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James W. (James William) Buel.

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LIBRARY OF
AMERICAN HISTORY



Bv /America's Leading Authors : JOHN CLARK RID-
PAT H, LL. D., Historian, -JAMES IV. BUEL, Ph D.,
Historian and Traveler; J. FRANKLIN JAMESON,
Ph. D., Professor of History in Brown University;
MARCUS J. IVRIGHT, Bureau of Government Statistics



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THE NEW Y^PK f
PUBLICUM '



"l iLSfc»S fOUh&A'r ti^i^(9.



LIBRAE V OF AMERICAN HIS TOR Y



COLUMBUS AND THE
NEW WORLD



BY



JAMES W. BUEL, Ph. D.

Historian and Traveler



^ DE LUXE LIBHARY EDITION Jt



THENEWYORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR,tENOXAND

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.

R 1900. L



n



CONTENTS.



COLUMBUS AND THE NEW WORLD.



CHAPTER I.



The Adversities of Coi.umbus and his Environments —
Spirit of the Inquisition — Chivalry of Spain— A niarvelously
superstitious age — Intolerance and bigotry — Nativit}- of
Columbus — The Colombo family — Among the Mediterranean
pirates — Fury of predatory Moors — Columbus is sliijiwrecked
— The Arch-Pirate — Columbus a sea-rover — His marriage —
The paradise of Porto Santo — A pest of rabbits — Brilliant con-
ceptions born on Porto Santo — Marco Polo's travels — Early
beliefs respecting the size and shape of the earth — Previous
discoveries of America — Story of the Zenis — Identification of
the lands found by ancient explorers — Strange relics cast up
by the sea — Toscanelli's commendatiou^Some wonderful
stories 33-49

CHAPTER TI.

Significance of his Name Leads Columbus to Serious
REFI.ECT10NS— His trip to Iceland — The Scandinavian Sagas
— Columbus in search of assistance — The appeal to Genoa —
The self-sufficiency of Colimibus — His visit to Portugal — Sum-
moned before a Portuguese Junta — Perfidy of King John —
Voyage by the Portuguese — King John's ships assailed by
demons — Anger of the king — Bartholomew sails for England
to solicit aid — Return of Columbus to Genoa 50-59

CHAPTER III.

CotUMBUS Proceeds to Spain— War for the expulsion of the
Moors — Columbus halts for food at a convent— Graciously

xxi



xxil CONTENTS.

PAGE

entertained by the Franciscan Father — Feudalism in the
middle ages — Helpful counsel of Father Perez — Resolution of
Columbus to appeal to France — Persuaded to present his
requests to the Spanish sovereigns — vSeeking roj-alty in the
camp — Second marriage of Columbus — He secures an inter-
view with the Archbishop of Spain — Brought before Ferdinand
— The Congress of Salamanca — The Thralldom of Prelacy —
Columbus before the Spanish Junta — Rejection of his schemes
— Renewal of his appeal to King John — Surrender of Granada
— Second rejection of his proposals 60-74

CHAPTER IV.

Materiai, Help from an Unexpected Source — Columbus
retires to the convent of I^a Rabida — Epistolary appeal of
Father Juan to Isabella — A journey through winter's snows
— Extraordinary devotion of the Prior — Surrender of the last
Moorish stronghold — Columbus summoned before Isabella —
Conditions stipulated by Columbus — Indignation of the Com-
missioners — The sun goes down upon his hopes — Daybreak of
joy over the mountain of despair — The Oueen sends a mes-
senger to recall Columbus — The Queen concludes terms with
Columbus — Ships and sailors ordered to be impressed for the
voyage — Traditions of horrible specters of the imknown sea —
A panic in Palos — Consternation among the sailors — The
Pinzon Brothers— Equipment of the first expedition — Ships
engaged and the men who composed the crews — Expectations
of Columbus 75-90



CHAPTER V.

Departure for the Unknown Wori^d of the Sea — Sor-
rowing friends take their leave — Auspicious beginning of the
voyage — Out on the raging sea— Dangers of fact and fancy —
Fears of Portugal's interference — The flames of Tophct —
Cowardice of the seamen— Signs of approaching land— Deflec-
tion of the needle gives rise to fresh fears— Specters of the
imagination — Impeded by a sea of vegetation — A false cry —
A growing prejudice that develops into mutinous spirit — Ad-
ditional evidence that land is not far off — Promise of reward
— Land ! Land ! — A delirium of thankfulness— A light seen



CONTENTS. xxiii



flitting- along an unknown shore — Who was the first real dis-
coverer ? 91-101

CHAPTER VI.

Landing on the Shores oe the New W.->ri,d— a marvel-
ous vision — Ceremonies of occupation — The prayer of Colum-
bus — Intercourse with the natives — Descriptions of their
appearance and customs — Believe the Spaniards to be visitors
from heaven — Dreadful abuses of the Spaniards — Belief of
Columbus respecting his discover}' — Natives kidnaped to
serve as guides — Columbus' adventure with a horrid monster
— The lust for gold — Avarice and cruelty of Columbus — Dis-
covery of other islands — Landing on the shores of Cuba — An
excursion into the interior — Something about the natives — A
visit to native villages — An embassy to a chief — Products of
the country — Marvelous tales — Results of a visit to the
Cacique — The mythical gold country of Babeque — The deser-
tion of Pinzon — Wonderful stories about imaginary people —
Capture of a native v.-oman — Comnumication with the natives
of Hayti — Customs and hospitality of the Haytians — A visit
in state from the Cacique — Exchange of valuable presents —
Loss of the Santa JMaria — Generous help of the natives —
Christianity and Haytian religion — A display of Spanish arms
— An entertainment provided by the natives— Determination
to found a colon}' in Hayti — Building of Fort La Natividad —
Columbus counsels the colonists — Affectionate parting be-
tween Columbus and Guacanagari — The departure for Spain. 102-132

CHAPTER VII.

A Meeting with the Deserter — Golden visions of Colum-
bus — Alternating hopes and fears — Misgivings as to Pinzon 's
purposes — Pinzon 's story — A fight with the natives — In quest
of the country of the Caribs — In the calm latitude — A terrible
storm — Separation of the vessels— Despair suggests vows of
penance — A melancholy lottery — A package which the ocean
refuses to give up — In sight of the Azores — Saved at last — A
shirt-tail procession — Trouble with the Portuguese — Depar-
ture from the Azores — Another terrible storm — Demons of
Satanic hate— Vows of penance — Safe in the providence of
God — Arrival at the estuary of the Tagus — Reception by King



xxil CONTENTS.

PAGE

entertained by the Franciscan Father — Feudalism in the
middle ages — Helpful counsel of Father Perez — Resolution of
Columbus to appeal to France — Persuaded to present his
requests to the vSpanish sovereigns — vSeeking ro3-alt}- in the
camp — Second marriage of Columlnis — He secures an inter-
view with the Archbishop of Spain — Brought before Ferdinand
— The Congress of Salamanca — The Thralldom of Prelacy —
Columbus before the Spanish Junta — Rejection of his schemes
— Renewal of his appeal to King John — Surrender of Granada
— Second rejection of his proposals 60-74

CHAPTER IV.

Materiai. HeIvP from an Unexpected Source — Columbus
retires to the convent of La Rabida — Epistolarj' appeal of
F'ather Juan to Isabella — A journey through winter's snows
— Extraordinar}' devotion of the Prior — Surrender of the last
Moorish stronghold — Columbus summoned before Isabella —
Conditions stipulated by Columbus — Indignation of the Com-
missioners — The sun goes down upon his hopes — Daybreak of
joy over the mountain of despair — The Queen sends a mes-
senger to i-ecall Columbus — The Queen concludes terms with
Columbus — vShips and sailors ordered to be impressed for the
voyage — Traditions of horrible specters of the unknown sea —
A panic in Palos — Consternation among the sailors — The
Pinzon Brothers — Equipment of the first expedition — Ships
engaged and the men who composed the crews — Expectations
of Columbus 75-90



CHAPTER V.

Departure for the Unknown Wori.d op the Sea — Sor-
rowing friends take their leave — Auspicious beginning of the
voyage — Out on the raging sea — Dangers of fact and fancy —
Fears of Portugal's interference — The flames of Tophet —
Cowardice of the seamen— Signs of approaching land— Deflec-
tion of the needle gives rise to fresh fears — Spectei's of the
imagination — Impeded by a sea of vegetation — A false cry —
A growing prejudice that develops into mutinous spirit — Ad-
ditional evidence that land is not far off — Promise of reward
— Land ! Land ! — A delirium of thankfulness — A light seen



CONTENTS.



xxni



flitting along an unknown shore — Who was the first real dis-
coverer ?



91-ior



CHAPTER VI.

Landing on the Shores of the New \v,^rld— A marvel-
ous vision — Ceremonies of occupation — The prayer of Colum-
bus — Intercourse with the natives — Descriptions of their
appearance and customs — Believe the Spaniards to be visitors
from heaven — Dreadful abuses of the Spaniards — Belief of
Columbus respecting his discovery — Natives kidnaped to
serve as guides — Columbus' adventure with a horrid monster
— The lust for gold — Avarice and cruelty of Columbus — Dis-
covery of other islands — Landing on the shores of Cuba — An
excursion into the interior — Something about the natives — A
visit to native villages — An embassy to a chief — Products of
the country — Marvelous tales — Results of a visit to the
Cacique — The mythical gold country of Babeque — The deser-
tion of Pinzon — Wonderful stories about imaginary people —
Capture of a native vroman — Communication with the natives
of Hayti — Customs and hospitality of the Haytians — A visit
in state from the Cacique — Exchange of valuable presents —
Loss of the Santa Maria — Generous help of the natives —
Christianity and Haytian religion — A display of Spanish arms
— An entertainment provided by the natives— Determination
to found a colony in Hayti— Building of Fort La Natividad —
Columbus counsels the colonists — Affectionate parting be-
tween Columbus and Guacanagari— The departure for Spain.



102-132



CHAPTER VII.

MEETING WITH THE DESERTER— Golden visions of Colum-
bus — Alternating hopes and fears— Misgivings as to Pinzon 's
purposes— Pinzon 's story— A fight with the natives— In quest
of the country of the Caribs— In the calm latitude — A terrible
storm — Separation of the vessels— Despair suggests vows of
penance — A melancholy lottery — A package which the ocean
refuses to give up— In sight of the Azores— Saved at last— A
shirt-tail procession— Trouble with the Portuguese — Depar-
ture from the Azores— Another terrible storm — Demons of
Satanic hate — Vows of penance — Safe in the providence of
God — Arrival at the estuary of the Tagus — Reception by King



xxiv " CONTENTS.



PAOE



John — A princely entertainment — Columbus has an audience
with the King — The mad designs of John — Scheme to rob
Columbus of the fruits of his discoveries— Arrival at Palos. . . 133-152



CHAPTER VIII.

Receiving the Pi^audiTS of a Grateful Nation— Joyful de-
monstrations in Palos — Meeting between Columbus and the
father of La Rabida— Return of the Pinta, and disgrace of
Pinzon — The sad story of a perfidious and ambitious man —
Transmission to the King of reports of the discoveries— Com-
munication with the Pope — Columbus' journey to Seville —
Extraordinary demonstrations — The scene in Barcelona — A
wonderful procession — Columbus in the zenith of his glory —
Splendors of the Royal Court provided for his reception-
Columbus tells the story of his voyage to Ferdinand and Isa-
bella—His dreams of yet greater triumphs— His ambition to
reclaim the Holy Sepulchre — A glance at the conditions that
surrounded him— Dazzled by stories of wealth in the kingdom
of Cathay — A glory that dinuned the luster even of royalty —
Granted a new coat-of-arms — Decision of the question, Who
was first to sight land ? — Disappointment of a poor sailor —
Other things to be accomplished— Preparations for a second
voyage— The moral of the standing egg— King John chafing
under lost opportunity— How the Pope settled a grave ques-
tion—A rush of volunteers— Letters of agreement between
Columbus and his Sovereigns— The fleet appointed to sail
from Cadiz— A battle of intrigue and diplomacy— Spain ob-
tains the decree of possession i53-i77

CHAPTER IX.

Equipment of the Second Expedition— Beginning of the
troubles which envious rivalry created— Adventurers of every
kind join the expedition— The jealousy of Fonseca rebuked
by Isabella — A representative of the Pope accompanies Colum-
bus—Vicar Buyl and Friar Perez— Other distinguished mem-
bers of the expedition— Great demonstrations made at the
fleet's departure— Out on the wide sea— Discovery of an Archi-
pelago—Visit to islands of the West Indies— .\mong the Carib-
bee natives— Butcher-shops where human flesh was sold — A



CONTENTS. XXV

PAGE

horrible sight among Carib cannibals — Some of their dreadful
customs — Myth of the Amazonian islanders — Government and
home-life of the Caribs — Lost in the gloomy forests — A fight
with the natives — Captives who were waiting their turn to be
eaten — A native boy having the face of a lion— Other discov-
eries — In search of the colony left at La Natividad — A visit
from four Caciques — Discoveries that aroused great fears —
Story of the massacre of the garrison— Relics of the murdered
Spaniards — Depravity of the colonists cause their destruction
— A tale of almost inconceivable lust and avarice — Particulars
of the massacre — The native chief falls in love — An elopement
with a queen 1 7S-205

CHAPTER X.

Courage that Overcame ali. Adverse Circumstances —
Awakening to new conditions — Disappointments of the Cava-
liers — An expedition to the gold mines — Welcomed by the
Indians — The gold district of Cibao — A report calculated to
deceive the Sovereigns — Comments of Ferdinand and Isabella
— Columbus recommends enslavement of the natives — Enforc-
ing Christianity throvigh bondage — Columbus sends home a
cargo of slaves — The lust for gold unsatisfied — Sedition shows
its horrid head — Overcoming the mutinous spirits — The star
of Columbus begins to wane — Anxiety over Portugal's activity
— Return to the gold mines of Cibao — Fertility and beauty of
the Royal Plain — Pass of the Hidalgos — Triumphal and pom-
pous entrance into the native villages — False security of the
Indians — Construction of Fort St. Thomas — Abuses of the
garrison — Outrages perpetrated upon the natives — Chief
Caonabo arouses the Indians to vengeance — Afflictions that
came upon the colonists — A horrible condition of affairs —
Preparations for another expedition to the interior — A per-
fidious act severely punished 206-230

CHAPTER XI.

Pursuing the Golden Ignis Fatuus — Columbus renews his
quest for the kingdom of Cathay — Visit to a native village —
Exploring the coast of Cuba — The gold country of Babeque —
Other discoveries — A fight with the Indians — Generosity of



xxvi CONTENTS.



the Cubans — A curious method of fishing — Reports of people
with tails — Startled by spectral fitjures in the forests — Prester
John the Magnificent — Delightful anticipations dispelled by
harsh events — A great mistake — Discontent among the sailors
— A Cacique teaches the law of the Golden Rule — Religion of
the natives — Columbus tells the natives of the splendors of
Spain — A Cacique pleads for permission to accompany Colum-
bus—Stricken down with a strange illness — The inifaltering
care of Father Juan — ^Meeting between Columbus and his
brother — A remarkable story of adventure — A sad disappoint-
ment 231-246

CHAPTER XII.

First Subjugation of the Indians — The outrages of I\Iar-
garite — Horrible abuses practiced on the natives — Rebellion
of Margarite and Vicar Buyl — They depart for Spain — A
bloody retribution — INIassacre of a garrison — Murder of the
beautiful Catalina — Confederation of the native chiefs — Siege
of Fort St. Thomas — A brave man's self-denial — A hazardous
enterprise — Strategic capture of Caonabo by Ojeda — A battle
and repulse of the natives — A communication to their Majes-
ties — ^The first ship-load of slaves — Hostilities renewed — Use
of bloodhounds in rvmning down and killing the natives — A
furious charge of Spanish cavalry — An appalling spectacle —
The relentless grasjj of Spain 247-264

CHAPTER XIII.

ENSI.AVEMENT OF THE N.ATIVES TO GRATIFY SPANISH GrEED
— The insatiate desire for gold — Terrible exactions demanded
of the natives — The Indians compelled to pay exorbitant
tribute in gold — The pitiless hardships imposed — The Colum-
bian defamers at court — Circumventing the cahnnniators —
Isabella orders the slaves to be returned — A criminal finds a
native wife and fortune — The arrogance of Aguado — Efforts
to supersede Columbus — A dreadful hurricane — Opening of
gold mines of great value — Departure of the vessels for Spain
— Pressed back to the Caribbean Islands — More evidences of
cannibalism — In the clutches of an Amazonian princess —
Starvation and a mutinous spirit — The Admiral in danger —
Death of Caonabo at sea — Arrival at Cadiz 265-2S0



CONTENTS. xxvii



CHAPTER XIV.

PAGE

Return o^p Columbus from his Second Expedition — The
fickleness of fame — Columbus prepared to meet his accusers
— He proceeds to Burgos to meet the Sovereigns, carrying
trophies of his expedition — Reception of Columbus by Isabella
— Presentation of the Indian captives — INIarriage of Dona
Juana — The urgent needs of Columbus — Return of Nino with
false reports— Awakening to sad conditions — Proposals for a
third expedition — Dependent on the Queen's bounty — Colum-
bus executes his will — His charitable bequests — Arrangements
made for the third voyage — The enmity of Fonseca — The
griefs of Isabella — Two relief ships dispatched — Columbus
knocks down an insolent Jew — Effects of this display of anger. 281-290

CHAPTER XV.

Departure oe the Third Expedition — Purposes of the third
voyage — Horrible suiifering in the calm latitude — Alarms of
the superstitious crews — Discovery of the South American
Continent — Wariness of the natives — A spat with the Indians
— The mouth of the serpent — A terrible tidal wave — Out of
the mouth of the serpent into the jaws of the dragon — Land-
ing on the continent — An excursion to the interior — Enter-
tained by a chief — On the borders of paradise — A profitable
intercourse with the natives — In the land of pearls — Return
to San Domingo — Columbus a physical wreck 291-302

CHAPTER XVI.

Conduct of the Colonists During Columbus' Absence —
Fortress of the golden town — Famine among the Spaniards —
Collecting the tribute — Founding of San Domingo — Anacaona,
the poetess queen — A visit to the queen — Wonderful reception
by beautiful women — A fairy scene — Presentation of the
queen — A grand banquet — Don Bartholomew falls in love —
Eating the iguana lizard — A fatal sham battle — Poverty and
crime at Fort Isabella — The natives forced to labor for the
Spaniards — A system of fortifications — Effects of converting
the natives to Christianity — Baptism of a chief — A chief's
wife debauched by an officer — Destruction of a chapel — Con-
spiracy of the natives discovered — Capture of fourteen Caciques



xxviii CONTENTS.



— Execution of two Chiefs — The rebellion of Roldan — Stirring
up the natives to make war on Bartholomew — Arrival of the
supply ships — A conspiracj- to massacre the Spaniards — De-
struction of Indian villages — Capture of the rebellious Chiefs
— A terrible condition of affairs 303-321

CHAPTER XVII.

The Conspiracy of Rot^dan Assumes Dangerous Propor-
tions — His quarters in the sensual paradise of Xaragua — The
rebels unexpectedly reinforced — Roidan's duplicity — Allur-
ing inducements — Temporizing with a rebel — Columbus
deeply distressed — Ojeda's expedition to South America — A
fight for the hand of the native princess — The execution of
Moxica — Columbus superseded by Bobadilla — Fettered with
his brother he is cast into a dungeon — Brave in the hour of
adversity — Columbus sent to Spain loaded with chains — His
reception by Isabella — Substantial token of his confidence —
A touching interview with the queen — Deposed from the gov-
ernorship of Hispaniola — Columbus is superseded by Ovando
— Dreams of conqviest and the reclamation of Jerusalem —
Magnificence of Granada 322-339

CHAPTER XVIII.

Preparations for a Fourth Voyage — Purposes of the last ex-
pedition — Disappointment and chagrin of Don Diego — De-
parture of the fleet — Refused permission to land at Hispaniola
— A fearful tempest — Destruction of the ships of Ovando, and
loss of Bobadilla and Roldan — Providential escape of Colum-
bus — Resumption of the voyage — Weapons, implements and
costumes of the Guanajans — Stories of a great nation — Meet-
ing with natives of Central America — Voyage along the coast
of Plonduras — Frightful aj)pcarance of the Indians — Safe from
the storm — Magicians of the Darien coast — Death threaten-
ings of a waterspout — Columbus exorcises the spirits of the
storm — A moment of extraordinarj- peril — A visit from a
treacherous Chief — A military post established — Plot to burn
the ships anddestroy the Spaniards — Perilous undertaking of
two Spanish spies — Visit to the Palace of Quibian — Sur-
rounded Ijy human skulls — .\ttacked by the Chief's son — A
desperate expedient— Battle ^\ ilh the Indians— Massacre of



CONTENTS. XXIX

PAOB

eleven Spaniards — A marvelous escape — Escape of the In-
dian prisoners — Suicide of a body of captives — Extraordinary
exploit of a Biscayan — Relief and rescue of the beleaguered
garrison — Departure from Veragua — Columbus sees a vision
— Prostrated by disease 340-359

CHAPTER XIX.

Departure oe the Ii<i.-fated Expedition— Accumulating
misfortunes — Crazy condition of the ships — A letter reflecting
the Admiral's despair — The ships grounded on the coast of
Jamaica — A desperate situation — A brave man found for the
occasion — Mendez undertakes an ocean passage in a canoe —
A journey of incomparable hazard — Successful accomplish-
ment of his mission — A meeting of the crew — Secession of De
Porras — Conspiracy to kill Columbus — The bravery of Bar-
tholomew — Indians forced to attempt a passage to Hispaniola
— Horrible cruelty of the mutineers — De Porras compelled to
return to the shore — He incenses the natives b}' acts of vio-
lence — The Indians awed by an eclipse of the moon — An-
other meeting dispelled by the sight of a ship — Hope of re-
lease gives place to despair — De Porras prepares to attack
Columbus — A battle with the mutineers — Valor of Don Bar-
tholomew — Defeat of the rebels and capture of De Porras —
Relief at last — The return to San Domingo — Columbus joy-
fully received 360-375

CHAPTER XX.

Abuses and Horrors under Ovando's Rule — The revenues
of Columbus are wasted and he is left penniless — Story of the
adventurers who accompanied Ovando — Affairs on the island
during the absence of Columbus — Hard labor and famine



Online LibraryJames W. (James William) BuelLibrary of American history (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 37)