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Jared Waterbury Scudder.

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FIRST LATIN READER



INCLUDING



^rinctplrs; of Syntax

AND

3£xrrctscs for ^Translation



BY

JARED W. SCUDDER, A.M.

Latin Master in the Albany Academy



Boston

ALLYN AND BACON

1897



Copyright, 1895,
Bt Jared W. Scudder.



ELF.rTROTTPING 1!Y C. J. PETEHS & SON.



PRE88WOEK BY BEEWICK & SMITH.



PREFACE.



The first distinctive feature of this book is, as its
name suggests, that the lessons contain connected Latin
passages for the pupil to read. As soon as practicable,
the special grammatical points to be learned in each
lesson are illustrated, not in disconnected sentences,
but in a continuous Latin story. The stories are drawn
chiefly from Roman mythology and traditional Roman
history, interspersed with an occasional passage on the
life of the Romans. This plan has the following advan-
tages : —

1. It acts as a jpowerful incentive to work.

2. It adds directly to the pupil '5 knowledge of lioTnan
mythology, traditions, and customs.

3. It emphasizes at the outset the fact that grammar
is merely a means to the enjoyment of literature.

The second feature of the book is that all the exer-
cises for translating English into Latin are based on
the Latin text immediately preceding them.

A third point of special importance is that, beginning
with Lesson XV, a passage to be translated at sight is
included in every lesson. In the report of the Latin
Conference to the Committee on Secondary School
Studies this point is particularly emphasized. After
stating the views of those who shrink from adopting



iv PREFACE.

translation at sight as the sole test of the pupil's at-
tainments, the following significant sentence is added :
" Yet the importance of devoting a good deal of atten-
tion to translation at sight is now universally acknowl-
edged among the best teachers in school and college;
and the recommendation that translation at sight form
a constant and increasing part of the examination for
admission and of the work of preparation, is therefore
regarded by the Conference as of especial moment."

Lastly, questions in Latin, referring to the text, are
included in the lessons, in the hope that teachers will
avail themselves of this simple but effective mode of
familiarizing their scholars with the Latin itself. Noth-
ing gives the pupil a firmer grasp on phrases, nothing
fits him more quickly to understand Latin without trans-
lating it, than this very method of asking and answering
questions in Latin.

In addition to these more important features of the
book, attention is directed to the following points : —

1. The systematic and thorough drill on pronuncia-
tion in the first two lessons.

2. The incorporation of all necessary principles of
English grammar in the body of the book.

3. The omission of the Vocative case in the para-
digms, sufficient emphasis being laid upon it in the
rules.

4. The use of -Is instead of -gs in the Accusative
Plural of -i stems of the Third Declension. This has
not only become necessary on account of its use in many
of the latest school texts, but it is desirable as a means
of distinguishing between the Nominative and Accusative
Plural.



PREFACE. V

5. The comparative view of the declensions of nouns
and adjectives in the tables on pages 204 and 211.

6. The comparative view of the four regular conjuga-
tions in the body of the book, supplemented on pages
221-231 by the presentation of the Active and Passive
voices of each conjugation, side by side.

7. The questions for the ]3upils at the end of the
lessons. These are not intended to take the place of
questions b}^ the teacher, but are merely to enable the
pupil to ascertain whether he has thoroughly mastered
his lesson.

The lessons appear to be much longer than they really
are. It must be remembered that the labors of the
pupil practically end with the translation of the English
sentences into Latin, the rest of the lesson being re-
served for the class-room.

The author is indebted to many friends for helpful
suggestions, but particularly to Professor P. J. Bartlett
of the Albany Normal College, and to Professor C. B.
GooLD of the Albany Academy.

It is hoped that the use of this book will not only add
to the beginner's enjoyment of Latin, but that it w^ll
insure rapid progress and unusual facility in reading
and understanding the language.

JARED W. SCUDDER.
Albany, N.Y., December, 1894.



Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010



http://www.archive.org/details/firstlatinreaderOOscud



CONTENTS.



LESSON ^^^^'^

I. Alphabet. — Sounds of the Letters. — Quantity of

Vowels ^

II. Syllables. — Quantity of Syllables. — Accent .... 4

III. Noun. —Verb. —Subject and Object

IV. Singular and Plural ^

V. Rules. —Cases. -Inflection.— First Declension . . 10

VI. Gender. — Genitive of Possession. — Pronouns. —Ad-
verbs ^^

VII. Dative of the Indirect Object. — Questions .... 15
VIII. Ablative of Separation. — Conjunctions. — Regina

Belgarum ^^

IX. Second Declension: Nouns in -us. — Vocative Case.

— Conloquium 19

X. Second Declension : Nouns in -um. — Predicate Nom-
inative. — Prepositions. — Fundus 21

XI. Adjectives in -us, -a, -um. — Ablative of Means.—

Cygnus 24

XII. Nouns and Adjectives in -er and -ir. — Apposition.

— Preposition in. — Pueri Romani 26

XIII. Tense. — Person. — Number. — Verb Sum : Present,

Imperfect, and Future Indicative. —Dative of Pos-
sessor. — Conloquium 30

XIV. Mood. —Principal Parts. — First Conjugation: Pres-

ent, Imperfect, and Future Indicative. — Perfida

Tarpeia ^^

XV. Second Conjugation: Present, Imperfect, and Future
Indicative. — Mettius Curtius. — Sight Transla-
tion: Mettius Curtius {concluded) 37

vii



Vlll



CONTENTS.



LESSON PAGE

XVI. Third Conjugation: Present, Imperfect, and Future
Indicative. — Ablative of Manner. — Meleager.

— Sight Translation: Meleager (conc/ucZet?) . . 40
XVII. Fourth Conjugation: Present, Imperfect, and Fu-
ture Indicative. — Ablative of Cause. — Perseus

et Andromeda. — Sight Translation: Perseus

et A.ndroTneda (concluded) 43

XVIII. Third Declension: Liquid Stems. — Forum Ronia-
uum. — Sight Translation: Forum Romanum

(concluded) 4G

XIX. Third Declension : Mute Stems. — Gabii. — Sight

Translation: Gabii (concluded) 50

XX. Third Declension: -i Stems. — Brutus et Filii
Tarquini. — Sight Translation : Brutus et Filii

Tarquini (concluded) 53

XXI. Third Declension: Mixed Stems. — Gender Eules.
Ablative of Accompaniment. — Horatius Codes.

— Sight Translation: Horatius Codes (con-
cluded) 57

XXII. Verb Sum: Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect
Indicative; Imperative. — Atalanta. — Sight
Translation: Atalanta. (concluded) 61

XXIII. Third Declension Adjectives: -i Stems. — First Con-

jugation: Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect
Indicative; Imperative. — Deucalion et Pyrrha.

— Sight Translation : Deucalion et Pyrrha
(concluded) 65

XXIV. Third Declension Adjectives: Consonant Stems.

— Second Conjugation: Perfect, Pluperfect, and
Future Perfect Indicative; Imperative. — C. Mu-
cins Scaevola. — Sight Translation: C. Miicius
Scaevola (concluded) 69

XXV. Fourth Declension. — Third Conjugation : Perfect,
Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative; Im-
perative. — Duo Equites. — Sight Translation:
Buo Bquitea (concluded) 72



CONTENTS.



IX



LESSON rAK^iu

XXVI. Fifth Declension. — Fom-th Conjugation: Per-
fect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative ;
Imperative. — Accusative of Time. —Proser-
pina.— Sight Translation: Proserpina {con-
cluded) 76

XXYII. Personal and Ptcflexive Pronouns. — Double
Accusative. — Perseus et Medusa. — Sight
Translation: Perseus et Medusa (c'0»^mMet7) 80

XXYIII. Voice. —First Conjugation: Indicative and Im-
perative Passive. — Ablative of Agent. — Per-
seus et Medusa (continued). — Sight Trans-
lation : Perseus et Medusa (concluded) . . 83
XXIX. Demonstrative Pronouns: Hie, Ille, Iste.—
Second Conjugation: Indicative and Impera-
tive Passive. — Arion et Delphinus. — Sight
Translation: Arion et Delphinus (con-
cluded) 88

XXX. Demonstrative Pronoims : Is, Idem, Ipse. —
Third Conjugation: Indicative and Imperative
Passive. — Domus Romana. — Sight Transla-
tion: Domus Romana (concluded) .... 92
XXXI. Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns.
— Fourth Conjugation: Indicative and Imper-
ative Passive. Obsidio Veiorum. — Sight
Translation: Obsidio Veiorum (concluded) 96
XXXII. Pvegular Comparison. —Declension of Compara-
tives. — Ablative with Comparatives. — The-
seus. — Sight Translation: Theseus (con-
tinued) 101

XXXIII. Irregular Comparison. — Ablative of Degree of

Difference. — Theseus et Latrones. — Sight
Translation: Theseus et Latrones (cou^.) . 106

XXXIV. Formation and Comparison of Adverbs. — Geni-

tive and Ablative of Characteristic. — The-
seus et Latrones (continued). — Sight Trans-
lation: Theseus et Latrones (conc^Ht?ecZ) . 110



CONTENTS.



LESSON PAGE

XXXY. Xumerals. — Partitive Genitive. — Nine Irreg-
ular Adjectives. — Supellex Domus Ro-
manae. — Sight Translation : Supellex Do-
mus Romanae {concluded) 114

XXXYI. Active Infinitives. — Complementary Infini-
tive. — Expressions of Place. — Theseus et
Aegeus. — Sight Translation: Theseus et

Aegeus (^concluded) 119

XXXVII. Passive Infinitives. — Infinitive as a Xoun. —
Simple Indirect Discom-se. — Dative with
Special Verbs. — Ablative of Specification. —
Daedalus. — Sight Translation: Daedalus

(concluded) 123

XXXYIII. Participles. — Ablative Absolute. — Theseus
et Minotaurus. — Sight Translation: The-
seus et Minotaurus (concluded) .... 129

XXXIX. Gerund. — Gerundive. — Supine. — Ablative of
Time. — Theseus et Ariadne. — Sight
Translation: Theseus et Ariadne (con-
cluded) 135

XL. Derivation and Composition of "Words. — Nup-
tiae Romanae. — Sight Translation: Niip-

tiae Romanae (concluded) 139

XLI. Subjunctive of Sum. — Hortatory Subjunctive.

— Subjunctive of Wisli. — Midas. — Sight
Translation: Midas (concluded) .... 146

XLII. Active Subjunctive. — Indirect Question. —
Genitive and Dative with Adjectives — lason
et Centaurus. — Sight Translation: lason
et Anus 1,50

XLIII. Passive Subjunctive. — Subjunctive of Pur-
pose. — Dative of Service. — lason et Dea.

— Sight Translation: lason et Pelias . . 155
XLIV. Verbs in -io. — Subjunctive of Result. — Vel-

lus Aureum. — Sight Translation: lasonis
Socii 160



CONTENTS.



XI



^



LESSON PAGE

XLV. Deponent Verbs. — Verbs of Fearing. — Quin
Clauses. — Argonautae. — Sight Translation :

Argonautae et Cyzicus 165

XLVL Ablative with Deponents. — Accusative of Ex-
tent. — Simple Conditions. — Ludi Circenses.

— Sight Translation: Ludi Circenses {con-
cluded) 170

XLVII. Compounds of Sum. — Conditionals. — Hercules
et Hylas. — Sight Translation: Phineus et

Harpyiae 176

XLVIII. Active and Passive Periphrastic Conjugations.

— Dative of Agent. — Objective Genitive. —
Symplegades. — Sight Translation: Sym-
plegades {concluded) 180

XLIX. Irregular Verb E6. — Cum Temporal, Causal,
and Concessive. — lason et Medea. — Sight

Translation: Perfidus Rex 184

L. Irregular Verb Fero. — Dum, Donee, and
Quoad. — Antequam and Priusquam. —
Potentissimum Unguentum. — Sight Trans-
lation: Flammiferi Tauri 189

LI. Irregular Verbs Volo, Nolo, Malo. — Subjimc-
tive in Indirect Discourse. — Mediae Fuga.

— Sight Translation: Medea et Draco . . . 194
LII. Irregular Verb Fio. — Vellus Aureum. — Sight

Translation: Reditus Argonautarum . . . 201
Tables of Declension and Conjugation .... 204
Latin-English Vocabulary 241



First Latin Reader.



LESSON I.
Alphabet ; Pronunciation.

1. The Latin alphabet is the same as the English,
except that it has no j or w.

2. The letters are divided into vowels and consonants.

VOWELS.

3. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and y ; they are either
long or short.

a. A long vowel is marked with a dash, thus : a.

b. A short vowel is not marked.

4. The vowels are sounded as follows :

a as in. far. a as in a-rise.

e as in theij. e as in 7/1 en.

i as in ma-rine. i as in pin.

o as in hone. o as in o-bey.

u as 00 in cool. u as in fidl.

5. Pronounce the following words :

a: na, qua, sta. 1 : di, ml, iiT.

e : me, ne, te. o : do, pro, sto.

ii : nil, sii, tii.
1



2 LATIN READER. — LESSON L

a. a and a : sa-ga, sa-ga ; ma-lo, ma-lo ; fa-vi, fa-vi.
e and e : e-mi, e-niT; e-di, e-di; se-ro, se-ro.
i and i : di-co, di-co ; si-ni, si-ni ; li-no, li-no.
o and o : no-ta, no-ta ; so-lo, so-lo ; lo-ra, lo-ra.
u and u : lii-to, lu-to ; f u-gT, fu-gi ; su-di, su-di.

DIPHTHONGS.

6. The diphthongs are sounded as follows :

ae as ai in aisle. au as ow in cow.

oe as oy in boy. eu as eu in feud.

7. Pronounce the following Avords :

ae : ae-tas, ae-ger, lae-sum, pae-ne, sae-pe.
au: au-la, au-ri, fau-tor, lau-de, pau-lo.
oe : coe-pT, foe-de, poe-na, Oe-ta, oe-strus.
eu : heu, sen, neu-ter, Eu-rus, Leu-ci.

GENEEAL RULES FOR QUANTITY OF VOWELS.

8. Diphthongs are long, as : haec, poenae.

a. A vowel followed by nf, ns, gm, gn, or i (consona7if)
is long, as : infra, mensa, agmen, Ignis, cuius.

h. A vowel followed hj another vowel, . or by a
diphthong, or by h is short, as : via, tuae, vehit.

c. A vowel followed by nt or nd is short, as : sunt,
amandus.

CONSONANTS.

9. The consonants may be classified as follows :

( Labials : p, b.
a. Mutes -l Linguals: t, d.

( Palatals : c, k, q, g.

h. Liquids : 1, m, n, r.

c. Spirants : f, s.

d. Semi-vowels : v, 1 (consonant).



PR ON UNCI A TION. 6

e. Double consonants : x = cs or gs, z = ds=
/. h is only a breathing.

10. The consonants are sounded as follows :

c as in cap (not as in cent).

g as in yet (not as in gem).

* i (consonant) as y in yet.

s as in sin (not as in mi-ser).

t as in ten (not as in na-tion).

V as to in wet.

z as dz in adze.

ch as in chorus.

The other consonants are sounded as in English.

11. Pronounce the following words :

c : ca-dus, cae-cus, Cae-sar, co-mes, cu-ra.

g: gau-di-um, ge-nus, glo-ri-a, gra-dus, gu-la.

i : iam, lu-no. ius, iu-dex, lo-vis.

s t sa-tis, sce-lus, se-des, so-ror, sta-tus.

t : ta-men, i-ni-ti-o, o-ia-ti-o, imn-ti-o, sta-ti-o.

v: vi-cus, a-vis, va-dum, ser-vus, vol-nus.

z : Za-ma, ga-zam, Tra-pe-zus.

ch : cho-rus, cha-os, char-tae, Bac-chus, Ar-chi-as.

QUESTIONS.

12. How does the Latin alphabet differ from the English ?
Name the vowels. What is the quantity of a diphthong ? When
is a vowel long ? When is a vowel short ? How may the mutes
be classified ? Name the liquids. Give the equivalents of the
double consonants. What is the value of h ?



4 LATIN BEADER. — LESSON U.

LESSONII.
Syllables ; Accent.

13. A word is divided into as many syllables as it
has vowels and diphthongs. ^

Exc. After q, g, and generally s, (also in cui and huic),
the vowel ii, when followed by a vowel, does not form a separate
syllable, as : an-guis, quo-que, sua-det.

a. A consonant between two vowels is joined to the
second vowel, as : a-vl, 6-ra.

h. When there are two or more consonants, as many
of them as can begin a word should be joined to the
second vowel, as : ge-stum, i-gni, pi-sces, ter-ra, ven-tus.

Exc. The words forming a compound should be separated,
as? ad-est.

14. The last syllable of a word is called the ultima;
the next to the last, the penult; the one before the
penult, the antepenult.

15. Divide into syllables :

animal, colonus, dirimo, gratus, libertas, piinceps,

responsum, subter, tranquillitas ;
victus, priscus, occurro, incendium, quTnque, comitia,

decertatio, cognosco, controversia, languidus ;
litterate, insisto, pros tern o, elephantus, adloquor,

tulisti, condemno, intratus, magnanimus.

QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES.

16. A syllable is long :

a. When it contains a long vowel, or a diphthong, as :
lac, mens, haec, ae-tas ;



ACCENT. 5

h. When it contains a short vowel followed either by two
consonants, or by x, or z, as : a-sper, sal-taut, sa-xa, ga-za.

17. What is the quantity of the syllables in the fol-
lowing words ?

Romani, tempestatis, epulae, aurum, arae, tabellarius,

llexus, proverbio, postero, aequus ;
niatiirorum, gentis, quisquam, stellae, suavitas, ser-

monibus, captivos, sanguine.

ACCENT.

18. Words of two syllables are accented on the penult,
as : a'-per, tu'-tus.

a. Words of more than two syllables are accented on
the penult, If it is long ; otherwise, on the antepenult,
as : de-c6'-rum, de'-co-rum.

h. A few short words called enclitics are used only
as they are added to other words. The accent falls on
the syllable before the enclitic, as : sua'que, estis'ne.

19. Accent and pronounce the following :

labes, glgnis, putas, mare, niillus, puer, lupus ;
laudare, puellis, telluris, scribere, monere ;
tergorum, tergorum, columba, tegimus ;
vestra-que, obsidibus, multitudd, facillimus ;
profundus, miinitio, habet-ne, opportiine;
vinclmus, vincimus, perfugit, perfiigit ;
complexus, descendo, libenter, frumentum.

QUESTIONS.

20. luto how many syllables is a word divided ? How are
tlie eonsonanls placed ? Name the last three syllables of a
word. Rule for accent. What effect has an enclitic upon ac-
cent ? When is a syllable long ?



6 LATIN READEE. — LESSON IIL

LESSON III.
Noun, Verb, Subject, Object.

21. A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing,
as : Jolin, Boston, table.

22. A Verb expresses action or being, as: run, is.
Every sentence must contain a verb.

23. The Subject in a sentence is that which does the
action, and is said to be in the jSTominative case, as :
The dog bites.

24. The Object is that which receives the action, and
is said to be in the Accusative case, as : The dog bit the
boy.

25. In English, the subject is usually put before the
verb ; the object after it. In the two sentences which
follow, note the difference in meaning, caused by chan-
ging the position of the word boy.

The boy killed the wolf.
The ivolf killed the boy.

a. In Latin, this difference is expressed — not by
changing the order of the nouns — but by their endings.

26. Note carefully the endings of the words in the

following Latin sentences :

Vitat. {He, she, or it) avoids.

Nauta vitat. The sailor avoids.

Nauta advenam vitat. The sailor avoids the stranger.

Nautam advena vitat. The stranger avoids the sailor.

a. Observe that the verb vitat ends in -t. The verb-
stem vita- means avoid. As in English, when the sub-



SUBJECT AND OBJECT. 7

ject is he, she, or it, we add -s to the verb (e.g., he avoids),
so the Latin adds -t.

b. Notice :

That nauta and advena, when used as subjects, end
in -a;

That nauta and advena, when used as objects, end
in -am.

27. VOCABULARY.

NOUNS.
NOMINATIVE. ACCUSATIVE. MEANING. DERIVATIVE.

nauta, nautam, sailor. nautical.

advena, advenam, stranger. adventure.

porta, portam, gate. portal.

silva, silvam, wood, forest. silvan.

puella, puellani, girl.

casa, casam, cottage, hut.

VERBS.



vitat, (he, she, it) avoids,

intrat, (he, she, it) enters,

invitat, (he, she, it) invites.



entrance,
invite.



28. As the Latin has no word for the, an, or a, the
pupil may use whichever is best suited to the noun he is
translating.

29. Translate into English:

1. Nauta puellam vitat. 2. Advenam puella vT-
tat. 3. Advena silvam intrat. 4. Nautam advena
invitat. 5. Puella advenam invitat. 6. Nauta
portam intrat. 7. Puella nautam vitat. 8. Casam
advena intrat. 9. Puella silvam vitat. 10. Por-
tam advena intrat.



8 LATIN BEADER. — LESSON IV.

30. Translate into Latin :

1. The girl enters the wood. 2. The sailor avoids
the cottage. 3. The girl invites a sailor. 4. A
stranger avoids the hut. 5. A sailor invites the
stranger. 6. The stranger invites the girl. 7.
The sailor enters a cottage. 8. The stranger avoids
the gate. 9. A girl enters the gate. 10. The
sailor avoids the wood.

QUESTIONS.

31. Define noun, verb, subject, object. In what case must
the subject be ? In what case must the object be ? Divide into
syllables and accent : torpescerent, impensurus, amatus.



LESSONIV.
Singular, Plural.

32. There are two numbers, the Singular and the
Plural.

a. The Singular number denotes one, as : girl, sailor.
h. The Plural number denotes more than one, as :
girls, sailors.

33. Vitant. {They) avoid.
Nautae vitant. The sailors avoid.

Nautae advents vitant. The sailors avoid the strangers.
Advenae nautas vitant. The strangers avoid the sailors.

Observe :

a. That the verb vitant ends in -nt, which is equiva-
lent to theij ;



SINGULAR AND PLURAL.



9



b. That nauta and advena, when used as subjects in
the Plural 7iiimber end in -ae ;

c. That nauta and advena, when used as objects in the
Plural number end in -as.



34.


VOCABULARY.






NOUXS.




NOMINATIVE.


ACCUSATIVE. MEANING.


DERIVATIVE.


nautae,


nautas, sailors.


nautical.


advenae,


advenas, strangers.


adventure.


portae,


portas, gates.


portal.


silvae,


silvas, woods, forests.


silvan.


puellae,


puellas, girls.




casae,


casas, cottages, huts.

VERBS.




vitant,


{they) avoid.




intrant,


{they) enter.


entrance.


invitant, (they) invite.


invite.



35.

1. PueHae nautas invitant. 2. Nautae puellas
invitant. 3. Advenae casas vitant. 4. Puellae
nautam vitant. 5. Casam advenae intrant.

6. Nauta advenas vTtat. 7. Portas advenae in-
trant. 8. Casas puella vitat. 9. Portam nauta
intrat. 10. Puellae casas intrant.

36.

1. The strangers enter the cottages. 2. Sailors
invite the strangers. 3. The sailors avoid the girl.
4. The girls invite strangers. 5. Strangers avoid
the gates. 6. The girl enters the woods. 7. The



10



LATIN BEADER. — LESSON V.



strangers avoid the sailor. 8. A girl avoids the
sailors. 9. The sailors enter the gate. 10. The
strangers invite the girls.

QUESTIONS.

37. Define and illustrate Singular number; Plural number.
What is the Nominative case used for ? The Accusative case ?
Divide into syllables and accent: hospitalitas, cognitio, virum-
que, requisitus.



^



LESSON V.



ules ; Cases ; Inflection ; First Declension.

From the preceding lessons we deduce the following
Rules :

38. Rule I. The Subject of a verb is in the Nomina-
tive.

39. Rule II. The Object of a verb is in the Accusa-
tive.

CASES.

40. Study carefully the following cases with their
endings in both Singular and Plural^ and what they
denote :



Vtv



NAMES.


SINGULAR.


DENOTING.


PLURAL.


Nominative,


-a,


Subject of verb.


-ae.


Genitive,


-ae,


of, or 's,


-arum.


Dative,


-ae,


to, or for,


-is.


Accusative,


-am,


Object of verb,


-as.


Ablative,


-a, -


from, with, by,


-is. ^



FIRST DECLENSION. 11

INFLECTION.

41. Changing the form of a word to show its relation
to other words is called Inflection.

a. The Inflection of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns
is called Declension.

b. The Inflection of verbs is called Conjugation.

42. The Stem of a word is that common part from
which the changes of inflection are formed. In the
First Declension, the stem ends in -a, as : poeta.

43. The Base of a word is that part which is not
changed in inflection, as : poet-.

FIRST DECLENSION.

44. porta, gate.

SINGULAR. PLURAL.

N. porta, a gate. portae, gates.

G. -portae, of a gate, or, a portarum, of gates, or, gates*.

gate's.

D. portae, to or for a gate. portis, to or for gates.

Ac. portam, a gate. portas, gates.

Ab. porta, /?-o//?, with, or by a -portis, frorn, loith, or by gates.

gate.

Like porta, decline nauta, advena, silva, puella, casa.

QUESTIONS.

45. Define Inflection, Declension, Conjugation. What is the
Stem of a word. ? The Base ? Give the names, endings, and
meanings, of all the cases, Singular and Plural, of the First De-
clension. What is the use of changing the endings of nouns ?



12 LATIN READER. — LESSON VL

LESSONVI.

Gender ; Genitive of Possession ; Pronouns,
Adverbs.

46. In English, there are three genders, viz., Mascu-
line, Feminine, and Xeuter.

a. The Masculine gender denotes males, as : man, hoy.

h. The Feminine gender denotes females, as : woman,


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