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Jeannette H. Walworth.

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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS,



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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.



HISTORY



OF



NEW YORK



IN WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE



BY






JEANNETTE H? WALWORTH



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS





CHICAGO, NEW YORK, AND SAN FRANCISCO

BELFORD, CLARKE & CO.



CO



COPYRIGHT BV

BELFORD, CLARKE cV CO,
L888




, & UKNS'P'KitY printers and Binders, Chicago.






1A



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Introduction to Chapter I., 9

CHAPTER I.
Henry Hudson and "The Half Moon," 13

CHAPTER II.
Under Dutch Rule, • 2 3

CHAPTER III.
The End of Dutch Rule, 34

CHAPTER IV.
Dark Days and Dark Deeds, 47

CHAPTER V.
Peaceful Days for the Colony, 58

CHAPTER VI.
The Folly of England, 6 9

CHAPTER VII.

The First Shot 8l

CHAPTER VIII.
The War in New York, 93

CHAPTER IX.
Burgoyne's Expedition, J 09



6 Contents.

PAGE

CHAPTER X.
Close of the War for Independence, 124

CHAPTER XI.

Peace and Growth 138

CHAPTER XII.
J 111: War of 181 2, 149

CHAPTER XIII.
Fresh Growth 163

CHAPTER XIV.
The I. \ 1 1 War, 173

( !< 1N1 LUSION, 182



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



The "Dolphin,"

Trad-ing with In-dians,

The Red Man, .

Show-ing How to Use the Axe

Fort New Am-ster-dam,

Pe-ter Min-u-it.

Com-ing from Church,

In-dian At-tack,

Dutch-men at an Inn,

Stuy-ve-sant at the Gun,

Lis-pe-nard Street in 1721,

In-dian Camp, .

Trap-ping Bea-ver, .

De-feat of Dies-kau, .

Ru-ins of Fort Ti-con-de-ro-ga,

A Fron-tier Post,

Peaceful Days, .

Cap-tain Kidd Bur-y-ing Treas-ure,

A Pa-troon's Man-or House,

Cry-ing the Stamps, .

Burn-ing the Stamps,

A Room in Co-lo ni-al Times,

In-fant Pa-tri-ots,

A To-ry Fam-i ly at Break fast,

The Warn-ing, .

Min-ute Men,

I-saac Sears Ad-dress-ing the Peo-ple,

Ru ins of Fort at Crown Point,

The Pal-i-sades, on the Hud-son,

George Wash-ing-ton,

The Wash-ing-ton Elm,

Mont-gom-er-y's Mon u-ment,

Howe> Head-quar-ters, .

A Red-Coat Stand-ing on Guard,

Wash-ing-ton's Head-quar-ters,



PAGE
II
16
18
20

27



36

39
4i

44
46

5o
53
55
62

64
67
70

72

75
77
83
87
88
89
90
92
96
97

99

ior

'03
105



Bat-tie of Har-lem Heights,

Fort Lee

Some of St.-Leg-er's In-dian Troops,

Schuy-ler's Re-treat,

Scene on Lake George,

Bur-goyne's Sur-ren-der,

War Dance,

Jo-seph Brandt,

Lurk-ing Red Men, .

Sto-ny Point, on the Hud-son,

The Hud-son Riv-er from West Point,

Cap-ture of An-dre, ....

Ar-nold's Es-cape to the " Vult-ure."

Wash-ing-ton's Head-quar-ters at New

burgh, ......

The E-vac-u-a-tion, .

In-au-gu-ra-tion of Wash-ii

On the Mo-hawk,

Ful-ton's Steam-boat.

Brook-lyn in 1810,

Re-cruit-ing,

Car-ry-ing Food to the Troops,

Gen-er-al Brown's Scouts Near-ing Fort

E-rie, ......

For-ti-fy-ing, .....

On the Ca-nal, .....

Ful ton Show-ing his Mod-el, .
Christ mas Eve in the Old-en Times,
Por-trait of Van Bu-ren, .
Por-trait of Lin-coln,

Off for the War

The Ri-ot

Por-trait of Pres-i-dent Cleve-land,
Scene in the Ad-i-ron-dacks, .



io6
[08
10
12
14
17
•9
21



[29

;i

i33

'35
137
[40
142
[44
r 4 8
54
56

'59
[61

[64
166
[68

170
'75
'77
181

'83
[85



NEW YORK.



INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER I.

Two hun-dred and six-ty-five years a-go there
was no New York State, no New York Ci-ty, no
net-work of rail-roads spread like i-ron cob-webs all
o-ver the land, no steam-boats puff-ing and snort-
ing all a-bout her bays and streams and lakes, no
bridg-es to ex-cite the won-der of the world, no
schools nor church-es, — none of the things which the
chil-dren who read this book have been used to see
and hear a-bout all their lives.

There was on-ly a rock-y is-land, ly-ing be-tween
two salt riv-ers and a bay, to be seen by the first
white men, — with plen-ty of trees and some dark-
skinned sav-ag-es, who lived in huts called wig-wams
and did not lay much stress on the cut of coats, as
they wore none at all.

These sav-ag-es had small fields of to-bac-co and



io New York.

corn. They got a-bout in bark ca-noes, which they
han-dled with great skill. They lived by hunt-ing
and fish-ing and fight-ing. They were not good to
the wo-meri of their race. No sav-age ev-er is good
to a thing weak-er than him-self. But, as this ac-
count of the first days of the " Em-pire State" (as
New York is called now) is just to coax you in-to
read-ing big-ger and bet-ter and full-er books on the
same sub-ject, I can-not stop to say more a-bout the
[n-dians who had full pos-ses-sion of the coun-try
be-fore the white men took it from them.

In writ-ing a his-to-ry of New York State for
young peo-ple, the chief trou-ble lies in find-ing out
what not to saw its sto-ry is such a full and rich
one from its ear-h-est clays up to the pres-ent.

In a small book like this one, you can on-ly get
a slight glimpse of what has been done in and for a
State which was w ith-out towns, roads, ships — with-
out ev-er-y-thing that civ-il-ized men need — at the
time of its set-tle-ment by 1 len-ry Hud-son's men.

While the ac-tu-al set-tle-ment of the State may
prop-er-ly be dat-ed from his com-ing, you must
know that an I-tal-ian, by name Ver-ra-za-no, who
was in the ser-vice of Fran-cis I. of France, made a
voy-age in 1524, in a ship called the "Dol-phin,"
and wrote home of the mouth of a "great riv-er,"
be-yond which he found men who were "dressed m



Introduction.



1 1



the feath-ers of birds," and who met the men of the
" Doi-phin" with "great de-light."

The let-ter goes on to say that they took small
boats and went up this stream, when all of a sud-




THE "DOL-PHIN."



den, "as is wont to hap-pen to nav-i-ga-tors, con-
trary winds forced us to go back to the ship, with-
out see-ing an-y-thing more of the land which was so
pleas-ant to our eyes."



12 New York.

Some writ-ers put the num-ber of these In-dians
at 180,000 east of the Miss-is-sip-pi Riv-er in 1650.
Per-haps of these New York State had a-bout 30,000
or 40,000, but few as they were in num-ber, they
vast-ly out-num-bered the hand-ful of white men
who be-gan the tre-men-dous task of re-deem-ing this
land from sav-age-ry.

Such a task could not be car-ned on by a few
scat-tered groups of set-tiers, each act-ing for it-self;
there-fore the Trad-ing Com-pan-ies, of which you
will hear a good deal in the com-ing pag-es, held
au-thor-i-ty o-ver the Col-o-ny of Man-hat-tan for a
good ma-ny years.

All this I will try to make plain to you as we go
on to-geth-er.



Henry Hudson and " The Half Moon."



CHAPTER I.

HENRY HUDSON AND ''THE HALF MOON."

Late in the year 1609 a Dutch ship, by name
"The Half Moon," found her way in-to the bay of
New York, as it is now known, with a crew of
white men on board, the first that had ev-er been
seen in this part of the New World.

The name of the man in charge of that ship is a
name well known to an-y child old e-nough to read
this book. It was Hen-ry Hud-son.

Hen-ry Hucl-son was an Eng-lish-man, who had
twice tried to find his way to Ca-thay for his own
king, but had not done so ; on the strength of which,
in a pet, no doubt, — for he was a proud man, and
sneers stung him to the quick, — he left his home to
make a third tri-al. This time, it was with the Dutch
flag at his mast's head and Dutch gold in his purse.

Bold Hen-ry Hud-son had been sent out in
"The Half Moon" by some shrewd rich men, who
thought much more of gold than of glo-ry. The
Dutch East In-dia Com-pa-ny sent him out to look
for a north-east or north-west pas-sage to Chi-na ; but
the ice drove him to-wards the South and sent him



1 4 New York.

up the bay of New York, to make his own name
fa-mous for all time, and to find more wealth for the
Dutch than they had ev-er hoped to see.

In the long run, the ac-ci-dent which made
I Ien-ry Hud-son change his course was a good thing
for the Dutch, and for the Red men, whom he found
in the State. The Dutch gave the name New
Neth-er-lands to the State, and it went by that name
up to the time when Charles II. of Eng-land gave it
to his broth-er, the Duke of York.

But I am not go-ing to tell you a-bout the Duke
of York just yet. We want first to know the fate of
that small crew of white men, who found them-selves
in a strange land, with strange Red men in it, who
could not make out a word they spoke to them.

When "The Half Moon," with those hold Dutch
men on board, made her first trip from San-dy I look
to the spot where Al-ba-ny now stands, it took her
e-lev-en daws. The whole face of the land was wild
and strange then.

East-man tells us that they made their first stop
at Con-ey Is-land, where the}- found the soil of
white sand (as we do now), with vast plains of plum
trees, load-ed with fruit and grape vines of all sorts
(as we do not now).

While the ship lay close to shore the Red men
came in crowds to look at the white men. Each, no



Henry Hudson and "The Half Moon." 15

doubt, with the wish, to see with his own eyes what
sort of strange be-ing the oth-er was.

The In-dians wore loose deer skins, and brought
with them such things as they thought might please
the " pale fac-es ;" such as sweet dried fruits, dried
fish, grapes, and some-bod-y adds "baked dog" to
the bill of fare of-fered the men from "The Half
Moon."

When the small boat was sent out to sound the
bay, the shores swarmed with these dark-skinned
men and their squaws, as they call their wives.
The State was full of them.

Hud-son soon found out that the bay was on-ly
the door to vast and rich lands which lay to the
north of it, and he spent one month in the task of
spy-ing out the land on both sides of the stream
which now bears his name.

The crew went on shore, where they found a
"good land with grass and flow-ers and grand trees,
from which came sweet smells."

The first wish of the In-dians was to make
friends of these white men. The white men, with
their fire-arms and their ship with its white wings,
were as strange to the Red men, as the Red men,
with their slight dress of skins, their bright plumes
and bows and ar-rows, were to the white men.

They had a good deal to do with each oth-er.




fRAD-ING WITH IX-D1 VNS



Henry Hudson and "The Half Moon!' 17

The white men came and went on board their ship
in peace. Hud-son bore in mind the fact that trade
was the thing he had been sent out to look af-ter,
and he made it a rule to deal fair-ly and hon-est-ly
by the sim-ple na-tives, who brought their rich furs
to trade in ex-change for glass beads and oth-er
cheap things.

How lono- these Red men had been in the State
when Hud-son came o-ver the sea, no one can say.
No doubt for a long, long time, To be sure they
had not done much for it nor with it. They did

J

not, them-selves, know how vast its wealth was.
To them its woods were no more than grounds in
which to hunt the wild beasts, whose flesh gave
them food, and whose skins gave them dress. Its
streams were good for the sal-mon, the trout, and
the stur-geon that filled them.

It was not un-til the white men came from so far
a-way to bring them trink-ets for furs, that they
be-gan to wage such fierce war on the er-mine,
the beav-er, the ot-ter, and oth-er creat-ures of the
fur-bear-in£ sort.

The tribes which Hud-son found a-long the
banks of the riv-er were the Five Na-tions, or Ir-o-
quois, and the Del-a-wares. They were, as all the
Red men are, tall, straight, and well made. Their
skins were red ; their eyes were small, black, and



i8



New York.



keen; their hair long, black, and coarse. They
were strong of frame, and the out-door lives they led
kept them free from sick-ness. The Red men had




THE RED MAN.



no use for drugs. A few herbs of the field were all
they made use of to ease a pain or cure an ill.



Henry Hudson and "The Half Moon." 19

Their minds were bright, though, of course,
they had no schools nor books as you have. They
were not quick in wrath, but were proud and brave,
and had their own views as to w T hat was due them
from the new-com-ers. They were child-like in their
love of show in dress, and the glit-ter of a brass
buck-le, or of a string of glass beads, far out-weighed
the cost of the rich furs they brought to the white
tracl-ers.

We do not like to read that when "The Half
Moon" was on her way down the Hud-son, for
some cause not told, this smooth state of things
came to a rude end. A small boat, on its way back
to the ship, was set up-on by two ca-noes full of In-
dians, and John Col-man was shot to death.

This was the first white man to die here. He
was bur-ieel some-where on San-dy Hook.

As soon as the news of Hen-ry Hud-son's rich
find was spread in Hol-land, the Dutch sent out a
new ship's crew to trade for furs. The In-dians
were glad to see them, and brought their furs
to trade for things whose use they had to be
taught.

The hoes, ax-es, and socks- which the white men
gave them, were put to queer us-es. They hung the
hoes and ax-es a-bout their necks, and took the socks
for to-bac-co bags. When their white friends came



20



New York.



a-gain, and made helves for the ax-es and han-dles
lor the hoes, they were glad e-nough to ease their
necks of them ; hut the socks they nev-er came to
think quite so well of.

Man-hat-tan Is-land, the spot on which the great

_ ci-tv of New York now
stands, was bought by
the Dutch, from the In-
dians, for six-ty guild-
ers, a-bout twen-ty-four
dol-lars. It is set down
to the cred-it of the
Dutch, that they paid
for it at all. All' of the
white men who came
o-ver to the New \\ orld
did not deal so fair-ly
by the na-tives.

I hose were won-
der-ful times, when men
seemed to stum-ble in
the way of get-ting rich
and fa-mous with-out
plan-nine;" it all out a-
head. Not that they were not won-der-ful men, too.
For it took a vast deal of pluck for men to sail
a-cross the storm-y seas in such ships as the)' had




sh< >\\ -ing now ro 1-1 I HI \xi .



Henry Hudson and "The Half Moon!' 2r

then, to ex-plore and set-tie the land Co-lum-bus
first made known to the world.

While Hud-son was mak-ing his way in the
south-ern part of the State, the French were do-ing
the same thing, in a small-er way, in the north-ern
part.

Sam-u-el de Chanvplain, whose name is still
borne by a lake, which, if you will take your maps,
you will find in the north-east cor-ner of the State,
was a good man, but he was a French-man, and a
man of war, who had been brought up to think that
the best way to right a wrong was to fight a-bout it.

He did not come as the Pil-grims came to Plym-
outh, lat-er on, to be free to wor-ship God in their
own way ; nor as the Dutch came, to trade peace-
a-bly for furs. He came dream-ing of the time
when there should be a new French kin^-dom
plant-ed on this soil, and the Pope should hold sway
o-ver it. His work lay in Can-a-da, and his be-ing
mixed up with the ear-ly days of New York was a
sort of ac-ci-dent ; but as these first pag-es are meant
to ?give you a clear i-de-a of how and when the ver-y
first steps were tak-en to bring this great State un-der
the white man's rule, Cham-plain must have a few
words, too.

The tribes which he found in the north were
the Al-gon-quins and the Hu-rons. No doubt he



22 New York.

would have been glad to have made good Cath-o-lics
of all the Red men. Dur-ing the long, hard win-ter
he fed them, and the}- were rea-dy to lay down their
lives for him.

The Al-gon-quins and the Hu-rons hat-ed and
feared the Ir-o-quois, who dwelt in the south-ern and
east-ern part oi the State.

The Ir-o-quois was the name giv-en to five
na-tions: the Mo-hawks (after whom the rich Mo-
hawk Val-ley is named), the O-nei-das, the O-non-
da-gas, the Ca-yu-gas, and the Sen-e-cas. A strong
hand they formed. It was in-to the feud oi these
Ir-o-quois a-gainst the Hu-rons that Cham-plain al-
lowed him-seli to he drawn.

Em-bark-ing with his two tribes in ca-noes on
Lake Cham-plain, he set forth to meet the Ir-o-quois
and to fight them. They met on the wa-ter just
be-fore reach-ing the out-let in-to Lake George, and
go-ing on shore near Ti-con-de-ro-ga, they met in
blood-y con-tact.

The Ir-o-quois had nev-er be-fore seen the ef-fect
of fire-arms. They were filled with fear at the sight
and sound, and fell an ea-sy prey to their foes, led
by the French.

NO


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