

presented masses of leaf growth of extraordinary vigour, and bore such

quantities of flowers as would delight an English orchidist ; this was the

solitary orchid found in this shady forest. Unfortunately, the deciduous

variety, which bears comparatively very poor flowers, is that which survives

tiie joamey to England, the large evergreen form found in the jungle

being too soft to travel"

Besides the localities indicated in the foregoing extract^ our

collectors Curtis and Burke detected this orchid growing on trees on

the limestone hills of SariLwak. They noted that in this district

the flowers are variable in colour, some being prettily marked^ while

the majority are pallid and inattractive.

The specific name^ Comu-cervi, is literally '' stag's horn/'
suggested probably by the flattened rachis of the inflorescence.

p. Esmeralda.

Roots stoutish, white, radiating on all sides from the base of the
short stems. Leaves oblong or elliptic-oblong, acute, 5 — 8 inches long.
Peduncles usually deep green, but sometimes spotted with blackicdi
purple, slender, erect, 15 — 20 or more inches high, racemose along the
distal half, many flowered. Flowers about an inch in diameter, on
short pedicels spirally arranged round the rachis; sepals and petals
varying in colour in different plants from amethyst-purple to pale lilac
or almost white, the dorsal sepal and petals oval-oblong, acute ; the
lateral sepals ovate-oblong, and more acute than the dorsal one ; lip
three-lobed, the lateral lobes roundish, erect, varying in colour from
deep purple to pale mauve, but sometimes orange-red and brownish red i



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28 PHALJENOms.

the intermediate lobe generally deep purple, oblong, acute, with a

bi-lamellate creet, below which is an oblong disk with two cirri on ihe

basal side. Column slender, terete above, the stigmatic cavity large,

elliptic in outline ; anther beaked.

Ph«l»nop«U Etmenlda, Bchb. in Oard. Chron. II. (1874), p. 582. lUv. harU
1877, t. 107. Ft, Mag, n.s. t 868. Williams* Orch. Alh. Vll. t 821. Hook.
t Fl. Brit iDd. VI. p. 81. P. antennifera, Kchb. in Card. Chron. XI. (1879),
p. 898. Id. XVIII. (1882), p. 620. P. R^^ieriana, Bchb. in Gard. Chron. II.
8. 3 (1887), p. 746. P. Buyssoniana, Rchb. in Oard. Chron. IV. s. 3 a888),
p. 296.

Introdaced from Cochin China in 1874 by M. Qodefroy^ of
Arg^nteoil^ near Paris^ who found the plant in two localities on
the island of Pluqucx) in the Gulf of Siam^ growing on isolated
rocks in the midst of a small thicket of coniferous trees; and in
Cambodia, between Pursat and Phnum-Bat, also growing upon bare
rocks, in no instance upon the trunks of trees. During the
dry season the plants lose their leaves, and all vegetation on the
rocks, on which they grow, disappears. It has since been gathered
by Curtis on one of the Langkawai islands, where it grows in
peat and sand at the foot of trees.

PhcUcsnopsis Esmeralda is distinguished from every other cultivated
species of Phalasnopsis by its erect, many-flowered racemes, the
flowers of which vary considerably in colour in different plants, and
especially by the presence <^ two cirri at the base of the lip and
not at the apex as in EuPHALiEKOFSis, a character that separates the
species both from that section and from Stauboolottis. Although
the flowers are comparatively small, they are often brilliantly
coloured, and being produced in the late summer and autumn
months, they render the species a useful one in the orchid house at
that season. The colour variations are too numerous to admit of
separate notice; among them must be included the three forms
quoted in our literary references that were admitted by Beichenbach
to specific rank, but which we have reduced to synonyms.

P. Lowii.

Stem none, roots numerous, spreading. Leaves elliptio-oblong, 2 — 4
inches long, acute or emaiginate, deciduous. Peduncles slender, sub-
erect or arching, dull purple and green, 10 — 15 or more inches long,
loosely paniculate upwards, usually few flowered, but in strong plants
many flowered. Flowers li — 2 inches in diameter; sepals elliptic-oblong
with a palo purple keel behind, the lateral two with the inner maigin
reflexed, white with a faint flush of amethyst-purple on the basal half ;



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FHAiiJCNOPeie, 29

petftls three times as broad as the sepals but coloured like them,
sub-rhomboidal, the outer margin rotund ; lip three-lobed, the side lobes
erect and resembling two incurved hom-like bodies that are white
with a yellow spot; the middle lobe deep purple, oblong, with two
small teeth at the base and a raised mid-lino that is dilated and
thickened near the apex. Column curved, pale purple and convex above,
concave beneath ; anther with a long beak reflexed at the apex some-
what resembling an elephant's trunk.

Phalsenopsis Lowii. Rchb. in Bot. Zeit 1852, p. 214. Id. Xm. Oreh. IT.

6 189. t. 161. BoL Mag. t 6851. Warner's Sel. Oreh. II. t 15. Van
outte's Fl. de$ Serre% XVIII. t. 1910. Th* Garden, IX. (1876), t. 14. Gard.
Chron. II. s. 8 (1887), p. 746, icon. xyl. Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. VI. p. 80.
P. proboaddioideB, Parish in lit. ad Low, fide Rchb.



LowlL



A lovely species discovered by the Rev. C. S. Parish^ in Monlmein,
Burmah^ through whom it was introduced by Messrs. Low and Co.
in 1862. Major-General E. S. Berkeley, who has seen PhalcBnopsis Lowii
in its native home, writes in the Oardeners? Chronicle of 1887 {I. s. 8,
p. 279) :—

"This plant loses all its leaves in its native hahitat immediately
after flowering. It grows on limestone rocks, and on the hranches of
small bushes growing in the crevices of the rocks. The surrounding
country is under water the greater part of the year, and the rainfall
is excessive ; by the end of November the country dries up, and in
January the flower stems and leaves have withered, nothing remaining
but the roots; these cease to grow, but are kept plump by the heavy
dew that falls at night. The resting season is short, as showers fall
in March when the plants at once begin to put forth fresh leaves.
This species grows on the north-east side of the limestone hills, and



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;30 PH]kL:fiN0P8Ifi.

is thence protected from the effects bi the afternoon heat of a tropical
sun. During the rains the limestone rocks are covered with many
beautiful annual Balsams and tuberous Begonias; this will give a hint
to the gardeners of the kind of moist heat required to grow Phalcenqpsii
Lomi in perfection."

P. Luddemanniana.

Leaves not usually more than three — five on one plant, oblong or
oval-oblong, 6 — 9 inches long and 2— 3 J inches broad. Peduncles
procumbent, as long as the leaves, 5 — 7 or more flowered. Flowers
2 inches in diameter; septds and petals elliptic-oblong, the sepals
chestnut-brown with some narrow, pale yellow transverse streaks and




Phalnnopsis LUddemuinUnft;

whitish margin, the basal half with a broad amethyst-purple median
band; the petals smaller than the sepals, bright amethyst- purple with
whitish margin and with some chestnut-brown spots towards the
apex; lip clawed, three-lobed, the side lobes erect, oblong, retuse and
two-toothed at the apex, white with some light purple stains, and
with a bright yellow lobule in front; the intermediate lobe fleshy,
obovate-oblong, keeled above, bright amethyst-purple with a pale
margin, and with some erect white bristles along the keel. Column
terete, white, stained with light purple, anther beaked.

Phalaenopsis Liiddemanniaua, Rchb. in MohL et SchL Hot. Zeit. 1865, p. 146.
Id. in Gard. Chron. 1865, p. 410. BoU Mag. t 5523. Van Houtte's £1 des
Serres, XVl, t. 1685 (copied from the Bot. Mag.). Ren. horL 1872, t. 890.
Florist a Pomol. 1865, p. 257.

BUb-vars.— ^eZtojrfa (Gard. Chron. 1865, p. 434), the clustered stripes on
the sepals and petals narrow, the amethyst-purple confined to the very



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PB^LJEKOPBIB. 33.

base; hieroglyphica (Gard. Chron. II s. 3 (1887), p. 586), sepals and
petals cream-white covered with small cinnamon spots and markings ;
ochracea (Gard. Chron. 1865, p. 434), the stripes on the sepals and
petals light ochre-yellow; pulchra (Gard. Chron. IV, (1875), p. 36),
upper part of sepals and petals port-wine colour, the inferior part, as
well as the lip ^nd column, amethyst-purple, the transverse bars nearly
obliterated.
Introduced by Messrs. Low and Co., in 1864^ from the Philippine
Islands^ where it is abundant in the neighbourhood of Manila,
and named in compliment to the late M. Liiddemann, a well-known
orchidist of Paris, who was the first European cultivator to bring
the plant into bloom. The variability in the colour of the flowers of
this species has been observed from the time of its first introduc-
tion ; the sub-varieties described above being among the most
distinct. Our illustration represents a richly coloured form. in the
collection of Baron Schroeder at The Dell,

P. maculata.

A diminutive plant. Leaves elliptic-oblong, 2—4 inches long. Peduncles
ascending, as long as, or longer than the leaves, few flowered. Flowers
I — f inch in diameter ; sepals oval-oblong, acute, cream- white,
with three — five red-brown transverse blotches; petals similar but
narrower ; lip fleshy, three-lobed, the lateral lobes angular, erect, white
spotted with red-brown, and with a small yellow callus on the inner
side; the intermediate lobe convex with a raised median line above,
bright red. Column terete, white.

Plialanopais macnUta, Rchb. in Gard. Chion. XYI. (1881), p. 134.
Introduced by ns in 1880, from Sarawak, in Borneo, through
Curtis, who found it on the limestone hills at an altitude of
1,000 — 1,500 feet, growing on damp, almost bare rocks under the
shade of large trees, many of which are loaded with tufts of
Phalcenopsis Comu-cervu It is one of the smallest of the genus.

P. MaTinll.

Leaves variable in size, the largest obovate-oblong, or oblanceolate-
oblong, sub-falcate acute, 6 — 8 inches long, 1^—2 inches broad. Pedimcles
as long as, or longer than the leaves, usually with two — three short
branches, 10 — 15 or more flowered, Flowei-s about 2 inches across
vertically ; sepals and petals golden yellow barred and blotched with
chestnut-brown, linear-oblong, acute with slightly reflexed margins, the
lateral sepals falcately curved, the petals narrower and shorter than the
sepals; lip of peculiar form and structure, shorter than the other



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82 PHALiCKOnilS.

perianth segments, three-lobed, the side lobes erect, oblong, truncate,

light yellow ; the front lobe also light yellow, anchor-shaped, saccate at

the base, the flukes of the anchor pubescent and denticulate ; in front

of the side lobes is an erect, purplish tooth, and behind that is a slender

upright plate terminating in two divergent cirri. Column clavate with

two tooth-like protuberances at the base, golden yellow stained with red

on the side opposite the lip.

Phalenopsia MaDnii, BohK in Gard. Ghron. 1871, p. 902. Hook. f. Fl. Brit Ind.
VI. p. 80.

Discovered in 1868 by Mr. Gustav Mann, a gentleman in the
semce of the Indian Forest Department. No locality is given with
Reichenbach's description, but as the plant has since been received
from Assam its habitat is thence known. So far as at present
known, Phalcenopsis Mannii* is an ontlying member of the genus,
living at a higher altitude and under climatic conditions that differ
from those under which all the other species have been fonncL

Cultural Note, — This PhaI»nopsis is successfully cultivated by Mr.
Richard Maries, in his nursery at Mythop, near Lytham, Lancashire.
Mr. Maries informs us that the plants are grown in baskets, with a
drainage of broken crocks and charcoal, upon which sphagnum alone
is placed. The baskets are suspended near the glass of a span-roofed
house, exposed to the full light of the afternoon sun, where in winter
the temperature is not more than 7* C. (45' F.), and even lower in
very cold weather. The plants continue in flower for upwards of
three months.

P. Mari8B.

Leaves deflexed, narrowly obovate-oblong, 6 — 10 inches long, bright glossy

green. Peduncles as long as, or longer than the leaves, usually

branched, few flowered. Flowers distant, 1^ — 2 inches in diameter, on

short, slender, pale pedicels; sepals and petals similar and sub-equal,

oval-oblong, obtuse, yellowish white, with 4 — 5 broad, chestnut-brown,

transverse bands and an amethyst-purple stain at the base; lip shorter

than the other segments, three-lobed, the lateral lobes narrowly oblong,

erect, incurved towards the column, white with a purple stain in the

middle, and a yellow lobule on the anterior side; the intermediate

lobe fleshy, bright amethyst-purple, obovate-oblong, with a recurved spur

at the base, keeled above, the keel clothed with white hairs. Colmnn

terete, anther beaked.

Phalffinopsis Marin, Borbidge in lit ad nos. Williams' Orch. Alb. IT. t. 80. BcL
Mag. t 6964.

A handsome species, closely allied to Phalcenopsis L&ddemanniana

♦ Perhaps not strictly isolated from all its congeners ; a snb-variety of Phalamoptis Fmri^a
has been gathered by Lobb, Mann, and Keenan in Assam.



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phalj;nop8I8. 38

and P. sumcUrana, first detected in 1878 by Mr. F. W. Burbidge,
Superintendent of Trinity College Botanic Garden, Dublin, while
travelling for us in the Malay Archipelago. He found it in Sulu,
the largest of a group of small islands lying between north-east
Borneo and Mindanao, growing on the hills at a considerable
elevation, where it appears to be rare, as only four plants were
found by its discoverer, who named the species in compliment to
his wife. Some years later it was imported by Messrs. Low and
Co. from the neighbouring island of Mindanao, where it is more
plenfdfnl, and where it was subsequently gathered by our collector,
David Burke, on the hills near the south-east coast; in this locality
it grows on the trunks and branches of trees always in dense shade,
whicb seems essential to its well-being.

P. Parishii.

A diminutive plant with flattened, fleshy loots. Leaves elliptic or
eUiptic-oblong, 2 — 4 inches long, of an uniform deep green. Racemes as
long as the leaves, 5 — 9 flowered. Flowers J inch in diameter ; sepals
and petals white, the dorsal sepal oblong, the lateral two broader, ovate-
oblong ; petals obovate ; lip *' with a short claw bent at right angles to
the limb," three-lobed, the lateral lobes very small, hom-like, bent back-
wards, yellow spotted with purple ; the front lobe almost triangular, bright
rose-purple : crest semi-lunate with a fimbriate outer margin, white
with a yellowish brown centre, below this is " a linear appendage, pro-
jecting forwards and divided to near the base into four slender filaments."
Column white, spotted with purple on the anterior face.

Phalsnopsis Parishii, Rchb. in Bot. Zeit. 1866, p. 146. Id. in Gard. Chron. 1865,

p. 410. Id. Xen. Orch. 11, p. 144, 1. 166. Id. in Saunders' Bef, Bot, I, t. 85. BoL

Mag. t. 6816. Hook. f. FL Brit. Ind. VI. p. 81.

Introduced from Moulmein in 1864, by Messrs. Low and Co.,
through the Rev. C. S. Parish, after whom it is named. It had,
however, been discovered twenty years previous to that date by our
collector, Thomas Lobb, during his mission to Assam, in 1849 — 50,
and where it has since been gathered by Mann and Keenan; the
Assam plant is said to differ from the Moulmein type in the colour of
the flowers, especially the labellum. In Moulmein it is generally
found on the branches of trees covered with moss, where it is subject
to great heat and moisture during the growing season; in the dry
season it loses its leaves.* The structure of the lip of the orchid is
very singular, and quite unlike that of any other species known to
118; it is also motile upon the sUghtest pressure being applied to it,
* Major^eperal |L S. Berkeley, in Gard. Chrop. I. s. 8 (1887), p. 280.



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34 PHALiRNOPSrS.

p. rosea.

Leaves oval-oblong, 4 — 6 or more inches long, usually notched at the
apex. Peduncles racemose or paniculate, ascending and pale green as
far as the lowermost flower or branch ; slightly zigzag, thickened, and dull
purple along the rachis, which is nodding, many-flowered, continuing to
lengthen and produce flowers for many weeks in succession. Flowers
1^ inches in diameter; sepals oblong, acute, white with a light rose-
purple stain in the middle ; petals narrowly rhomboidal, with a larger
and deeper stain than on the sepals ; lip three-lobed, the lateral lobes sub-
spathulate, incurved, light rose-purple, with 4 — 5 longitudinal dark purple
streaks on the inner side ; the intermediate lobe shortly clawed, ovate,
acute, brown at the base, the blade bright rose-purple; crest two-lobed,
bright yellow spotted with red. Column terete, stained with rose-purple ;
anther beaked.

Phalsenopis rosea, Lindl. in Card. Chron. 1848, p. 671. icon. zyl. Id. in Pazt
Fl, Qard, II. t 72 (1862). Bat. Mag, t. 5212. Van Hontte's Fl, des Serves, XVI,
t. 1645, Jennings' Orck, t 27. WiUmms' OrcK, Alb, VI, t 268. P. equeBtris,
Rchb. in Linn. XXII. p. 864 (1849). Id. Xen. Orch. II. p. 4.

var.—leucaspis.

Flowers somewhat smaller, with shorter and broader segments; sepals

pale rose-purple mottled with white ; petals and lip deeper in colour

than the sepals; callus whitish with yellow-brown dots.

P. rosea lencaspis, Rolfe in Card. Chron. XXVI. (1886), p. 276. P. eqaegtrii
leucaspiB, Rchb. in Card. Chron. XV. (1831), p. 688.

This is the commonest of the Philippine Islands' Phalsenopses ; it

is abundant in the hot valleys and along the streams in the

neighbourhood of Manila^ and is spread generally over the island

of Luzon, often associated with Phalcenopsis Aphrodite and P.

SehiUeriana. It was introduced in 1848 by our Exeter firm^ through

Thomas Lobb. The variety is said to have first appeared in the

collection of M. Pescatore^ at St. Cloudy near Paris^ soon after the

introduction of the species.

P. Sanderiana.

Leaves oblong or ovate-oblong, 6 — 10 inches long, 2^ — 4 inches broad,
usually dark green, but occasionally more or less spotted and marked with
grey, which sometimes disappears with age. Peduncles 20 — 30 inches
long, pale greenish purple spotted with white, terminating in a loose
7 — 12 or more flowered raceme.* Flowers 3 inches in diameter;

Is oval-oblong, the upper one light rose-pink, the lateral two

p and mottled with white; petals shortly clawed, the blade very
i, sub-rhomboidal and coloured like the upper sepal; lip three-

• Probably branched in the stronger plants.



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rHAL.¥:Hopsis. ^5

lobed, the lateral lobes broad, sub-orbicular, incurved over the column,

the apices nearly meeting, white, faintly spotted with pale rose

externally, with a yellow blotch at the base on the inner side; the

front lobe hastate, curved upwards at the apex, which is prolon^'ed

into two flexuose, incurved tendrils an inch long, the blade white

with some longitudinal purple streaks at the base ; crest bilobate, each

lobe bidentate at the tip, bright yellow spotted with red. Column

terete, white with a rose-purple stain at the apex.

Phalienopeis Sanderiana, Bchb. in Gard. Chron. XIX. (1883), p. 616. Tht
Oardtn, XXIF. (1888), pL 407. (Sodefroy's OrchidovhiU (1886), p. 18. Williama*
Oreh. Alb, V. t. 209.



Fhiilaenopsis Sanderiana alba.



BUb-VarS. — olba^ flowers white with a few light purple spots at the
base of the side lobes of the lip and some yellow spots on the crest;
marmarata (Gard. Chron. XX. (1883), p. 812), the lateral sepals with
rows of small purple spots at the base, the side lobes of the lip
with three nearly parallel purple lines, the front lobe marbled with
purple; punctata (Gard. Chron. VII. s. 3 (1890), p. 78), the lateral
sepals spotted like those of Phalcenopsis Siuartiana.
Introduced by Messrs. Sander and Co. from the Philippine Islands
in 1882, through their collector, KoebeUn; it was shortly afterwards



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86 PHALJENOFSIS.

gathered by our collector, David Burke, in the neighbourhood of
Davao, on the south-east coast of Mindanao, where it is associated
with Vanda Sanderiana and Aerides Lawrencece; it has also been
detected on the small island of Serangano, growing ou the trunks
and branches of trees close to the sea-shore.

Ever since its first flowering in this country Phulcenopm Sauderiatia has
been generally regarded as a natural hybrid between P, Aphrodite and
P. Schilleriana, and the structure of the flower certainly affords strong
evidence of such an origin ; it has the general aspect of P. Aphrodite
with the colour of P. Schilleriana, but lighter and more diffused
over the whole surface ; the trowel-shaped front lobe of the labellum
with its apical tendril-like appendages and the side lobes are those of
P. Aphrodite, while the crest is more like that of P. Schilleriana.
If we accept the theory of its hybrid origin, the proper place of
P. Sanderiaiut would bo in the group of natural hybrids of which
P. leucarhoda is the type, and which bears unmistakeable marks of
being derived from the same pair of species, Neverthele^ there an*
other circumstances attending the environment of P. Sanderiana that
must not be overlooked, of which the most prominent are these : — It
has been brought from a locality remote from the habitat of the
supposed parents, of whose presence in that locality no evidence is
forthcoming ; it has been imported unmixed in considerable numbers,
and not as in the case of undoubted hybrids as isolated plants,
whose appearance among the importations of the assumed parents is
comparatively a rare occurrence. On these grounds, therefore, we recognise
P. Sanderiana as a species in the ordinary acceptation of the tcnn; but
whether species or hybrid it is, without question, one of the most
beautiful of the section to which it belongs — EcPHALyF.NOPSis.

P. Schilleriajia.

Leaves elliptic-oblong, variable in sizti, and rarely exceeding 3 — 5 in
number, the largest 12 — 15 or more inch(?s long, and 4— 4 J inches broad,
deep dull green, marbled and blotehed with grey, the grey blotching
frequently taking the form of irregular transverse parallel bars. Peduncles
sometimes attaining a length of 3 or 4 feet, loosely branched,, greenish
crimson mottled with white, with a small deciduous bract at each node.
Flowers 3 — 3| inches in diameter, but less when the flowers are very
numerous ; sepals and petals delicate rose-purple suffused with white,
the lateral sepals dotted with purple on the inner basal half, the sepals
elliptic-oblong, the petals sub-rhomboid al, twice as broad as the sepals;
lip clawed, three-lobed, the claw long, white spotted with red-purple ; the



Online LibraryJames Veitch & SonsA manual of orchidaceous plants cultivated under glass in Great ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 44 of 65)