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BOUGHT WITH THB INCOME
FROM THE

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND

THE GIFT OF

Henrg HJ. Sage

1891



A/SSUl /<}/3//uik..




The original of this book is in
the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924092925936



XTbe IDictoda Ibtstotie of the
Counties of JSnglanb

EDITED BY H. ARTHUR DOUBLEDAY



A HISTORY OF
CUMBERLAND

VOLUME I



^Jlifi}\.



A HISTORY OF THE COUNTY
OF CUMBERLAND IN
FOUR VOLUMES EDITED
BY JAMES WILSON, M.A.



THE

VICTORIA HISTORY



/t^



OF THE COUNTIES
OF ENGLAND



CUMBERLAND




WESTMINSTER

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE

AND COMPANY LIMITED



Hi



This History is issued to Subscribers only

By Archibald Constable & Company Limited

and printed by Butler & Tanner of

Frame and London



INSCRIBED

TO THE MEMORY OF

HER LATE MAJESTY

QUEEN VICTORIA

WHO IN HER LIFETIME GRACIOUSLY

GAVE THE TITLE TO

AND ACCEPTED THE

DEDICATION OF

THIS HISTORY



THE ADVISORY COUNCIL
OF THE VICTORIA HISTORY



His Grace The Duke of Devonshire, K.G.

Chancellor of the University of Cambridge

His Grace The Duke of Rutland, K.G.

His Grace The Duke of Portland

His Grace The Duke of Argyll, K.T.

The Most Hon. The Marquess of Salisbury,
K.G.

Chancellor of the University of Oxford

The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Rosebery, K.G.,
K.T.

The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Coventry

President of the Royal Agricultural Society

The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Dillon

President of the Society of Antiquaries

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Acton

Regius Professor of Modern History, Cambridge

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Lister

President of the Royal Society

Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., LL.D., F.S.A.,
etc.

Corpus Professor of jurisprudence, Oxford

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L.,
LL.D., F.S.A., etc.

Director of the British Museum

Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A.

President of the Royal Geographical Society

General Editor — H.



Sir Henry Maxwell-Lyte, K.C.B., M.A., F.S.A.,

ETC.
Keeper of the Public Records

Col. Sir J. Farquharson, K.C.B.

Sir Jos. Hooker, G.C.S.L, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.,

ETC.

Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S., etc.
Rev. J. Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A., etc.
Lionel Cust, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., etc.

Director of the National Portrait Gallery

Dr. Albert L. G. Gonther, F.R.S.

President of the Linnean Society

Col. Duncan A. Johnston

Director General of the Ordnance Survey

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., F.R.S., etc.

Director of the Nat. Hist. Museum, South Kensington

Reginald L. Poole, Esq., M.A.

University Lecturer in Diplomatic, Oxford

F. York Powell, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., etc.

Regius Professor of Modern History, Oxford

J. Horace Round, Esq., M.A.

Walter Rye, Esq.

W. H. St. John Hope, Esq., M.A.

Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries

Arthur Doubleday



GENERAL ADVERTISEMENT

The Victoria History of the Counties of England is a National Survey showing
the condition of the country at the present day, and tracing the domestic history of the
English Counties back to the earliest times.

Rich as every County of England is in materials for local history, there has hitherto been
no attempt made to bring all these materials together into a coherent form. There are,
indeed, histories of English Counties ; but many of them — and these the best — are exceed-
ingly rare and costly ; others are very imperfect ; all are out of date.

The Victoria History will trace, county by county, the story of England's growth
from its prehistoric condition, through the barbarous age, the settlement of alien peoples, and
the gradual welding of many races into a nation which is now the greatest on the globe. All
the phases of ecclesiastical history ; the changes in land tenure ; the records of historic and
local families ; the history of the social life and sports of the villages and towns ; the develop-
ment of art, science, manufactures and industries — all these factors, which tell of the progress
of England from primitive beginnings to large and successful empire, will find a place in the
work and their treatment be entrusted to those who have made a special study of them.

Many archaeological, historical and other Societies are assisting in the compilation of this
work, and the editor also has the advantage of the active and cordial co-operation of The
National Trust, which is doing so much for the preservation of places of historic interest and
natural beauty throughout the country.

The names of the distinguished men who have joined the Advisory Council are a
I vii b



guarantee that the work will represent the results of the latest discoveries in every department
of research. It will be observed that among them are representatives of science ; for the
whole trend of modern thought, as influenced by the theory of evolution, favours the intelli-
gent study of the past and of the social, institutional and political developments of national
life. As these histories are the first in which this object has been kept in view, and modern
principles applied, it is hoped that they will form a work of reference no less indispensable
to the student than welcome to the man of culture.

Family History will, both in the Histories and in the supplemental volumes of chart
pedigrees, be dealt with by genealogical experts and in the modern spirit. Every eflFort will be
made to secure accuracy of statement, and to avoid the insertion of those legendary pedigrees
which have in the past brought discredit on the whole subject. It has been pointed out by the
late Bishop of Oxford, a great master of historical research, that ' the expansion and extension
of genealogical study is a very remarkable feature of our own times,' that *it is an increasing
pursuit both in America and England,' and that it can render the historian useful service.

Heraldry will also in this Series occupy a prominent position, and the splendours of the
coat-armour borne in the Middle Ages will be illustrated in colours on a scale that has never
been attempted before.

The general plan of Contents, and the names of the Sectional Editors (who will
co-operate with local workers in every case) are as follows : —

Natural History. Edited by Ahbyn B. R. Trivor-Battye, M.A., F.L.S., etc.

Geology. By Clement Reid, F.R.S., Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., and others
Palaeontology. Edited by R. L. Lydekker, F.R.S., etc.

(Contributions by G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., H. N. Dixon, F.L.S.,
G. C. Deuce, M.A., F.L.S., Walter Garstang, M.A., F.L.S., Herbert Goss, F.L.S., F.E.S.,
R. I. PococK, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., etc., B. B. Woodward, F.G.S., F.R.M.S^
etc., and other Specialists
Prehistoric Remains. Edited by W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A.
Roman Remains. Edited by F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A.

Anglo-Saxon Remains. Edited by C. Hercules Read, F.S.A., and Reginald A. Smith, B.A.
Ethnography. Edited by G. Laurence Gomme, F.S.A.
Dialect. Edited by Joseph Wright, M.A., Ph.D.
Place Names "j

Folklore I Contributed by Various Authorities

Physical Types J

Domesday Book and other kindred Records. Edited by J. Horace Round, M.A.

Architecture. By Various Authorities. The Sections on the Cathedrals and Monastic Remains Edited by

W. H. St. John Hope, M.A.
Ecclesiastical History. Edited by R. L. Poole, IVI.A.

Political History. Edited by W. H. Stevenson, M.A., J. Horace Round, M.A., Proe. T. F. Tout, M.A.,

James Tait, M.A., and C. H. Firth, M.A.
History of Schools. Edited by A. F. Leach, M.A., F.S.A.
Maritime History of Coast Counties. Edited by J. K. Laughton, M.A.
Topographical Accounts of Parishes and Manors. By Various Authorities

History of the Feudal Baronage. Edited by J. Horace Round, M.A., and Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Family History and Heraldry. Edited by Oswald Barron, F.S.A.

Agriculture. Edited by Sir Ernest Clarke, M.A., Sec. to the Royal Agricultural Society
Forestry. Edited by John Nisbet, D.Oec.
Industries, Arts and Manufactures "j

Social and Economic History I By Various Authorities

Persons Eminent in Art, Literature, Science J
Ancient and Modern Sport. Edited by the Duke of BEAuyoRT

Hunting "V

Shooting |- By Various Authorities

Fishing, etc. J

Cricket. Edited by Home Gordon

Football. Edited by C. W. Alcock
Bibliographies
Indexes
Names of the Subscribers



vni



With a view to securing the best advice w^ith regard to the searching of records, the
Editor has secured the services of the following committee of experts : —

RECORDS COMMITTEE

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B. Wm. Page, F.S.A.

Sir Henry Maxwell-Lyte, K.C.B. J. Horace Round, M.A.

W, J, Hardy, F.S.A. S. R. Scargill-Bird, F.S.A.

F. Madan, M.A. W. H. Stevenson, M.A.

F. Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. G. F. Warner, M.A., F.S.A.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Among the many thousands of subjects illustrated will be castles, cathedrals and churches,
mansions and manor houses, moot halls and market halls, family portraits, etc. Particular
attention will be given to the beautiful and quaint examples of architecture which, through
decay or from other causes, are in danger of disappearing. The best examples of church
brasses, coloured glass, and monumental effigies will be depicted. The Series will also contain
1 60 pictures in photogravure, showing the characteristic scenery of the counties.

CARTOGRAPHY

Each History will contain Archaeological, Domesday, and Geological maps ; maps show-
ing the Orography, and the Parliamentary and Ecclesiastical divisions ; and the map done by
Speed in 16 10. The Series will contain about four hundred maps in all.

FAMILY HISTORY AND HERALDRY

The Histories will contain, in the Topographical Section, manorial pedigrees, and
accounts of the noble and gentle families connected with the local history ; and it is proposed
to trace, wherever possible, their descendants in the Colonies and the United States of
America. The Editor will be glad to receive information which may be of service to him
in this branch of the work. The chart family pedigrees and the arms of the families
mentioned in the Heralds' Visitations will be issued in a supplemental volume for each county.

The Rolls of Arms are being completely collated for this work, and all the feudal coats
will be given in colours. The arms of the local families will also be represented in connection
with the Topographical Section.

In order to secure the greatest possible accuracy in the descriptions of the Architecture,
ecclesiastic, military and domestic, a committee has been formed of the following students of
architectural history, who will supervise this department of the work : —

ARCHITECTURAL COMMITTEE

J. Bilson, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A.

R. Blomfield W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., F.R.LB.A.

Harold Brakspear, A.R.I.B.A. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A.

Prof. Baldwin Brown Roland Paul

Arthur S. Flower, F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. J, Horace Round, M.A.

George E. Fox, M.A., F.S.A. Percy G. Stone, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.

J. A. GoTCH, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. Thackeray Turner

A special feature in connection with the Architecture will be a series of coloured ground
plans showing the architectural history of castles, cathedrals and other monastic foundations.
Plans of the most important country mansions will also be included.

The issue of this work is limited to subscribers only, whose names will be printed at the end of
each History.

ix



THE

VICTORIA HISTORY

OF THE COUNTY OF

CUMBERLAND

VOLUME ONE




WESTMINSTER

2 WHITEHALL GARDENS

I9OI



Counti2 Committee for Cumberlanb



THE RT. HON. THE LORD MUNCASTER, F.S.A.

Lord Lieutenant, Chairman

Hamlet Riley, Esq., J.P., High Sheriff of Cumberland

The Worshipful The Mayor of Carlisle



The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Carlisle
The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Lonsdale
The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Morpeth
The Lord Bishop of Carlisle
The Rt. Hon. The Lord Leconfield
The Rt. Hon. The Lord Brougham and

Vaux
The Rt. Hon. The Speaker of the

House of Commons
The Rt. Hon. James William Lowther,

J.P., D.L., M.P.
Sir Richard George Musgrave, Bart.,

J.P., D.L.
Sir Henry Ralph Vane, Bart., J.P., D.L.
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart., J.P.
Sir Thomas Brocklebank, Bart.
Sir Joseph Ewart, J.P.
Sir John Dunne, D.L.
The Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness
David Ainsworth, Esq., J.P., D.L.
John Stirling Ainsworth, Esq., J.P.
Robert Andrew Allison, Esq., J.P.,

D.L.
James Arlosh, Esq., J.P.
Edwin Hodge Banks, Esq., J.P., D.L.
Henry Barnes, Esq., J.P., LL.D.
Rev. Canon Bower, M.A.
Thomas Brocklebank, Esq., J.P.
F. W. Chance, Esq., J.P., D.L.
William Irwin Robert Crowder, Esq.,

J.P., D.L.
John Norman Dickinson, Esq., J.P.
Thomas Dixon, Esq., J.P.
C. J. Ferguson, Esq., J.P., F.S.A.
Capt. Francis P. Fletcher- Vane
Francis Grainger, Esq., J.P.
Gilbert Henry Wordsworth Harrison,

Esq.
Thomas Hartley, Esq., J.P., D.L.
Rev. W. G. Courtenay Hodgson, M.A,
Thomas Hesketh Hodgson, Esq., J.P.



Henry Charles Howard, Esq., J.P., D.L.

Philip John Canning Howard, Esq., J.P.

Col. Thomas Angelo Irwin, J.P., D.L.

Robert Jefferson, Esq., J.P.

Frederick Ponsonby Johnson, Esq., J.P.

George Graham Kirklinton, Esq., J. P.,
D.L.

Wilfrid Lawson, Esq., J.P., D.L.

William Lewthwaite, Esq., J.P., D.L.

Miles MacInnes, Esq., J.P., D.L.

Reginald Dykes Marshall, Esq., J. P., D.L.

Thomas Barlow-Massicks, Esq., J.P.

The Master of Christ's College, Cam-
bridge

Rev. F. L. H. Millard, M.A.

John Musgrave, Esq., J.P.

Rev. William Hasell Parker, M.A.

William Parkin-Moore, Esq., J.P., D.L.

The Ven. Archdeacon Prescott

The Provost of Queen's College, Oxford

Rev. Canon Rawnsley, M.A.'

James Robertson-Walker, Esq., J.P.

George Robinson, Esq., J.P.

Thomas Rymer, Esq., J.P.

B. Scott, Esq., J.P.

H. Patricius Senhouse, Esq., J.P.

H. Pocklington Senhouse, Esq., J.P., D.L.

Frederick Robertson Sewell, Esq., J.P.

James W. H. P. Spedding, Esq., J.P., D.L.

William Pery Standish, Esq., J.P.

William Stanley, Esq., D.L.

Edmund W. Stead, Esq.

His Honour Judge Steavenson

C. Lacy Thompson, Esq., J.P., D.L.
R. Heywood-Thompson, Esq., J.P.
William Tennant Trimble, Esq.
William Barrow Turner, Esq., J.P., D.L.
E. T. Tyson, Esq., J.P.

J, Proctor Watson, Esq., J.P.
James Watt, Esq., J.P.
George White, Esq., J.P.



Editor: Rev. James Wilson, M.A.



xui



ERRATA

P- 73 f"' Great Strickland, near Penrith, read Great Salkeld, near Penrith

p. 86 for Warmel read Warnel

p. 86 for Tallentine Hill read Tallentire Hill

p. 90 fir Henry II. read Henry I.



XIV



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE



PAGE

Dedication v

The Advisory Council of the Victoria History vii

General Advertisement vii

The Cumberland County Committee . . xiii

List of Errata •••........... xiv

Contents ••••••......... xv

List of Illustrations •>............ xvii

Preface ................ xix

Natural History

Introduction to Natural History . By the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U. . xxiii

Geology ByJ.G.GooDCHiLD,F.G.S., F.Z.S.,H.M. Geol.Snrvey i

Climate ..... By the late William Hodgson, A.L.S. ... 65

Palaeontology .... By Richard L. Lydekker, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. . 71
Botany

Introduction . . . . By the late William Hodgson, A.L.S. ... 73

Summary of Orders ... „ „ „ ... 76

The Botanical Districts . . „ „ „ ... 78

Musci {Mosses) .... By the Rev. C. H. Binstead, M.A. ... 94
Zoology

MoUusca {Snails, etc.) . . . By B. B. Woodvitard, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. . . 99
Insecta {Insects)

Orthoptera {Earuiigs, etc.) . By F. H. Day loi

Neuroptera {Drag/inflies) . . „ „ 102

Hymenoptera {Bees, etc.) , „ „ • loj

Coleoptera {Beetles) . . „ „ 105

Lepidoptera {Butterflies and

Moths) „ 117

Diptera {Flies) ... „ „ 14°

Hemiptera {Bugs, etc.) . . „ „ 14'

XV



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE



Myriapoda {Centipedes) .

Arachnida {Spiders)

Crustacea {Crabs, etc.) .

Pisces {Fishes) ....

Reptilia {Reptiles) and

Batrachia {Batrachians) .

Aves {Birds) ....

Mammalia {Mammals) .

Early Man

Pre-Norman Remains

Introduction to the Cumberland

Domesday, Early Pipe Rolls, and

Testa de Nevill

The Text of the Cumberland

Domesday ....

The Text of the Early Pipe Rolls .

The Text of the Testa de Nevill .



By R. I. PococK .......

By F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A.

By the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S.

By the Rev. H. A. Macpherson, M.A., M.B.O.U. .



By the late R. S. Ferguson, M.A., LL.M., F.S.A.
By W. G. CoLLiNGVirooD, M.A



By the Rev. James Wilson, M.A.



PAGE

143
144
158
169

177
179
218
225

2S3



295

336
338
419



XVI



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Derwentwater. Mezzotint by William Hyde f,.„

Geological Section. Fig. i

Geological Section. Fig. 2 .... .

Geological Section. Fig. 3

Geological Section. Fig. 4 ...... .

Helm Wind. Fig. i

Helm Wind. Fig. 2 ...... .



«39

241

242



24s
246



PAGE

■oniispiece
44
44
45
45

67
Helm Wind. Fig. 3 g

Tumulus at Old Parks full-page plate, facing j,.

Tumulus at Old Parks : East side of Stone No. 3 ; West side of Stone No. 4 ; East side of

Stone No. S ; Incense Cup full-page plate, facing p.

Side Stone, Aspatria Cist

Tumulus at Old Parks : Incense Cup ; Beads .... full-page plate, facing p. 243

Stone Circle on Eskdale Moor

Stone Circle near Keswick ]

Stone Circle at Swinside J

Stone Circle and Menhir near Little Salkeld . . ,^0

Barnscar ....... , -_

„ „ „ z^u

Incised Slab, Aspatria •■••........ 2^4.

Bewcastle Cross

The Christ, on Bewcastle Cross j full-page plate, facing p. z^s

Anglian Shaft, Addingham . . . . . . . . . . . .21:6

Fragment, Workington . . . . . . . . . . . _ .21:6

Anglian Shaft, Waberthwaite . . . . . . . . . . . .2C7

Irton Cross full-page plate, facing p. 258

Cross-head from Fratry, Carlisle . . . . . . . . . . .259

Cross-head from Abbey, Carlisle . . . . . . . . . . .259

Cross-head from Cathedral, Carlisle . . . . . . . , , . .259

Cross-head from Brigham . . . . . . . . . . . .259

White Cross, St. John's, Beckermet ]

White Shaft, St. John's, Beckermet I ' " " " ' faU-page plate facing p. z6i

The Norse Cross, St. Bees ............ 262

The Standing Cross, St. Bees 262

The Kenneth Cross, Dearham. . . ]

The Two Spiral Shafts in the Vestry, Aspatria j ' ' * ^""-^'^^ plate facing p. 262

The Standing Cross, Addingham



The Giant's Thumb, Penrith j " " » ^^3

Back and Edges of the Inscribed Cross, Beckermet . . . . . . . .264

Spiral Fragment, Haile . . 264

The Giant's Grave, Penrith ....... full-page plate facing p. 265

The Second Shaft, St. Bridget's, Beckermet . . . . . . . . .265

Gosforth Cross 266

xvii



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Crucifixion, Gosforth Cross

Vidar, Gosforth Cross

South Side, Gosforth Cross

Loki and Sigun, Gosforth Cross

Heimdal, Gosforth Cross

Three Cross-heads at Gosforth ^

The Fishing Stone, Gosforth J

Hogback, Plumbland "|

Hogback, Aspatria . J

The Warrior's Tomb, Gosforth "I

The Saint's Tomb, Gosforth J

Hogback, Cross Canonby ">

Dearham Cross J

Muncaster Cross "j

Rockcliffe Cross V .

Dacre Cross J

Waberthwaite Cross

The Red Shaft, Cross Canonby

The Standing Cross, Aspatria

The Drilled Shaft, St. John's, Beckermet



Cross-head, High Aikton

The Lawrence Slab, Cross Canonby .

Socket Stone, Brigham Church

Cross-head, Brigham Vicarage .

The Adam Slab, Dearham

Dearham Font ....

Griffin and Cetus, Bridekirk Font

The Baptism of Christ, Bridekirk Font

The Dolphin Runes ....

Runes of Bewcastle Cross

The Barnspike Runes ....

The Bridekirk Runes ....

The Dearham Runes ....

The Inscribed Cross, St. Bridget's, Beckermet

Fragment found 1857, Carlisle

The Kirkoswald Fibula

The Brayton Fibula

Charter of Henry II. to Hubert de Vallibus

Charters of Henry II. and Richard I.



PAGE

. 267

. 268

. 268

. 269

. 269



full-page plate facing p. 270

271
271

271

272

273
• 273



full-page plate, facing p. 274



27s



LIST OF MAPS



Geological Map, Northern Section
Geological Map, Southern Section
Orographical Map .
Botanical Map
Pre-Historical Map .
Map of Earthworks
Pre-Norman Remains



27s

27s

276

full-page plate, facing p. 276

), *j jj 277

. 278

full-page plate, facing p. 278

279

280

280

full-page plate, facing p. 281
281

full-page plate, facing p. 282

» » 7. 306

■ »> » >> 320



betzoeen pp. 8, 9

16, 17

„ 40, 41

facing p. 73

between pp. 224, 225

„ 232, 233

» 256, 257



XVIU



PREFACE



FOR a long time workers in scientific and archasological research
have been waiting for a History of Cumberland which would
cover the whole field of local investigation, and aim at a more
complete and accurate account of the north-western county than
it was possible to give when the older histories were compiled. Valuable
additions have been made to our knowledge of the natural history and
archseology of the district by the labours during the past thirty years of
the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and
Science and the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archas-
ological Society. But the scientific observations and antiquarian researches
of the various workers remain scattered throughout the numerous publi-
cations of these societies. Before the materials thus collected could be
used, they required to be sifted and arranged by experienced specialists
with a view to supervising the work of the local student and of centring
interest on the characteristic features of the district. For the first
volume of this History the editors have had the co-operation of men
who are well acquainted with the county and have taken a prominent
part in the work of these societies in the several departments with which
their names are identified.

In former histories of Cumberland no systematic effort worthy of
the name has been made to examine the physical features of the county
or to treat it as a floral or faunal area. With the exception of Hutch-
inson, who has recorded the results of some excavations undertaken in
the eighteenth century, the archaeology of the district has been a sealed
book to the older historians of the county. Attempts to reduce to order
the confused evidences of prehistoric Man, or to classify the earthworks
and early lapidary remains with which Cumberland abounds, have been
of a very meagre description. Even now our knowledge must not be
considered complete either in the flora and fauna or in the archeology.
The less popular orders in the fauna are here as in other counties inade-
quately studied and recorded ; and great as has been the activity in
recent years in the field of archasological research, much has been lost
through carelessness in the past, and the spade has not been used with
the frequency and thoroughness that the importance of the subject
requires.

The editors regret that in one particular the chronological sequence
of the contributions to this volume has been broken. The section on
Romano-British Cumberland has had to be held over for the second

xix



PREFACE

volume. It is believed that the value of the section will be enhanced
by the postponement.

No attempt has been made to disturb popular usage in the spelling
of place-names. A reasonable liberty has been allowed to contributors
to adopt the methods with which they were familiar. Local nomen-
clature as it was employed at different periods of history will be discussed
in the Topographical section of this work.

Since the present work was undertaken the promoters have had to
deplore the removal by death of two valued contributors, from one of
whom much was expected and whose loss to the History is almost irre-
parable. Richard Saul Ferguson, chancellor of the diocese of Carlisle,
who held for a quarter of a century the hegemonic place in all matters
of local knowledge, died before his first contribution was set in type.
His unrivalled knowledge of the county, as well as his genial and help-
ful sympathy, have been greatly missed by the colleagues engaged with
him in the production of this work. William Hodgson, a man of
another type, the venerable botanist, who loved nature in all its moods,
passed away after he had given the final touches to his catalogue of the
flora of the county. In their respective spheres both men were dis-
tinguished, both were Cumbrians by birth and descent, and both deserve
an honoured place in the dictionary of Cumbrian biography.

The nature and scope of the Victoria History of Cumberland may
best be gathered from a perusal of the General Advertisement which is



Online LibraryJames WilsonThe Victoria history of the county of Cumberland → online text (page 1 of 63)