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UNIV. HJlIV OF
CAHIOHNIA

SAN DIEGO



tTNlVERs'lTY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO.

LA lOLLA, CALIFORNIA -7^







Central University Library

university of Calitornia, San Diego

Note: This item is subject to recall after two weeks.

Date Due




0139(1/91)



UCSD Lib.



HISTORICAL



MEMOIRS



OF THE



HOUSE OF RUSSELL;



THE TIME OF THE NORMAN CONQUEST.



^^



^^JJ^



By J. H. WIFFEN, M.R.S.L.

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NORMANDY,

4t. &iC. &;c.



It is a reverend thing to see an ancient castle or building not in decay, or to see a fair
timber-tree sound and perfect; how much more to behold an ancient noble family,
which hath stood against the waves and weathers of time ! " — Bacon.



IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.




LONDON;

LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMAN,

PATERNOSTER ROW ; AND

CARPENTER AND SON, OLD BOND STREET.

1833.



LONDON:

J. MOYBSi CASTIaK STRKET, LEICESTER SQUARE.



I'AOE



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



CHAPTER XIII.

A.D.

1586-1595. FROM THE BATTLE OF ZUTPHEN TO THE TREATY

WITH THE EARL OF TYRONE 1

CHAPTER XIV.

1596-1603. FROM THE TREATY WITH THE EARL OF TYRONE

TO THE CORONATION OF JAMES THE FIRST.... 38

CHAPTER XV.

1603-1625. FROM THE CORONATION TO THE DEATH OF KING

JAMES THE FIRST 74.

CHAPTER XVI.

1625-1638. FROM THE ACCESSION OF CHARLES THE FIRST TO
THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE TROUBLES IN
SCOTLAND 124

CHAPTER XVII.

1638-1641. FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE TROUBLES IN
SCOTLAND TO THE EXECUTION OF THE EARL
OF STRAFFORD 163

CHAPTER XVIII.

1641-1670. FROM THE EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF STRAFFORD

TO THE FIRST SECRET TREATY WITH FRANCE . . 106

CHAPTER XIX.

1670-1681. FROM THE FIRST MONEY TREATY WITH FRANCE

TO THE PARLIAMENT OF OXFORD 226

CHAPTER XX.

1681-1700. FROM THE PARLIAMENT OF OXFORD TO THE DEATH

OF WILLIAM, FIRST DUKE OF BEDFORD 260



IV CONTENTS.



CIIAITER XXI.

1702-1732. FROM THE accession of queen ANNE TO THE

REIGN OF GEORGE THE SECOND 300

CIIAITKR XXII.

1732- 17.'')0. FROM THE DECLINE OF SIR ROBERT WALPOLE's

MINISTRY TO THE TREATY OF MADRID 338

CHAPTER XXIII.

1750-1756. FROM THE TREATY OF MADRID TO THE FORMATION

OF THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE'S MINISTRY .... 379

CHAPTER XXIV.

1757-1760. FROM THE DUKE OF BEDFORD'S LIEUTENANCY IN
IRELAND TO THE DEATH OF GEORGE THE
SECOND 42 1

CHAPTER XXV.

1760-1763. FROM THE ACCESSION OF GEORGE THE THIRD TO

THE PEACE OF FONTAINEBLEAU 465

CHAPTER XXVI.

1763-1771. FROM THE RESIGNATION OF THE EARL OF BUTE TO

THE DEATH OF JOHN, FOURTH DUKE OF BEDFORD 521



•»• THE VIEW OF CAPE I. A HOGUE To pace 315



GREVILLE.



ARMS. VIII.



RUSSELL, EARL OF BEOrORO.




IIArUUNCTON.









newpoht.



GREY OF WARK.






[To face page 1, vol. ii.]



HISTORICAL MEMOIRS,



ETC. ETC.



CHAPTER XIII.



FROM THE BATTLE OF ZUTPHEN TO THE TREATY WITH THE
EARL OF TYRONE.



A.D. 158G-1595.



Edward, Earl of Bedford .. .Sir William Russell distinguishes himself at
Zutphen, 1586 . . . Governor of Flushing, 1587 . . . Enterprise of the Earl
of Cumberland, 1588 . . .Grief of his countess, 1590 . . . Birth of Lady-
Anne Clifford . . . Prophecy of Barden Tower . . . Entertainment of Queen
Elizabeth at Bisham Abbey, 1592 ... Sir William Russell, lord deputy of
Ireland . . . State of that country, 1593 . . . Rise of the Earl of Tyrone . . .
Pheagh M'Hugh . . . Sir William retakes Inniskillen, August, 1594...
Makes a winter excursion into Glendaloch . . . Garrisons Ballinacore . . .
Sends Bagnal to victual Monaghan . . . Bagnal's danger ... Is extricated
by the deputy . . . who garrisons Armagh, July . . . Intercepted correspond-
ence with Spain, September. . . Norris's negotiations discountenanced by
Russell . . . Insolent behaviour of the Irish chiefs . . . Account of the state
of Ireland, Nov. . . . Treaty concluded with Tyrone.



Edward, the son of Sir Francis Russell, was little more A.D. 1536.
than eleven years old when he succeeded to the earldom ; his
aunt, the Lady Warwick, obtained the wardship of him.
The interval of his minority may be appropriately occupied
with details relative to the other members of the family.

VOL. II. B



o RUSSELL MEMOIRS. Chap. XIII.

A.D. i.sao. Tlio roputation of Sir William Russell hud increased with
every <)])|)oitiiuity tor distinction. When unengaged in tlio
military service of his country, he mingled with ardour in
those mimic presentments of it which were occasionally fur-
nished hy the tilt and tourney. Thus, after assisting, at the
head of one hundred and fifty horse raised hy the English
clergy, in the suppression of a rehellion in Ireland, we find
him the foremost at court to accept the challenge to a royal
combat on foot given by the Prince d'Aufine and Monsieur,
brother to the King of France, on which occasion he vindi-
cated, with Lord Thomas Howard, the honour of his nation
in these gests of hardihood and skill.

On the celebrated field of Zutphen, in 1586, being one
of that splendid retinue of captains who the previous year
had been sent to Holland with the Earl of Leicester, he dis-
played a valour that carried consternation, rout, and havoc,
wherever his horse bore him. Naturally tall, and sinewy,
and athletic, his figure, magnified by the mists that prevailed
upon that noted morning, seemed like a gigantic image,
and, joined to the romantic achievements of his arm, im-
pressed the superstitious fancies of the Spaniards with the
belief that they w'ere contending with a more than earthly
apparition. " So terribly he charged," says Stowe, who
derived the scene from an eye-witness, " that, after he had
broke his lance, he with his curtle-axe so played his part,
that the enemy reported him a devil, and no man ; for,
where he saw six or seven of the foe together, thither would
he rush, and so apply his weapon as speedily to separate
their friendship."^ A like display of prowess by Lord
Willoughby, Sir Philip Sidney, and others of the English

' Annals, p. 737.



Q. Elizabeth. EDWARD, THIRD EARL. 3

soldiery, completed the fortune of the day; and the Spanish A.D. 1587.
general, disappointed in his hope of throwing succours into
the fortress, fled from the disastrous conflict.

The exultation of Sir William Russell, as he returned
from the pursuit, was severely checked by a rumour of the
fatal accident that had befallen Sidney. Hastening to the
spot where the young hero lay. Sir William kissed his hand,
and exclaimed, with bitter tears, " O, noble Sir Philip !
never was there man obtained hurt more honourably than
ye have done, nor any served like unto you ! "^ To him, as
his dear friend and comrade, the dying youth bequeathed his
best gilt armour ; and after executing, with an affecting
serenity, all the offices which either friendship could dictate,
or religion could demand, expired, with a higher renown
than had fallen to the lot of any warrior since the days of
the Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche. The nomination
of Sir William Russell to the governorship of Flushing,
vacant by his lamented death, reflects credit on Elizabeth :
he justified her confidence by immediately intercepting, with a
party of six hundred horse, a convoy of provisions which the
enemy again attempted to throw into the citadel of Zutphen.

His individual intrepidity could not, however, counter-
balance the disadvantages arising from Leicester's deficiency
of military talent. The earl was obliged to raise the siege of
Zutphen ; nor did the campaign of 1587 retrieve his reputa-
tion. Deventer and other fortresses betrayed by the officers
of his appointment, Sluys capitulating unrelieved, and the
Hollanders alienated by his overbearing temper, were the
glaring tokens of his incapacity. Elizabeth saw them, and
recalled her favourite ; but the States, for a long time after

' Stowe, p. 737.



4 RUSSELL MEMOIRS. Ciiai. XIII.

A.D. 1587. liis departure, eoiitimied to sufVer llie mischiefs of his iiial-
Ji(hiiiiiistr;iti()ii ; iiiid the iiiciiMires of l^iiice Muui'iee iiiul Lord
\\ illoiii^hby, his successors in eoiuiiiimd, were alternately
crossed hy his inti'iiiues, and end)arrassed by his factions.

^Vhilst Sir William stayed at Flushing, he bore himself
nobly, says his chaplain, " by his wise and worthy govern-
mtiit, and his Ionc and libei'ality to soldiers of best desert.
And the gracious letters of (^ueen Elizabeth, written to him
with her own hand, which I have seen, wherein she doth
acknowledge his good services, and encourage him with her
high conmiendation, are plentiful Avitnesses of his worth in
her high discerning judgment. But the greatest argument
of his upright life in his employments was, that he never
increased his wealth, or bettered his estate by them. For
he spent sometimes a hundred j)ounds a-week in this govern-
ment, when his total entertainment from the queen and the
States was but about threescore, and that was laid out in
housekeeping, and in magnificent entertaining of nobles, gen-
tlemen, and captains ; so that he sold of his own land to bear
him out in the service of his prince, but never purchased
foot again that ever I could hear of."^ When to this con-
sideration is added the parsimony with which the most neces-
sary supplies were furnished to him, it can excite no suprise
that he at lengtli besought his friends in England either to
see the town provided as it ought, or to " help him away
fi'om so beggarly a government, wherein he should but undo
himself without hope of service or re ward. "-

The queen at length yielded to his solicitations. He
returned with the regrets of the Hollanders,'' '* non," says

' Wulker's Funeral Sermon, p. 258.

* Letter to Walsingbam ; IJarl. MSS. 286. a 95.

' Blavoet to Wulsingliam; Ilarl. MSS.



Q. Elizabeth. EDWARD, THIRD EARL. 5

the authority already cited, " non vero ditior, sed gloriosior; A.D. 1587.
and as Scipio brought no other riches but the glorious sur-
name of Africanus from his conquest of Africa, this valiant
lord brought no other booty fi-oni his enemies' countries but
an honourable name for his excellent services."^

It was soon discovered that the transports building and
men raising by the Prince of Parma, were for no design upon
the Flemish coast, but to be wafted over to England whenever
the Armada fitting out in Spain should appear in motion on
the waters. In the military arrangements that were entered
into for the isle's defence, Sir William Riissell was sent to
command the forces of the west ; but the intrepidity of the
naval captains sufficed for the alarming crisis — the guardian-
ship of Providence was signally manifested — and that vast
and potent navy which has since become a by-word for the
ruin of presumptuous pride, was delivered, an abandoned
wreck, to the stormy insurrection of the winds and waves
of heaven.

Whilst the Spanish court was thus exhausting its energies
and rich resources on a state rendered impassive by its valour
and long love of civil and religious freedom, numerous
adventurers, following in the steps of Drake, were daily
fitting out fresh vessels to aid the general attack upon its
mighty empire by the most daring incursions on its establish-
ments and traffic ; and the gold of America — the frequent
prize of conflict — still more stimulated their hostility. Fore-
most amongst these was the young Earl of Cumberland.
He had all that susceptibility of imagination and ardent
enthusiasm which leads to brilliant and romantic under-
takings ; a disposition prodigal in the means it used for the

' Fun. Serm. as before.



RUSSELL MEMOIRS. Chap. XIIL

A.D. iMt9. aceomplislimont of any favourite fancy; and a love of ad-
miration that carried hiin onward to distinction with a strong
and n\\)id current, when its impulse was undissipated by
versatile caprice. He had fitted out a little fleet so early as
1580, on a voya<;e of discovery and crusade against the
Spaniards; had himself conmianded one of the vessels in
the late momentous struggle with equal intrepidity and skill;
and he now engaged, w4th a second fleet of his own furnish-
ing, in a series of sea-voyages that have justly placed his
name amongst the first patrons of enterprise in the annals of
maritime adventure. Sailing, in the June of 1589, for the
West Indies, he took the rich town of Fayal, in the Azores,
with all its stores and ordnance ; and, after several desperate
eno-agements and severe privations, returned in December,
seamed with scars, but rich with booty, having sent home
before him no fewer than eight-and-twenty ships, with spoil
to the amount of more than twenty thousand pounds. When
he had satisfied the curiosity of the queen, who exacted from
him a circumstantial narrative of his adventures,^ he went
down to Skipton Castle on a visit to his lady, arriving there
about the latter end of March.

" Time had passed but rudely" with his amiable countess
almost from the period of their marriage ; for the earl un-
happily became fascinated with the charms of some other
lady about court, which was followed by the usual results of
irregular attachment, — first neglect, afterwards estrange-
ment, and to the injured party deep inward discontent, if
not open indignation and reproach. To a woman of the
countess's quick sense of moral feeling, the guilty conduct
of a husband to whom she was undoubtedly attached, must

' See them in llacklnyt's Collection of Voyages.



Q. Elizabeth. EDWARD, THIRD EARL. 7

have infinitely enhanced the pain which she suft'ered from A.D. 1590.
his infidehty ; and her health became so much impaired,
that at the end of six short years there was every prospect
of the sickness ending in consmnption. Her emaciated form
and mental suffering appear at length to have touched the
bosom of the careless earl, and to have led to a renewal of
his first assiduities. His returning kindness had an effect
almost electric : it arrested the ravage of disease, restored
to her the animation and the hue of health, and rekindled
those affections, which, however they may languish with ill-
usage, rarely become extinguished towards the object that
first called them forth in the fond and faithful breast of
woman. In this interval of returning confidence and peace,
which comprised about ten years of her existence, and but
little more, the countess became the mother of two sons,
Francis and Robert, who, during the few years that they
lived, " expressed," says the Pembroke MS., " as much
goodness, wit, and spirit, as the tender years of childhood
could disclose." For both, to the inexpressible sorrow of
their mother, and the disappointment of the earl, perished
in their infancy, precisely at the same age of five years and
eight months, — the elder but recently, whilst his father was
landing on the northern coast of Ireland. Yet the grief,
with which this event must have tinged their present inter-
view, was in degree assuaged by the intermediate birth of
a fair daughter, — the same who in after-years became noted
as the dauntless claimant of her alienated rights, haughty
and uncompromising to a court that sanctioned the injustice,
but affable, generous, and hospitable in the halls of her pro-
genitors, and mistress of all hearts in the districts gladdened
by her bounty — Anne, Countess of Pembroke, Dorset, and
Montgomery.



8 RUSSELL MEMOIRS. Chap. XIII.

A.l). 15W. Tliis liidv, in tlie Meniori.als wliich Aie lias left behind

her, refolds ;i sintinlar incident that occurred, in prelude
of her own liirth, to liei- whom she unifoniily terms " her
blesseil" and " her sainted mother," which is the more re-
markable as, at the time when it took place, no deed to bar
liis dau<;hter's succession of inheritance had been meditated
by the earl her father. The anecdote is thus recounted : —
" Now the Countess of Cumljerland was truly religious,
devout, and conscientious, even from her very childhood ;
and (lid spend nuich time in reading the Scriptures, in
heavenly meditations, and in prayers, fastings, and deeds of
charity, especially for some fourteen or fifteen years before
her death ; and of such an elevated mind was she to all
goodness, as any may truly say she had in many things a
kind of a prophetic spirit in her ; in particular she would
often tell her only daughter, the Lady Anne Clifford, that
the ancient lands of her father's inheritance would at last
come to be hers, what opposition soever was made to hinder
it, although it would be vei*y long first, which many years
after came to pass. And she was the rather induced to
believe it by reason of a strange kind of divining dream or
vision that appeared to her in a fearful manner, in Barden
Tower, in Craven, when she was great with child with her
third child, which told her she should be delivered a little
while after of a daughter, who should be the only child, to
her parents, and live to inherit the lands of her ancestors ;
which after proved to be true, though at that time both the
countess's sons were living ; but the elder of them died a
month after the vision, and the younger of them when her
daughter was a year and four months old. Which strange
vision we are the rather induced to set down, because un-
doubtedly, whilst she lived here in the world, her spirit had



Q. Elizabeth. EDWARD, THIRD EARL. 9

more converse with heaven and heavenly contemplations than A.D. 1590.
witli terrene and earthly matters."^

The simple enjoyments and quiet of a country life were
but little in unison with the Earl of Cumberland's restless
and romantic spirit. Being bent upon fresh sea adventures,

* Memorials of the Cliffords, &c. ; Harl. MSS. Barden Tower is
situated on the Wharfe, not far from Bolton Abbey, amidst fells, cascades,
and woods of the like character with those which render the ruins of this
priory so picturesque. The fate of the boy of Egremond, who perished at
the Strid, gives an interest to the river, which this anecdote enhances. The
writer has ventured to fill up the outline of the lady's dream, and to com-
memorate, in a region already vocal with the verse of Rogers and Wordsworth,

The Prophecy of Barden Tower.
O, have ye e'er the noon beguiled

On lonely Wharfe's romantic border?
Where ivied cliffs on cliffs are piled,

By woods o'erwaved in rich disorder, —
The vale, with many a solemn sigh,

Responding as the waters rolled,
Half drown'd the cushat's plaintive cry.

Half heard the sheep-bell from the fold, —
Nor owned that there the chastening hours

Might glide most gendy with the Good ;
And oft, from worlds more blest than ours.

Bring faith's prophetic mood !

As fair a form, as chaste a mind

Hath sought its sacred calm to borrow,
As e'er to duty bowed resigned,

Or drooped beneath the touch of sorrow;
Who, doomed to see her house despoiled.

To swell a kinsman's haughty state.
By Power opposed, yet onward toiled.

With hope untired, and Iieart elate.
Yes ! kings may frown, they cannot bend

Tlie inborn strength that stands erect,
Girt for the watch, till heaven shall end

The' ungenerous world's neglect !

From Barden Tower the Lady gazed —

Earl Bedford's own high-minded daughter,
O'er all that wild enchanted waste.

The umbered wood, the tinted water.



10 RUSSELL MEMOIRS. Chap. XIU.

A. D. 151)1. he, in April, took his liiinily to London; and the countess
was absent from the north for several years, lie had no
sooner set sail for the Mediterranean, in tljc May of 1591,
than his only surviving son expired at Northhall, in Hert-
fordshire, the Lady Warwick's seat. His death, as it had a

Iler heart was thronged with doubts and fears
Whilst brooding on the babe she bore ;

And he wlio should have soothed her tears,
Was dallying round each bright Azorc ;

Tlie cheek lie praised, so fresh of old,
Wore grief's white roses, sad to see ;

The Book of Grace, unclasped in gold.
Lay resting on her knee.

She mused on deeds of distant days.

The patriarch's rest, the bondslave's story.
When hopeless tears proved springs of praise,

Tlie gloomy wild a gate of glory.
Its peace the living text inbreathed,

A hallowed feeling, pure and calm.
And Eve her influences bequeathed.

Low, dying tones, and breath of balm.
Tiiere came a murmur from the fell.

From bowery Wharfe a whisper rose,
And sealed her spirit with the spell

Of undisturbed repose.

She saw in sleep a banquet spread,

Rich wine in many a golden flagon ;
The feast was o'er her warrior dead,

The hall his hall of proud Pendragon.
Twice twenty knights of high degree.

All mail-clad chieftains, there had place;
And, by his shield's emblazonry

Well known, a Clifford on the dais.
The tapers, as the hall she paced,

Cheered by her presence, blazed more briglit, —
A harper hoar her left hand graced,

A seneschal her right.

She took to greet them, from the board,

A cup, and pledged them ere she parted ;

When, lo ! at Clifford's nod, each sword
In anger from its scabbard started.



Q. Elizabeth. EDWARD, THIRD EARL. 11

most unfavourable effect upon the earl's capricious temper, A.D. i59i.
prejudiced alike the comfort of his lady and the fortunes of
his daughter. Being hereby disappointed in his hopes of
perpetuating the name of Clifford, he grew less scrupulous
in the indulgence of his favourite pursuits. The building

But wondrous succour was at hand —

Her guardian herald forward pressed,
And shivered with his ruby wand

The weapons brandished at her breast;
And as before his eye of fire

Unsinewed stood tlie daunted throng,
Mysterious from the minstrel's wire

Broke forth the' unstudied song.

" Rest, Vipont, rest ! peace, Vescy, peace !

Nor idly beard the Russell lion,
Blest by the gracious Pleiades,

And banded with the bright Orion !
Round Salem's towers ye've seen him prey.

O'er Ulster's heathy mountains bound,
And sternly, grimly hold at bay

The Gallic hunter's eager hound.
Him Love — the child — ^with ease may guide,

But let Power touch his bristling mane,
Ye've seen him dash his darts aside,

And snap his spears in twain !

" Drink, lady, drink ! the cup's thine own,

Nor sorrow for thine infant burden ;
For though thy seed in tears be sown,

Yet rich shall be thy final guerdon.
The babe that in thy lap erewhile

Shall sleep to many a murmured song,
A girl' — shall bear a kinsman's guile,

A woman — brave a warrior's wrong.
Yet hers shall still be flood and fell,

And hers shall yet be tower and town.
How long soe'er the Arm'd repel,

Howe'er the Sceptred frown !

" To all the honours of her race

Restored beyond the reach of malice.
What beal-fires on the hills shall blaze.

What flutes resound in pastoral valleys !



12 RUSSFJX MEMOIRS. Chap. Xlll.

A.l). i.s'>i. and fittliiLi; out ol" vci^scls for nine siicccs.sive voyages could
not he :icconij)lislied without anticipating the revenues of his
domains, which h'd to many large alienations of his property.
Being also chiimpion to the (|U('('ii, he spent vast sums in
iiiiiintiiiniug his hian-'idhd of that character in revels, tilts,
and otlier festivities connected with the chivalrous hut idle
otHce. The prizes which he took in his naval expeditions,
though often of immense value, did not in the end compensate
for the sacrifices which he made. A great portion of the
proceeds of his earlier captures the queen took care to claim ;
and before the termination of his last expedition in 1598,
when he took and burnt the capital of Porto Rico, and by
his incessant harass of the Spaniards in their other settle-
ments, rendered no small service to his country, he suffered
many accidents and losses on the ocean. The countess's
friends were not, however, unmindful of her interests : they



Their state in her ancestral towers

The household \'irtiies shall resume,
And Hospitality the hours

\Vith many a festal light relume.
Her memory shall the wise and good

Embalm in some perennial verse,
And thousand flowers and tears be strewed

Late on her holy hearse !"

He ceased, — she started ; for the Two

Shone like transfigured saints before her;-
Wondering she rose : fast fell the dew —

The stars of heaven were gathered o'er her.
But Wharfe, when many a year had rolled,

And proud Pendragon witness bore,
That all the vision had foretold,

Was strangely sooth as gospel lore.
Nor marvel, thou who hear'st tlie strain,

That sucli prophetic sense were given,
Tor spirits purged by fire from stain,
• Walk less in earth than heaven !



Q. Elizabeth. EDWARD, THIRD EARL. 13

obtained, in lieu of an uncertain dowry, tlie earl's consent to A.D. 1.592.

a settlement on her of his Westmoreland estates ; and the



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