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as : " Anterior wings pale orange-red, with a dark central redder
band, the reniform, and basal and elbowed lines outlined with white,
subterminal rather darker. Hind wings reddish-grey, transverse
shade darker." Esper also adds : ' The ground colour of the fore
wings of a pale flesh-colour ; the reniform filled in with brownish, a
broad reddish central band " (' Die Schmet. in Abbildungen,' iii., pi.
75, figs. 3-4, p. 381). I have some very strongly banded specimens
from Hereford and Brighton.

Dyschorista, Ld., suspecta, Hb.

This species offers a considerable amount of variation, chiefly
however, in the direction of two distinct forms. (1) An unicolorous
reddish-brown form. (2) A form with the outer marginal area and
inner margin of a much paler ochreous or reddish tint. The Scotch
unicolorous specimens are very dark, much darker than those from
York, and, although the species is generally distributed over England,
it is really abundant in very few localities. Aberdeen and York appear
to be its two chief centres. Although the great mass of our specimens
may be roughly classed as almost unicolorous or much variegated,
there are many minor variations ; thus, specimens occur, purely grey
or ochreous, with no tinge of red in them, and very bright red specimens,
of the shade of bright leucographa, also occur. This latter (red variety)
also, has its variegated form, which, with the outer and inner margins
of a bright ochreous, forms perhaps the prettiest variety of the species.
Of minor points of variation, some specimens have the stigmata
strongly lined in with pale, and hence standing out very distinctly ;
others, have them lost in the ground colour. Occasionally a specimen
has the space between the stigmata rather darker than the ground
colour, reminding one of the quadrate spots in certain species of the
genera Noctua, Agrotis etc. ; the upper part of the reniform is fre-
quently pale, whilst the lower is dark, and, although the three
stigmata are generally traceable, there is frequently a tendency to
obsolescence in the orbicular and claviform. There is frequently a
row of black dots following the elbowed line, sometimes these are very
distinct. Hiibner's type may be described as of a " dull ochreous-brown
tint with the two ordinary basal lines ; the distinct stigmata outlined
in paler ; the space around and below the reniform rather darker ;
the elbowed and subterminal lines paler ; a short dark streak from the






IN THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 157

costa to the orbicular. Hind wings dark grey, base paler, with a dark
lunule " (' Sammlung europ. Schmet.,' fig. 633.) Of this species Guenee
writes : " This species has been up to the present unknown to lepi-
dopterists, and I treated it at first in my ' Essai ' as a variety of a species
generally known as congener or iners, but of which the synonymy is
most obscure. In fact, the Caradrina iners, Treitschke, ii., p. 271,
does not appear from his description to belong here at all. It is
sufficient to prove this, when he states that the hind wings of the male are
'entirely white.' The congener of Geyer (fig. 862) represents our
species well, but not that of Treitschke. Hiibner's suspecta (fig. 633)
is, in any case, much older than all other figures and descriptions ; it
faithfully represents a well-marked specimen " (' Noctuelles,' vol. v.,
p. 360). The following is an attempt to classify the principal varieties :
1. Pale reddish-grey, almost unicolorous = var. pallida.
2. Pale reddish, outer area and inner margin ochreous = var. congener,

Hb.-Gey.

3. Bright red, almost unicolorous = var. rufa.
3a. Bright red, with central area grey = var. Icevis, Dup.
4. Bright red, outer area bright ochreous = var. variegata.
5. Dark blackish -red, almost unicolorous = var. nigrescens.
6. Blackish-red, with the outer area pale = var. nigrescens-variegata.
7. Pale ochreous, almost unicolorous = var. iners, Dup.
8. Dull brownish, almost unicolorous = suspecta, Hb.
9. Dark grey, almost unicolorous = var. grisea.

a. var. pallida, mihi. This variety has the anterior wings of an
almost unicolorous pale reddish with a grey tinge, the inner and
outer margins being no paler than the rest of the wing, although
the subterminal is fairly well marked. My specimens have come
chiefly from Aberdeen and York.

ft. var. congener, Hb.-Gey. This is a pale reddish-grey variety,
with the outer area paler. Geyer's figure may be described as
follows : " Anterior wings pale greyish-red, all the nervures dark
and distinct, an abbreviated, followed by a complete whitish basal line,
the stigmata outlined in black, the elbowed line black and wavy, a
pale transverse band follows the subterminal, parallel to the hind
margin ; a double row of black dots runs through the pale band "
(' Sammlung europaischer Schmet.,' fig. 862). Of this variety Guenee
writes : " The two sexes are similar, and only differ from the type
in their more unicolorous testaceous colour and their slight reddish
tint, the designs are generally less clear, except the stigmata, of
which the outline is generally well marked " (' Noctuelles,' vol. v.,
pp. 360-361). I have specimens from Wharncliffe, Aberdeen, Askham
Bog &c.

y. var. rufa, mihi. This bright red variety of suspecta appears to
be more common in Scotch than in English localities. The whole area of
the wing is of a bright red with the ordinary lines and stigmata distinct,
but no trace of a paler coloration replacing the ground colour. I have
specimens from Bannoch and Aberdeen, and have seen others from
Askham, but it is, I believe, rare in the latter locality. I have two or
three extreme forms in which the red is especially bright.

8. var. Icevis, Dup. Duponchel figures a bright red variety of
suspecta under this name with a distinct dark greyish central band,
all the markings are clearly developed. It is an excellent figure of
suspecta despite Staudinger's query. Of the general variation of suspecta



168 VARIETIES OP KOCTtLS

which Duponchel calls Icevis, he writes : " The superior wings vary
from yellowish-grey to ferruginous, but, whatever the shade of the
ground colour, the designs are always the same, &c." " The sexes
differ neither in colour, nor markings " (' Histoire naturelle ' &c., vi.,
pi. 76, fig. 5, p. 65).

c. var. variegata, mihi. The ground colour of the anterior
wings bright red, as in var. rufa, but with a distinct ochreous transverse
band running parallel to the hind margin. It occurs with var. rufa.
This would appear to be the var. B of Guenee, who writes : " This is
the opposite to congener, Gey.; it is of a brick red almost unicolorous,
but with the subterminal more continued and much enlarged
and widened ; the stigmata are as distinct as in var. congener "
(' Noctuelles,' vol. v., p. 161). My specimens came from Aberdeen.

. var. nigrescens, mihi. This is the darkest form of the species,
It is of a deep blackish-red, the black being sometimes much more pro-
nounced. The whole appearance of the variety is most sombre. The
markings are indistinct and merge into the ground colour. I have
specimens varying from deep dull sombre blackish-red to one speci-
men almost entirely black. I am indebted almost entirely to the Scotch
collectors for this darkest form, although I have it from Thome Moor
in Yorkshire, and I believe, it occurs occasionally with the other vars.
in Askham Bog.

77. var. nigrescens-variegata, mihi. This is the form of suspecta,
in which var. nigrescens exhibits the transverse band in connection
with the subterminal line as in vars. variegata and congener. Again I
find myself indebted entirely to the Aberdeen collectors for all the
specimens I have of this variety.

B. var. iners, Dup. I agree with Guenee in throwing out
Treitschke's description, as I am totally unable to apply it to this
species. Duponchel's figure is of a greyish ochreous, darker on the
costa, and a very little more ochreous on the outer and inner margins ;
the reniform and orbicular distinctly outlined, transverse lines
distinct" ('Histoire naturelle' &c., pi. xxvii., fig. 2A). I have
specimens from Pitcaple, varying to almost pure ochreous.

i. var. grisea, mihi. Of this dark grey form with no tinge
of red, I have seen but few specimens in Britain. Duponchel's vol. iv.,
pi. 27, fig. 26, represents this grey form. The anterior wings dark
grey, with the stigmata and transverse lines indistinct, and almost
lost in the general ground colour. This is a decidedly rare variety. I
have one specimen from Askham, and one or two others from Aberdeen.

Dyschorista, Ld., fissipuncta, Haw. (ypsilon, Bkh.).

This is a species which varies but little, and, with a short series,
a lepidopterist might readily form the idea that it does not vary at all.
This, however, is not so, as, besides the ordinary pale grey specimens,
a few specimens are reddish- ochreous and a still smaller proportion
blackish ; whilst a mottled variegated form occurs, which, in its extreme
forms is with difficulty recognised as this species. The stigmata offer
in this species the most striking forms of variation. The orbicular
and reniform are generally placed well apart, and separated in their
upper parts by a dark triangular patch, but at the lower parts they
shew a tendency to coalesce, and frequently the orbicular extends at its
lower end into a pale longitudinal patch running for a short distance
along the median nervure to join the reniform. The peculiar way in



IH THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 159

which the upper and lower edges of the claviform occasionally
extend outwards in the form of two curved black lines is very
remarkable, and they occasionally extend outwards as far as the
elbowed line, but such an extension is rare. The wedge-shaped spots
so frequent in Agrotis are well-developed in this species. Borkhausen
describes no particular form of the species, but makes a comprehensive
description to include most of its various forms. Of the species he
writes : " The ground colour is variable, and differs in almost every
specimen, sometimes it is a mixture of bistre- and umber-brown/some-
times it is greyish-brown, sometimes it is only a pale bark colour ; there
are the three ordinary stigmata, bordered with brown, and filled in with
a blackish shade ; the reniform and orbicular nearly join at their lower
edges, and the space between them is usually y-shaped and filled in with
black ; below the outer stigma is a small wedge-shaped mark, yellow-grey
in colour with a brown border ; there are varieties, where the reniform
and orbicular are quite joined at their lower borders, and between them,
above the junction, as well as before the outer stigma, there are black-
brown spots ; the claviform is bordered with black-brown and then has the
appearance of an ypsilon. In some, especially dark specimens, the stig-
mata are like the ground colour and only perceptible by the borders which
are whitish. In other vars. between the reniform and inner streak is a
trace of an arched line, and with a specimen before me this line is
clearly marked " (' Naturgeschichte ' &c., p. 504). From this it will be
seen that Borkhausen knew almost as much of the general variation of
this species as we at present know. Ha worth's description of the
type is as follows : " Noctua alis subfuscis, notis duabus in medio
nigris fissis." " Alae pallide fuscse subnebulosas costa albo punctata.
Stigmata ordinaria obsoletissima cinerascentia, inter haec litura nigra,
aliaque longitudinal! opposita marginem tenuiorem versus fissis!
Juxta marginem posticum striga obsoleta pallescens undata, intus
punctis trigonis nigris plus minus adnata. Posticse alse pallidiores,
sive pallide fuscescentes " (' Lepidoptera Britannica,' p. 197). Guene'e
says of this species : " It varies but little, except in the shade of the
ground colour, which is sometimes paler and more ochreous"
(' Noctuelles,' vol. v., p. 362 ) ; whilst Humphrey and Westwood
write : " All the markings of the fore wings are, however, liable to
obliteration, except the subapical pale striga, and occasionally the
ground colour is almost black " (' British Moths,' p. 140).

The principal forms of this species are as follows :
1. Pale greyish-fuscous = fissipuncta, Haw. = ypsilon., Bork.
2. Keddish-ochreous = var. corticea, Esp.
3. Dark or blackish-fuscous = var. nigrescens.
4. Variegated, dark with pale markings = var. variegata.

a. var. corticea, Esp. This is the reddish form of fissipuncta, and
Esper lays stress, not only on the colour, but also on the peculiar way
in which the upper and lower borders of the claviform extend and
branch out into the centre of the wing, forming, as it were, a bifurca-
tion from the complete basal line. His diagnosis is : " Alis fuscis,
strigis, maculis, lineolisque duabus baseos bif urcatis (referring to bifur-
cation of complete basal line to form the claviform, and then extending
beyond it) nigris, stiginatibus albidis." The figure referring to this
description has " the anterior wings reddish-brown, the nervures
blackish, the subterminal in the form of arches, and the stigmata out-



160 VARIETIES Otf NOCTtLB

lined in black " (< Die Schmet. in Abbildungen,' p. 463, pi. 145, fig.
2). I would keep Esper's name for all the red forms of this species,
independent of the special development of the claviform, which is a
most inconstant character, and present more or less in all the varieties.
I have specimens from Greenwich, Deal and Burton-on-Trent.

/?. var. nigrescens, mihi. This is Haworth's var. /3, of which he
writes : " Alis anticis nigricantibus, posticis f uscis, cseteris ut in a
(fissipuncta), at saturatioribus " (' Lepidoptera Britannica,' p. 197). I
have specimens of this dark variety from Greenwich and Deal, and
intermediate forms from Burton-on-Trent.

y. var. variegata, mihi. Although difficult to describe in words,
so different is the general appearance of this variety that, when I first
captured it, I was unable to say for a considerable time to what species
it belonged. The ground colour approaches var. nigrescens in tint,
but is somewhat purplish ; the costa is marked with a series of short
black streaks ; the orbicular and upper part of the reniform are very
pale ; the claviform is also pale ; the nervures pale, with the spaces
between of the darker ground colour, causing it to have a somewhat
striated appearance ; the basal lines pale ; the elbowed indistinct ; the
subterminal also pale. All my specimens of this variety have come
from Sandwich and Deal.

Orthosia, Och.

The two species of this genus bear a strong superficial resemblance
in shape and general contour, despite their great difference in colour, and
are characterised by a distinct black dot formed by the filling in of
the lower part of the reniform. In macilenta, this dot is found in
about 50-80 per cent, of the total number of specimens, whilst in lota
the dot is very rarely absent, although in some very dark specimens from
Sligo, and in a few pale specimens from other localities it is either not
marked or so indistinct as not to be noticeable, but it is very rarely this
is the case. In Anchocelis helvola, which seems to be a connecting link
between Orthosia proper and Anchocelis, there are traces of the dot,
but, in the remaining members of the genus, it is rarely present even
in a modified form.

Orthosia, Och., lota, 01.

This species varies very considerably, especially in ground colour.
The greater number of specimens are of a dark grey, but this varies in
opposite directions, in some specimens producing quite a melanic
colour, in others, a very pale grey, whilst a very red form is not at all
uncommon. The lower part of the reniform is filled in as a black
dot which is very conspicuous and is rarely absent ; the dark central
shade is generally traceable but never very distinct ; the abbreviated
basal line is generally confined to two dots, the complete basal line
indistinct ; the claviform generally obsolete ; the elbowed line some-
times absent, at others, slightly traceable, with a row of minute dots
in contact with it ; the orbicular, reniform and subterminal generally
outlined in reddish or ochreous. Newman writes of this species :
" The colour of the fore wings is dull leaden-brown, or dull ochreous-
brown, the two shades being equally common ; and there are also
other intermediates of less frequent occurrence ; the discoidal spots have
a very slender pale circumscription, and outside of this a slender brick-
red circumscription, the lower half of the reniform is almost black ;
parallel with the hind margin is an oblique compound line, the inner



IN THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 161

portion of which is brick-red, the outer portion ochreous-grey ; both
colours are sharply defined and very distinct " (' British Moths,' p. 365).
Clerck's figure may be described as follows : " Anterior wings dark
grey or lead colour, with the extreme base dark ; the orbicular and
reniform outlined in yellowish ; a row of tiny black dots along nervure
parallel to inner margin; subterminal line yellowish; three black costal
spots between reniform and subterminal ; a treble transverse row of
dots occupying the position of the elbowed line " ('Icones,' pi. viii.,
fig. 1). Hiibner's figure is (by error) called munda, and is of the typical
form. The following are the chief forms of variation :
1. Pale whitish-grey = var. pallida.
2. Dark grey or lead colour = lota, Cl.
3. Blackish = var. suffusa.
4. Eeddish var. rufa.

a. var. pallida, mini. This appears to be the palest form of the
species. It is of a whitish-grey ground colour, the black reniform
spot and red edge to the subterminal stand out conspicuously. The
form is rare. I have it from Hartley Wintney, Bucks and Clevedon.

/?. var suffusa, mihi. In this, the dark lead colour of the type h)is
become almost black. The dark ground colour makes the reniform
spot comparatively inconspicuous, there is also a distinct trace of the
central shade. I have only seen specimens from Sligo, where my
specimens were captured by Mr. Percy Kuss.

y. var. rufa, mihi. The anterior wings in this variety are of a
reddish tint. The only author who appears to figure this variety is
Duponchel (' Histoire naturelle' &c., supp., pi. xxvii., fig. 4), but the
figure is not a good one. The markings of this variety are the same
as those which characterise the type. The dark centre to the lower
part of the reniform, and the ochreous subterminal with its red inner
edge are very marked. I have specimens from Somerset, Chattenden,
Clevedon, Bucks, Darlington and Hartley Wirtney.

Orthosia, Och., macilento, Hb.

This interesting species not only exhibits a dimorphic tendency
in coloration, some specimens being of a dark, others of a pale ochreous
colour, but the dot, formed by the darkening of the lower part of the
reniform, and which was meniioned as being particularly characteristic
of lota, is in this species as frequently absent as present, so that in both
the dark ochreous and pale ochreous specimens, there are the two
forms, that without, and that with a conspicuous central black dot.
Some specimens have a distinct central shade, others again, have no
trace of it. The development of a complete row of dots following the
elbowed line occasionally occurs, whilst in other specimens there is
no trace of them ; the two basal lines also show some variation in their
development, but are represented by dots even in the best developed
specimens, the second dot in the abbreviated basal line almost looks
like a small longitudinal dash. Hiibner's type may be described as
follows : " Anterior wings bright brownish -(almost reddish-) ochreous,
with the second dot of the abbreviated basal line well developed, a
wavy line between this and the orbicular ; the orbicular outlined in
blackish, the reniform in pale, the lower part of the reniform filled in
with dark, an angulated central shade runs between the stigmata, whilst
the elbowed line is also wavy ; the subterminal pale, edged internally
with dark. Hind wings dark grey, base paler, dark lunule'"

K



162 VARIETIES OF NOCTUJE

(' Sammhmg enrop. Schmet.,' fig. 418). The flarilmea of Ha worth is
also the type. His diagnosis is : " Noctua alis rufescentibus, striga
postica obliqua rectissima flavicante intus rufa, punctoque basi f usco."
" Simillima precedenti (cerasi). Antennae maris hirto pectinate, nee
radiis validis. Alse antics minus venose. Stigmata ordinaria magis
distantia et lente obsolete flavicantia, basi postici saspe fusco. Striga
postica magis recta, magisque flava, sed ad costam obsoletior et parum
geniculata. Alas posticas longe saturatiores, barba abdominis ciliisque
magis runs " (' Lepidoptera Britannica,' p. 243). The following
appear to be the principal forms :

1. Pale straw colour, with distinct central dot = var. straminea.
la. Pale straw colour, without distinct central dot = var. obsoleta-

straminca.
2. Deep yellowish or reddish-ochreous, with central dot = macilenta,

Hb.
2a. Deep yellowish or reddish-ochreous, without central dot = var.

obsoleta.

a. var. obsoleta, mihi. Of the same dark yellow-ochreous colour
as the type, but without the characteristic black spot which is developed
in the lower part of the reniform. It appears to be found in most
localities with the type. I have it from Frome, Aberdeen, Bristol,
Clevedon, Sligo, Reading etc. I certainly have only the type from
other localities, but do not think it betokens the absence of the
variety.

/?. var. straminea, mihi. This variety differs from the type in
having the ground colour very much paler. The markings are as in
the type, and the characteristic black spot is present in the reniform.
I have specimens from Clevedon, Bucks, Sligo, Hartley Wintney,
Bristol, Aberdeen and Frome. A sub- var. of straminea (-obsoleta} occurs,
in which the characteristic black spot is absent. I have such specimens
from Farnboro' (Kent), Hartley Wintney, Aberdeen, Reading and
Clevedon. This sub-variety appears to be the rarest form of the
species.

Anchocelis, Gn.

Of our British species, Guenee places lielvola, pistacina, lunosa and
litura in this genus, whilst Staudinger restricts it to lunosa, placing the
other species in Ortliosia. The two species, pistacina and lunosa, vary
much, and are peculiar in having strongly marked longitudinal
striations, which, almost typical in lunosa, are sometimes entirely
absent both in that species and in pistacina, and at other times as
strongly marked in pistacina as in the former species, the third species,
litura, appears never to have this form. Another peculiar character
of our three species left in the genus is the development of the tiny
black costal streak at the commencement of the subterminal line.
A. pistacina is by far the most variable species in the genus.

Anchocelis, Gn., lielvola, Linn.

This beautiful species had two names given to it by Linnasus, hekola
(the older) and rufina (the one in more common use). It is an exceed-
ingly variable species, and the bright red of some specimens is very
striking. In all its forms of variation, however, there are three fixed
characters : (1) a dark basal patch between the abbreviated and
complete basal lines, (2) an angulated central fascia, (3) a transverse



IK THE BttlTISli ISLANDS. 163

series of dark oval patches filling up the space between the elbowed
and subterminal lines. Occasionally these three characteristic patches
are almost lost in the ground colour, whilst now and then, these mark-
ings are very dark and then become very striking. The claviform is
generally obsolete, the reniform and orbicular ochreous and usually dis-
tinct, the lower part of the reniform is frequently dark and shows in a
minor way, the more complete development found in lot a and maciienta.
duenee writes of it : " The number of names this species has received
is due to want of study on the part of different authors. Even Linnaeus
used two names. It varies very little " (* Noctuelles,' vol. v., p. 364).
I do not think Guenee could have known much about the species, or he
would not have said that it varied very little. To me, it appears to
vary a great deal. The Linnasan description of the type is : " Bombyx
spirilinguis, alis runs : fasciis suffuscescentibus : postica latiore, subtus
rufescentibus " (' Systema Naturae,' x., p. 507). The chief forms are :

1. Ochreous with greenish tinge, and three reddish fasciae = var.

ochrea.

la. Ochreous, with dark purplish bands = var. punica, Bork.
2. Dull reddish, with the fasciae indistinct, almost unicolorous =

var. unicolor.

2a. Dull reddish, with the three fasciae dark = helvola, Linn.


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