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A REPORT ON

CHARITABLE and CORRECTIONAL

INSTITUTIONS



BY

JAMES W. GARNER

PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

PREPARED FOR THE

EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY COMMITTEE

STATE OF ILLINOIS



1914



Return this book on or before the
Latest Date stamped below. A
charge is made on all overdue
books. TT , T T .,

U. of I. Library



2 2






MW



DUG

. W V.



C 1 2 1966



17625-S



A REPORT ON

CHARITABLE and CORRECTIONAL
INSTITUTIONS



W: G



JAMES W: GARNER

l\

PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE .
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

PREPARED FOR THE

EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY COMMITTEE

CREATED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE
FORTY-EIGHTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY

STATE OF ILLINOIS



SENATORS

WALTER I. MANNY, CHAIRMAN - MT. STERLING
W. DUFF PIERCY - - - - MOUNT VERNON

LOGAN HAY SPRINGFIELD

CHARLES F. HURBURGH - - - GALESBURG



REPRESENTATIVES

CHARLES F. CLYNE, SECRETARY - - AURORA

SPEAKER WILLIAM McKINLEY - - CHICAGO

JOHN M. RAPP - - - - - FAIRFIELD

EDWARD J. SMEJKAL - - - - CHICAGO



JOHN A. FAIRLIE, DIRECTOR - URBANA -



THE WINDERMERE PRESS, CHICAGO



CONTENTS.

I. CHARITABLE AND PENAL ADMINISTRATION IN ILLINOIS. Page

A. General Observations 5

B. Charitable Institutions 6

1. Organization and Administration before 1910 7

The State Board of Public Charities 8

2. Present Organization 11

Thef Board of Administration 11

Fiscal Supervisor 13

The Charities Commission 14

Boards of Visitors 15

Appropriations 16

C. Penal and Reformatory Institutions 17

1. Separate Boards 17

2. The Board of Prison Industries 19

3. Board of Classification 19

4. The Penitentiary Commission 19

5. The State Board of Pardons 20

D. Comparison of the Charitable and Penal Systems 22

Advantages of the Central Board System 23

Criticism of the Central Board System 31

II. CHARITABLE AND PENAL ADMINISTRATION IN OTHER STATES AND COUNTRIES.

COUNTRIES.

A. In Other States'. 32

1. Central Boards of Control 32

2. State Boards of Charity ". 41

3. Boards of Pardon and Parole 42

4. Opinions on the Central Board System 43

Success in Other States 43

Expert Opinion in Favor of Centralized Control of Penal

Institutions 46

Criticism of Centralized Administration 48

B. In Foreign Countries 51

1. In England

For Relief .51

Care of the Insane 51

Penal Institutions 52

2. In France

Charity Administration 53

Prison Administration 54

3. In Germany

Charitable Institutions 55

Penal Institutions 55

III. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

A. Charitable Institutions 56

B. Penal and Reformatory Institutions . 57

Comparative Expense 61



96204 I



A REPORT ON
CHARITABLE and CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS



By PROFESSOR JAMES W. GARNER, University of Illinois.



I. CHARITABLE AND PENAL ADMINISTRATION
IN ILLINOIS.

A. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

For the care and maintenance of the defective, delinquent and other
dependent classes and for the confinement of convicted criminals, the
State of Illinois maintains twenty-five institutions, counting three that
have been authorized but which have not yet been established, namely,
the Alton State Hospital, the Epileptic Colony, and the Surgical Insti-
tute for Crippled Children.

Administratively speaking, they fall into two classes : First, the
twenty-two charitable institutions which are under the control and
management of a central body known as the Board of Administration
and which are subject to the visitation and inspection of the State
Charities Commission ; second, the two State penitentiaries at Joliet and
Menard and the State reformatory at Pontiac, each of which is under
the control and management of a separate board. There is also another
board which has charge of the construction of a new penitentiary, a
board of prison industries, a board of classification, and a board of
pardons. None of the seven last named boards are under the juris-
diction of the Board of Administration or the Charities Commission*

The following table contains a list of the charitable, penal and
reformatory institutions of the State, with the date of their establish-
ment, the place of location, the value of their property (1910-1912),
the number of their employees, and the per capita cost of maintenance.



EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY COMMITTEE.



STATISTICS RELATING TO
ILLINOIS STATE CHARITABLE AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS



CHARITABLE

INSTITUTIONS


Date
Established.


Location.


Number of
Buildings.


"3

$-d

W eS
JJ


Value of
Property.


o

-4s

Us


No. of
Inmates,
1911-12.


a
-3

'3/3 <BN

flli

o o>
fcU.S-i


Hospital, Elgin State
Kankakee ..
Jacksonville
Anna . . ..


1869
1877
1847
1869
1895
1895
1889
1912

1865
1839
1849

1887
1885
1895
1865
1871
1893
1901


Elgin


29
61
32
22
47
43
11
42

34
22
17

2
56
3
20
1
22
47


510
840
343
449
593
576
17
234

529
158
40

7a
222
15
96
4a
240
921


$ 1,247,603
1,914,833
1,237,527
1,300,465
1,020,010
1,283,942
125,388
1,519,128

1.009.937
432,243
361.244

110,171

871,328
67,075
281,916
290.747
499,991
753,921


277
450
246
222
180
294
29
306

185
124
67

14
73
22
52
50
84
70


1,475
2,653
1,599
1,572
1.401
2,034
220
674

1,357
398
190

100
1.417

71
271
169

448
522


$140.00
138.71
130.12
142.03
121.73
139.59
188.90
170.32

149.08
297.41
308.25

295.46
151.98
360.25
248.08
279.63
208.91
237.03


Kankakee ..
Jacksonville
Anna


Watertown..
Peoria


Watertown.
Peoria.. .


Chester
Chicago
Lincoln State School
and Colony


Menard
Dunning

Lincoln
Jacksonville
Jacksonville

Chicago
Quincy.


School for Deaf


School for Blind


Industrial Home for
the Blind


Soldiers' and Sailors'
Home


Soldier's Widows'
Home....


Wilmington
Normal
Chicago
Geneva..

St. Charles..
Kankakee


Soldier's Orphans'
Home....


Charitable Eye and
Ear Infirmary
Training School for
Girls


St. Charles School
for Boys




Alton St. Hospital....
Epileptic Colony


1911
1913


Alton




























Surgical Institute
Totals, Charitable
Institutions


1911


















511


5,783


$14,327,472


2,751


16,578


$156.87


CORRECTIONAL

INSTITUTIONS

Illinois State Pen'ry
South. 111. Pen'ry
Illinois State Reformatory
Totals, Correctional
Institutions


1857
1877
1867


Joliet






$ 1,887,279
1.602,401
1,022,661


116
109
107


19

1,376
1,185
681


0-12

$ 175.20
197.10
255.50


Menard






Pontiac












$ 4,512,341


332


3,242


$208.05


Grand Total


















$18,839.813


3,083


19,820























a City Lots.

From the standpoint of the classes of dependents for the care
and maintenance of whom these institutions have been established, the
charitable institutions may be grouped into four divisions: (a) those
for mental defectives, including the criminal insane and feeble minded
children; (b) those for physical defectives, such as the blind, the deaf,
the dumb, crippled children, and those afflicted with diseases of the eye
or ear; (c) those for honorably discharged soldiers and sailors and
their dependent orphans and widows ; and (d) those for delinquent
boys and girls. The law denominates as "charitable" all the institu-
tions created for the care of these several classes of persons, although
strictly speaking some of them, like the training schools for delinquent
children and the asylum for insane criminals, are not in reality charit-



CHARITABLE AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 7

able institutions, and they were not so designated by law prior to 1909.
The Act of June 15, 1909, however, includes them in the category of
"charitable" institutions and subjects them to the inspection and inves-
tigation of the State Charities Commission, along with the other more
strictly charitable institutions.

It will be seen from the accompanying statistical tables that the
total number of inmates in all these institutions is about 20,000, that
they embrace an aggregate of more than 500 buildings, and that the
total valuation of their property is about $19,000,000. The total legis-
lative appropriations for 1913-15 amount to $12,775,993.

B. CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.

1. Organization and Administration Before 1910.

The first State charitable institution to be established in Illinois
was the asylum for the education of the deaf and dumb, which was
located at Jacksonville in 1839. It was placed under the control of
a board of directors appointed by the Governor, the immediate man-
agement being vested in the hands of a superintendent chosen by the
board. In 1847 a hospital for the insane was established, and it, too,
was located at Jacksonville. It was placed under the control of a board
of trustees appointed by the Governor for a term of three years. The
board was empowered to choose a superintendent for a term of two
years and to remove him for unfaithfulness or incompetency. The in-
mates of the asylum were required to pay the cost of their maintenance
wherever possible ; in case they were unable, the expense was borne by
the counties from which they came. In 1851 the expense of main-
taining insane paupers was transferred from the counties to the State,
thus making the asylum more definitely a State institution. The num-
ber of persons received from each county was based upon the popu-
lation of the county. The third of the State charitable institutions to
be established was the institution for the blind, also located at Jackson-
ville (1849). It was placed under the control of a board of five trustees
appointed by the Governor for a term of four years. In 1851 the term
was reduced to two years.

By an act of 1853 the government of the three institutions was
somewhat modified with a view to uniformity. The number of mem-
bers of the boards of trustees of the asylum for the insane and the
institution for the deaf and dumb was fixed at six and their terms of
service at four years. The size and term of the board of trustees of
the institution for the education of the blind was unaffected by the act.

None of the trustees had received any compensation for their serv-
ices or an allowance for their expenses. The Act of 1853, however,
provided that henceforth their travelling and personal expenses in-
curred in the performance of their official duties should be paid out
of the funds of the institution. Accounts of each institution were
required to be kept and reported so as to show the kind, quality and
cost of every article purchased for the institution and the name of the
person of whom bought. The law contained other provisions which
indicated a centralizing tendency and a desire to secure greater uni-
formity in the organization and management of the institutions.



8 EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY COMMITTEE.

In 1865 provision was made for two other institutions. These
were the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, located at Normal, and the school
for the instruction and training of idiots and feeble minded children,
located at Lincoln, and now known as the Lincoln State School and
Colony. The former was placed under the control of a board of nine
trustees appointed by the Governor for a term of two years ; the latter
was placed under the control of the directors of the asylum for the
deaf and dumb, so far as the expenditures of its funds were concerned.
In 1869 two additional hospitals for the insane were created, one being
located at Elgin, the other at Anna. Like the other charitable insti-
tutions each was put under the control of a board of trustees.

At the time of the adoption of the present constitution, therefore,
seven State charitable institutions had been established, each under the
control of a separate board of trustees of varying size and terms of
office. There was no correlation among the different institutions and
but little uniformity of policy. Each purchased its own supplies and
managed its own affairs without respect to the others. The boards of
trustees were required to make reports to the Legislature and the in-
stitutions were biennially visited by committees of the Legislature, but
further than this there was no machinery of inspection, no unifying
agency, no legally recognized body of experts with the power to inves-
tigate the conditions of the institutions and recommend legislative or
administrative measures for their improvement.

The State Board of Public Chanties.

Some degree of central supervision over these institutions was
provided by the creation, in 1869, of the Board of State Commissioners
of Public Charities, popularly known as the State Board of Charities.

The board was composed of five members appointed by the Gov-
ernor, with the consent of the Senate, for a term of five years. The
members received no compensation other than an allowance for their
expenses and for any necessary outlay incurred in making investiga-
tions. They were authorized to employ a salaried secretary. It was
made their duty, or that of some one of their number, to visit all the
charitable and correctional institutions, except prisons receiving State
aid, 1 twice a year and to ascertain whether the funds appropriated for
their aid had been economically and judiciously expended, whether the
laws had been complied with and whether the institution had "accom-
plished its purpose." They were required to report the results of
their investigations to the Governor annually and to make any special
investigations which he might direct them to make. They were also
required to visit at least once a year and examine into the condition
.of each county and city alms house and other places where the insane
were confined and to report thereon in writing to the Legislature. They
were empowered to appoint a board of auxiliary visitors in each
county, consisting of three persons, to visit all county alms houses, jails
and other places (other than State institutions or licensed private insti-
tutions for the care of the insane), in which any person of unsound
mind was confined.

1. There were then two correctional institutions: the Penitentiary at Joliet,
created In 1857, and the Reformatory at Pontiac, created in 1867. Th Southern
IlllnoU Penitentiary at Menard was not established until 1877.



CHARITABLE AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 9

The trustees and directors of each institution were required to
make a full and detailed biennial report to the board concerning their
financial and other transactions, which report, if found correct by the
board of charities, was to be delivered by them to the Governor.

The creation of the State Board of Charities was an important step
in a slow movement toward a more centralized system of administra-
tion for the charitable institutions, a movement which finally resulted
in the creation of the Board of Administration in 1909.

The Act of 1869 also made certain changes in the administrative
organization of the charitable institutions. The number of trustees on
the governing boards of most of the institutions was reduced to three,
a measure designed to secure a more effective responsibility and
efficiency of management; and the Governor was given power to
remove any trustee or director whenever in his judgment the best
interests of the institution required, the only limitation being that he
was required to communicate to the General Assembly the reasons
for his action.

The first State Board of Charities was organized in April, 1869.
It divided the State' into five districts and assigned one member of the
board to each district. During the first year of its existence 43 alms
houses and 60 jails were inspected. One of its first acts was to take
a census of idiots and insane persons, and, upon its recommendation,
the Legislature, in 1872, gave it full authority to collect and tabulate
statistical and other information regarding the number of persons in
the State who were receiving charitable relief and the methods by
which this relief was distributed.

Upon the urgent recommendation of the State Board of Charities
the Legislature in 1875 enacted an important law "to regulate the State
charitable institutions (then eight in number) and the State reform
school (at Pontiac) and to improve their organization and increase
their efficiency." The act provided that each institution should be
under the control of a board* of three trustees appointed by the Gov-
ernor for a term of six years, no county to be represented by more
than one trustee on any board; the Governor was given the power to
remove any trustee for good cause ; the superintendents of the insane
asylums and the institution for the feeble minded were required to be
"educated and competent physicians;" the principal executive officer
of each institution was to be a superintendent appointed by the board
of trustees and he was to be the financial agent of the trustees ; each
institution was to have a treasurer whose books and papers were to be
open to the inspection of the trustees at all times; the trustees were to
receive no compensation other than their actual expenses and they were
required to hold meetings at the institution at least once every three
months; they were required to purchase supplies wherever they could
obtain the best quality at the lowest price, and in so far as practicable
in large rather than in small quantities ; each institution was required to
keep a record of the number of officers, employees, and inmates pres-
ent each day; also records of the amount of stores and supplies re-
ceived and issued ; and finally the board of trustees of each institution



10 EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY COMMITTEE.

was required to make biennial reports to the State Board of Charities
concerning the administration of the institution during the two preced-
ing years.

From time to time new institutions were established, as shown
below :

1871 Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary, Chicago. 2
1877 Eastern Hospital for the Insane, Kankakee.
1885 Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Quincy.
1887 Industrial Home for the Blind, Chicago.
1889 Asylum for Insane Criminals, Chester.
1893 Home for Juvenile Female Offenders, Geneva. 3
1895 Western Hospital for the Insane, Watertown.

General Hospital for the Insane, South Bartonville.

Soldiers' Widows' Home, Wilmington.
1901 St. Charles School for Boys, St. Charles.

The Act of 1875 was the organic law for the government of all
the charitable institutions until 1910, although it was amended in
unimportant particulars in 1887, 1905 and 1907. The State Board of
Charities commended the law as one of the best on the statute books ;
but it complained that its own powers were insufficient, its functions
including merely the power to investigate and recommend.

In its report for the year 1900 (p. 42) the Board thus described
the situation: "These fifteen charitable institutions have forty-nine
trustees and there are five members of the board of commissioners of
public charities, making in all fifty- four persons who are charged with
the duty of seeing that these institutions are properly managed under
the law. In addition they have fifteen local treasurers. All of the
institutions are under the supervision of this board. Our duties, how-
ever, are merely advisory, we having no real executive or controlling
power. Under the law we are required to visit each of them at least
twice a year to see that the moneys appropriated for their support are
economically and judiciously expended, to see whether their purposes
are accomplished and whether the laws in relation to them are complied
with. It also requires us to inquire and examine into their methods of
government and management, the conduct of their trustees, officers and
employees, the condition of the property and into all matters pertaining
to their usefulness and management. In addition to this the law re-
quires us to approve their accounts. Notwithstanding all these require-
ments this board as constituted has no such executive power to enforce
any of its recommendations as should be lodged in a central governing
body."

As stated in the above quotation each institution had its own
treasurer and each purchased its own supplies, the result being a wide
variation of prices and sometimes of quality as between the different
institutions.

The trustees being unpaid gave only a small portion of their time
to the performance of their duties, which tended to become merely

2. Founded as a private institution in 1858; aided by State appropriations be-
ginning in 1867, and organized as a State institution in 1871.

3. Name changed to the State Training School for Girls, in 1901.



CHARITABLE AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 11

perfunctory. Attendance upon the meetings (ordinarily there was one
meeting a quarter) was irregular; and instances were not wanting in
which the control over a particular institution was in fact exercised
for a considerable period of time by a single trustee. The natural
result of such a system was want of uniformity of policy, loss of
efficiency and unnecessary financial waste. As time passed the dissatis-
faction with the system increased. The State Board of Charities, the
State Conference of Charities and Corrections and other interested
organizations inaugurated a campaign for a reorganization of the exist-
ing system. This movement was supported by the press and by public
sentiment generally and a radical reorganization was advocated by sev-
eral legislative committees of investigation.

The State Civil Service law of 1905 was enacted to eliminate
political influences in the management of these institutions, and at the
same time centralized the selection of subordinate employees, by pro-
viding for their appointment on the basis of competitive examinations
under the State Civil Service Commission. Finally by an Act approved
June 15, 1909, the former system of administration for these institu-
tions was abolished, and the present centralized system was established.

2. Present Organization.

With a view to standardizing the administration of the charitable
institutions, increasing the efficiency of their management and securing
greater economy of their expenditures, the Act of 1909 abolished the
separate boards of trustees and managers and created a single central
authority called the Board of Administration, in whose hands were con-
centrated the management and control of all the charitable institutions,
though not tire penal and reformatory institutions. The latter were left
untouched by the act of 1909 and are still under the management of
separate boards. The treasurers of the several institutions were like-
wise abolished and the funds of each were required to be transferred
to the State Treasurer, who was declared to be henceforth the custodian
of the funds of all institutions subject to the control of the Board of
Administration, with the exception of the monthly salary and contingent
funds which were to be left in the hands of the superintendent or other
managing officers. The act directed that all moneys collected by the
institutional heads from the sale of products or from other sources
should be transmitted to the State Treasurer each month, together with
a detailed statement to the fiscal supervisor.

In addition the Act of 1909 abolished the State Board of Charities
and created in its place a Charities Commission to be described here-
after. It also conferred a legal status on the State Conference of
Charities and Corrections by permitting various bodies to pay the ex-
penses of delegates to attend its sessions.

The Board of Administration, created by the Act of 1909, is
composed of five members appointed by the Governor, with the consent
of the Senate, and removable by him for incompetency, neglect of duty
or malfeasance in office. Not more than three members of the board
may belong to the same political party ; one member must be qualified
by experience to advise the board regarding the care and treatment of



12 EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY COMMITTEE.

the insane, the feeble minded and epileptics ; one member must be
designated by the Governor as president of the board ; the other three
members must be reputable citizens. The board is required to elect
one of its members as fiscal supervisor and one as secretary; and it is
empowered to employ such other officers, agents and employes as it
may deem necessary for the efficient conduct of its business.

The term of the members of the Board of Administration is fixed
at six years and the salary of each member at $6,000 per year plus an
allowance for the necessary travelling expenses incurred while in the


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