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James W. (James William) Head.

History and comprehensive description of Loudoun County, Virginia [electronic resource] online

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The total number of goats of all ages in Loudoun June 1,
1900, was 20.



LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 97

The total number of swine of all ages June 1, 1900, was
17,351, of which 15,554, or 89.6 per cent, were on farms an
1,797, or 10.4 per cent, in barns and inclosures elsewhere.

Domestic Wool.

Tazewell headed the list of Virginia counties in 1900 in
both number and weight of fleeces shorn, and was followed by
Loudoun with a total of 15,893 fleeces, weighing, unw^ashed,
87,410 pounds. Almost double this amount in pounds was
sheared in the fall of 1879 and spring of 1880.

Poultry and Bees.

The total value of all the poultry raised on Loudoun farms
in 1899 was $114,313, an average value per farm of $58.68.

The number of chickens three months old and over, includ-
ing guinea fowls, on farms in Loudoun County June 1, 1900,
was 132,627; turkeys, 7,218; ducks, 2,171, and geese, 1,036.

The total value of all poultry on hand, including the value
of all young chicks unreported, as well as that of the older
fowls, was $58,276, an average of $29-92 per farm reporting.

Shenandoah was the banner county of Virginia in ^%% pro-
duction, reporting 1,159,000 dozens; Rockingham ranked
second, with 1,150,500 dozens, and Loudoun third, with
771,780 dozens, the fourth highest competitor, Augusta
county, lacking 60, 580 dozens of this last number.

Of Virginia counties at the last census Loudoun ranked
third in the number of chickens on farms, third in number of
turkeys, third in value of poultry products in 1899, and
second in value of poultry on hand June 1, 1900.

There were in the County June 1, 1900, 2,225 swarms of
bees, valued at $6,428. They produced the same year 24,970
pounds of honey and 1,110 pounds of wax.



98 HISTORY OF



SOIL PRODUCTS.

The total and average values of Loudoun's farm products
of 1899, with percentages, are set forth in the following
table:

Value of products:

Fed to live stock |1, 018, 434 00

Not fed to live stock 1,817,414 00

Total ~|2,835,848 00

Per cent not fed to value of farm property 16.4

Average value per farm :

Fed to live stock |523 00

Not fed to live stock 933 00

Total |1,456 00

Average value per acre:

Products fed $3 24

Products not fed 5 79

Average value per acre of improved land:

Products fed $4 04

Products not fed 7 22



Corn and Wheat.

Of the 100 counties in Virginia, Loudoun ranked third in
corn acreage in I899, reporting 46,248 acres, and, the same
year, headed the list in the production of corn with 1,538,860
bushels, an excess of 350,830 bushels over its nearest competi-
tor, Fauquier county, which had planted in corn 98I more
acres.

Loudoun ranked third in wheat area in 1899, Augusta
taking the lead in area as well as in production. The next
three counties in the order of production were Rockingham,
Shenandoah, and Loudoun^ the product of the last-named
being 447,660 bushels. The same order prevailed in I89O.

Oats^ Rye, and Buckwheat,

The area reported under oats in I9OO was 765 acres and the
product 13,070 bushels. In 1890, 4,504 acres were planted
in this crop and produced 69,380 bushels. No barley was re-
ported in 1899.



LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 99

The reported area under rye in 1900 was 597 acres and the
yield 5,560 bushels. The preceding census reported 1,830
acres and a product of 13,137 bushels.

Loudoun reported but two acres of buckwheat under culti-
vation in 1899, as against 232 acres in l879. The yield at the
last census was only 12 bushels, and in I879, 2,338 bushels.

Hay and Forage Crops.

The total area in clover in 1899 was 1,555 acres and the
yield 1,598 tons. Loudoun reported only 2 acres planted in
alfalfa or Lucern and a corresponding number of tons. The
total area sown in millet and Hungarian grasses was 70 acres
and the product 86 tons. Twelve thousand four hundred and
ninety-five acres were planted in other tame and cultivated
grasses in 1899, and 11,364 tons cut therefrom. The principal
grass included under this designation is timothy. In grains
cut green for hay Loudoun reported 1,342 acres under culti-
vation in 1899 and a product of 1,503 tons.

The reported acreage in forage crops in 1899 was 867 and
the product 2,473 tons. The principal crops included under
this head are corn and sorghum cane cut green for forage.
The production of Loudoun exceeded the tonnage of every
other county in the State. The report of the tonnage of the
cornstalks cut where the crop had been allowed to mature for
the grain was 21,614 tons.

Miscellaneous Crops^ Etc.

Four hundred and eighty-four acres planted in miscella-
neous crops in 19OO produced 33,312 bushels.

Seven hundred and twenty-nine acres were devoted to mis-
cellaneous vegetables (exclusive of Irish and sweet potatoes,
and onions), and the product valued at $41,136.

From the 1 1 acres devoted to sorghum cane, 7 tons were
sold and 789 gallons of syrup produced.

The number of square feet of land under glass used for
agricultural purposes June 1, 1900, was 48,310.



100



HISTORY OF
Orchard Fruits ^ Etc.



The reported value of the orchard products of 1899 was
J5 1,363.

The following table shows the number of each class of
orchard trees of bearing age, June 1, 1900, with products by
bushels:



Trees.



Number of


Number of


trees.


bushels


grown.


83,027




195,406


22,446




3.900


4,983




2,828


4,179




3,930


1,589




534


117




30


42




20



Apple

Peach and nectarine

Pear

Cherry

Plum

Apricot

Unclassified orchard fruits



The farms of Loudoun produced in 1899 2,304 barrels of
cider, 388 barrels of vinegar, and 13,530 pounds of dried and
evaporated fruits.

Small Fruits, Etc.

The total value of small fruits was $3,574, the number of
acres under cultivation 40, and the product 62,280 quarts.

There were in lyoudoun June 1, I9OO, 9,742 grapevines of
bearing age. They produced in 1899, 1 71 ,921 pounds of grapes,
from part of which yield were made 7(^^ gallons of wine.

The number of pecan, Persian or English walnut and other
nut trees of bearing age reported was 35.

Flowers, Ornamental Plants, Etc.

The total area devoted to flowers and ornamental plants for
commercial purposes in 1899 was eight acres, the amount of
sales therefrom $15,400, and the square feet of glass surface
reported by florists' establishments 53,300. Of Virginia
counties Loudoun ranked fourth in amount of sales and third
in area of glass surface.

The total area devoted to nursery products in 1899 was
103^ acres and the amount of sales therefrom $2,225.



LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 101

FARM LABOR AND FERTILIZERS.

LABOR.

The scarcity of efficient labor is one of the most
serious troubles with which the farmers of this County have
to cope. In the northern portion the labor is principally
white, while in the southern part there is a greater proportion
of the negro race.

Some farmers employ men by the month, paying from $15
to $\8 and board, but at a distance from centers of population
this transient labor is hard to secure, and even fancy wages
sometimes fail to attract a sufficient supply. In other cases a
laborer and his family are allowed to live on the farm, and he
is paid by the day for such work as is required of him, the
usual wage being 75 cents or $1, with the opportunity of
working throughout a considerable part of the year. The
laborer usually pays a small rent for his cottage, but is
allowed a piece of ground free for a garden. Where the
farms are small the greater part of the work is done by the
farmer and his family, and the situation is less difficult; but
with the large farms it is often impossible to secure sufficient
labor, especially during harvesting.

The total and average expenditures for labor on farms in
1899, including the value of the board furnished, was
$292,150, an average of $149.97 per farm and 93 cents per
acre.

FERTILIZERS.

Commercial fertilizers are used extensively throughout
Loudoun. These consist chiefly of phosphatic fertilizers,
although some nitrogenous mixtures are used. Barn-
yard and green manures are employed to a considerable
extent. Lime is applied freely to many of the soils. It is
brought into the area in cars, hauled from there to the farms
by wagon, and thrown in small piles over the land, the usual
application being twenty-five or thirty bushels to the acre.
It is almost always put on the land in the fall, and after be-
coming thoroughly slaked by air and rain, is spread over
the land as evenly as possible. Applications are made every
fifth or sixth year. Where farms are situated at considerable



102 HISTORY OP

distances from the railroads but little lime is used on account
of the difficulty of transportation.

The total amount expended for fertilizers in 1900 was
$107,490, an average of $55.18 per farm and 34 cents per acre
and amounted to 3-8 per cent of the total value of the prod-
ucts. In 1879, only one other county in the State, i. e. ,
Norfolk, spent as much for the enrichment of its soils. The
amount expended for fertilizers in that year was $133>349.



EDUCATION AND RELIGION.

Education.

Few of the early settlers of Loudoun enjoyed any other
advantages of education than a few months' attendance at
primary schools as they existed in Virginia previous to the
Revolution. But these advantages had been so well improved
that nearly all of them were able to read and write a legible
hand, and had acquired sufficient knowledge of arithmetic
for the transaction of ordinary business. They were, in gen-
eral, men of strong and penetrating minds and, clearly per-
ceiving the numerous advantages which education confers,
they early directed their attention to the establishment of
schools. But for many years there were obstacles in addition
to those incident to all new settlements, which prevented
much being done for the cause of education. The contro-
versies in which they were involved and the war of the Revo-
lution employed nearly all their thoughts and all their ener-
gies previous to the State's admission into the Federal Union.

Of the real efficiency of the Colonial schools of Loudoun
but little can be learned. Teachers, as a rule, were on a par
with their surroundings. If they could read, write and cipher
to the "single rule of three" their educational qualifications
were deemed sufficient. They generally canvassed the neigh-
borhood with a subscription paper, forming the schools them-
selves and furnishing the few necessary books. The rates
were from $1 to $2.50 per scholar by the month, and lower



IvOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 103

when the schoolmaster "boarded around." But he was most
likely to succeed in forming a school who contracted to take
his pay in produce.

Few schools were taught by women in Colonial times and
female teachers were still rare until a comparatively recent
period.

The salaries of regularly appointed tutors varied according
to the nature of the schools and the ability of the district to
meet the expense.

After the Revolution, with increasing prosperity, came a
spirit of general improvement and a new interest in the cause
of education.

The present condition of education in Loudoun is hopeful,
public instruction being now popular with all classes. Intelli-
gence is more generally diffused than at any previous period
of the County's history, and happily, the progress of moral
education has, on the whole, fully kept pace with intellectual
culture. Our boys and girls are reared in a home atmosphere
of purity, of active thought, and intelligent cultivation; all
their powers are keenly stimulated by local and national pros-
perity and unrestricted freedom in all honest endeavor.

With the improvement in the school system has come a bet-
ter style of school-houses. The ''little red school-house on
the hill' ' has given place to buildings of tasteful architecture,
with modern improvements conducive to the comfort and
health of the scholars, and the refining influences of neat sur-
roundings is beginning to be understood. Separate schools
are maintained for colored pupils and graded schools sus-
tained at populous places.

With free schools, able teachers consecrated to their call-
ing, and fair courses of instruction; with a people generous
in expenditures for educational purposes, and a cooperation of
parents and teachers; with the many educational periodicals,
the pedagogical books, and teachers' institutes to broaden
and stimulate the teacher, the friends of education in Loudoun
may labor on, assured that the new century will give abundant
fruitage to the work which has so marvelously prospered in
the old.



104



HISTORY OF



Total Receipts of School Funds for the Year Ending fuly 31^ igo8.
(From report of Division Superintendent of Schools.)

From State funds |13,968 92

" County school tax 12,355 38

'* District school tax 14,640 82

" All other sources 322 30

" Balance on hand August 1, 1907 6,644 60-

Total |47,931 97

Total expenditures 42,788 58

Balance on hand August i, igo8 $5J43 39

School population, Number of Schools, Enrollment and Attendance by

Races and Districts, igod-igoy.

(From report of State Superintendent of Schools.



Districts.


School Popula-
tion.


No. of schools
opened.


Whole number
enrolled.


Total.




White.


Colored.


White.


Colored.


White.


Colored.






748
619
381
614
628
695
255


228
216

143
34
482
457
130


19

15
9
13
15
16
6


4
4
3
1
7
6
3


538
446
358
498
467
493
196


131
196
107
24
277
231
121


669
642


Teff erson


Ivcesburg

Lovettsville


465
522
744


Mercer


Mt Gilead


724


Town of Leesburg..


317


Total


3,940


1,690


93


28


2,996


1,087


4,083





Religion.
The Church, with her faiths, her sacraments, and a part of
her ministry, was an integral part of the colonization of the
County from the beginning and continuously. Everywhere,
with the spreading population, substantial edifices for public
worship were erected and competent provision made for the
maintenance of all the decencies and proprieties of Christian
religion. The influence of these institutions, and of the faith
which they embodied, was most benign and salutary. They
gave to the age of the Revolution its noble character and its
deep-seated principles, the force and momentum of which have
come down, with gradually decreasing power, to our own day.
But with these institutions and with their proper effect and
influence was mingled the fatal leaven of secularity.



LOUDOUN COUNTY, VA.



105



All the leading denominations are represented in Loudoun
by churches and congregations to the extent shown by the
following table of statistics, representing conditions as they
existed at the close of the calendar year 1906, and based upon
the returns of individual church organizations so far as
received by the Census Ofl&ce, through which Bureau they
were obtained for initial publication in this work.



Denomination.



All denominations

Baptist bodies:

Baptists —

Southern Baptist Convention

National Baptist Convention (colored)

Free Baptists

Primitive Baptists

Friends:

Society of Friends (Orthodox)

Religious Society of Friends (Hicksite)

Lutheran bodies:

General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran

Church in the United States of America

Methodist bodies:*

Methodist Episcopal Church

Methodist Episcopal Church (South)

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church

Presbyterian bodies:

Presbyterian Church in the United States (South)..

Protestant Episcopal Church

Reformed bodies:

Reformed Church in the United States

Roman Catholic Church



Total
number

of
organi-
zations.



97



Communi-
cants or
members.



Total num-
ber re-
ported.



7,606



1,199

1,235

55

171

122

278



645

1,179

1,716

45

345
416

140
60



*Leesburg had, until a year or so ago when it was razed, one of the
oldest Methodist churches in America. The building, a large stone
structure, long abandoned, with galleries around three tides, stood in
the midst of an old Methodist graveyard in which are tombstones more
than a century old. It was built, according to report, in 1780.

Leesburgis the oldest Methodist territory in the bounds of the Balti-
more Conference in Virginia, and it was here that the first Methodist
Conference held in the State convened May 19, 1778.
45—8



IftjstnrtoL



FORMATION.

In 1742, Prince William County, a part of the stupendous
Culpeper grant, was divided and the county of Fairfax created
and named in honor of its titled proprietor. Commencing at
the confluence of the Potomac and Occoquan rivers, the line
of demarcation followed the latter stream and its tributary,
Bull Run, to its ultimate source in the mountain of that name,
from which point it was continued to the summit of said
mountain, pursuing thereafter a direct course to the thorough-
fare in the Blue Ridge, known as "Ashby's Gap."

In 1757, Fairfax was divided and the territory west of its
altered boundary christened "Loudoun County." The new
line followed the stream called DiflBcult Run, from its junction
with the Potomac to its highest spring-head, and from that
point was continued in a direct line to the northeast border
of Prince William County. This boundary was afterwards
changed and the present line between Loudoun and Fairfax
substituted (see * 'Boundaries," page 17).

The following are excerpts from the proceedings of the
Virginia House of Burgesses that led to the creation of Lou-
doun County in May, 1757. The act authorizing the division
of Fairfax and establishment of Loudoun is given intact :

On April 20, 1757, a "petition of sundry Inhabitants of Fairfax
County, praying a Division of the said County, was presented to the
House and read, and referred to the Consideration of the next Session
of Assembly."

(107)



108 HISTORY OF

On Friday, April 22, 1757, "Mr. Charles Carter, from the Committee
on Propositions and Grievances, reported, that the Committee had had
under their Consideration divers Propositions, from several Counties,
to them referred, and had come to several Resolutions thereupon, which
he read in in Place, and then delivered in at the Table, where the same
were again twice read, and agreed to by the House, as follow:"

'''^ Resolved, That the Petition of sundry Back-Inhabitants of the said
County of Fairfax, praying the same may be divided into two distinct
Counties, by a Ivine from the Mouth up the main Branch of Difficult-
Run to the Head thereof, and thence by a streight Line to the Mouth of
Rocky-Bjxn, is reasonable."

The following Monday the bill was again presented to the
House by Charles Carter, of the Committee of Propositions
and Grievances, and Friday, April 29, 1757, was ordered
engrossed and read a third time.

Monday, May 2, 1757, the engrossed Bill, entitled, "An
Act for dividing the county of Fairfax," was read a third
time, passed by the House, and sent to the Council for their
"concurrence." It received the assent of the governor
Wednesday, June 8, 1757.

An Act for Dividing the County of Fairfax.
(Passed May 2, 1757.)

I. Whereas, Many inconveniences attend the upper inhabitants of
the county of Fairfax, by reason of the large extent of the said county,
and their remote situation from the court house, and the said inhabi-
tants have petitioned this present general assembly that the said county
may be divided: Be it, therefore, enacted, by the Lieutenant-Governor,
Council, and Burgesses of this present General Assembly, and it is
hereby enacted, by the authority of the same. That from and after the
1st day of July next ensuing the said county of Fairfax be divided into
two counties, that is to say: All that part thereof, lying above Difficult
run, which falls into Patowmack river, and by a line to be run from the
head of the same run, a straight course, to the mouth of Rocky run,
shall be one distinct county, and called and known by the name of
Ivoudoun: And all that part thereof below the said run and course, shall
be one other distinct county, and retain the name of Fairfax.

II. And for the due administration of justice in the said county of
Ivoudoun, after the same shall take place: Be it further enacted by the
authority aforesaid. That after the first day of July a court for the said
county of Loudoun be constantly held by the justices thereof, upon the
second Tuesday in every month, in such manner as by the laws of this
colony is provided, and shall be by their commission directed.



IvOUDOUN COUNTY, VA. 109

III. Provided always, That nothing herein contained shall be con-
structed to hinder the sheriff or collector of the said county of Fairfax,
as the same now stands entire and undivided, from collecting and mak-
ing distress for anj' public dues, or officers fees, which shall remain
unpaid by the inhabitants of the said county of Loudoun at the time of
its taking place; but such sheriff or collector shall have the same power
to collect or distrain for such dues and fees, and shall be answerable for
them in the same manner as if this act had never been made, any law,
usage, or custom to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding.

IV. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid. That the
court of the said county of Fairfax shall have jurisdiction of all actions
and siiits, both in law and equity, which shall be depending before them
at the time the said division shall take place; and shall and may try and
determine all such actions and suits, and issue process and award execu-
tion in any such action or suit in the same manner as if this act had
never been made, any law, usage, or custom to the contrary in any wise
notwithstanding.

V. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That out of
every hundred pounds of tobacco, paid in discharge of quit rents, secre-
tary's, clerk's, sheriff's, surveyor's, or other officers fees, and so pro-
portionably for a greater or lesser quantity, there shall be made the
following abatements or allowances to the payer, that is to say: For
tobacco due in the county of Fairfax ten pounds of tobacco, and for
tobacco due in the county of Loudoun twenty pounds of tobacco; and
that so much of the act of the assembly, intituled. An Act for amending
the Staple of Tobacco, and preventing frauds in his Majesty's customs,
as relates to anything within the purview of this act, shall be, and is
hereby repealed and made void.



DERIVATION OF NAME.

lyoudoun County was named in honor of Lord Loudoun, a
representative peer of Scotland, who, the year before its
establishment, and during the French and Indian war, had
been appointed captain-general and governor-in-chief of the
province of Virginia, and commander-in-chief of the British
military forces in the Colonies.

His military avocations, however, prevented him from en-
tering upon the duties of the gubernatorial office, and it is
believed that he never visited the colony of Virginia. Din-
widdle continued in the control of its affairs, while Loudoun



110 HISTORY OF

turned his attention to military matters, in which his indo-
lence, indecision, and general inefi&ciency were most conspicu-
ous and disastrous. Franklin said of him: "He is like little
St. George on the sign-boards; always on horseback, but
never goes forward."

Until his early recall to England, contemporaneous writers
and brother officers mercilessly criticised Loudoun "whom a
child might outwit, or terrify with a pop-gun."

Hardesty's Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia con-
tains the following succinct account of the public services
rendered by this noted Scotchman:

•'John Campbell, son of Hugh, Earl of Loudoun, was born in 1705,
and succeeded his father in the title in November, 1731. In July, 1756,
he arrived in New York with the appointment of governor- in-chief of
Virginia, and also with the commission of commander-in-chief of the
British forces in America, but, proving inefficient, returned to England
in 1757. He was made lyieutenant-General in 1758, and General in 1770.
He died April 27, 1782, and was succeeded by Norborne Berkeley, Baron
de Botetourt, as governor of Virginia, in l768."



SETTLEMENT AND PERSONNEL.

The permanent settlement of lyoudoun began between the
years 1725 and 1730 while the County was yet a part of Prince
William and the property of lyord Fairfax, the immigrants
securing ninety-nine-year leases on the land at the rate of two
shillings sterling per 100 acres. The above-noted interim
saw a steady influx of the fine old English Cavalier* stock,
the settlers occupying large tracts of land in the eastern and


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Online LibraryJames W. (James William) HeadHistory and comprehensive description of Loudoun County, Virginia [electronic resource] → online text (page 8 of 15)