Jeremiah Joyce.

A familiar introduction to the arts sciences, with original introductory essays upon the subject of each lesson. For the use of schools and young persons. Containing a general explication of the fundamental principles and facts of the sciences, divided into lessons, with questions subjoined to each, online

. (page 8 of 35)
Online LibraryJeremiah JoyceA familiar introduction to the arts sciences, with original introductory essays upon the subject of each lesson. For the use of schools and young persons. Containing a general explication of the fundamental principles and facts of the sciences, divided into lessons, with questions subjoined to each, → online text (page 8 of 35)
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or South Lapland; and Russian, or East Lapland.

2. Lapland is bounded on the north and east by the
Northern and White Seas, and on the south and west
by Sweden and Norway : its chief towns are Kola and

3. Denmark, including Norway, extends from the
river Elbe in tihie south, to the northern extremity of
Danish Lapland.

4. Norway is separated from Sweden by the Dofra-
feld Mountains: its principal towns are Bergen and
Christiana; and near its coast is the famous vortex called
the Maelstroom..

6. Denmark is surrounded by the sea, except on the
south, where it joins Germany by the province of

6. It consists of the peninsula of Jutland, and the
islands of Zealand, Funen, &c. in the Baltic Sea. In
Zealand is the capital, Copenhagen.

7. Iceland, Greenland^ and the Ferroe Islands are
subject to Denmark.

8. Sweden is bounded on the north by Lapland, on

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the east by Ruaeiay on &e west by the Norwegian
Mountains, and on the south by the Baltic, the Sound,
and the Scaggarac.

9. The chief towns are Stockhohn, Upsal, Gotten^
burg, Carlskroon, and Abo in Finland.

10. Russia, a most extensive empire, is partly in
Europe, and partly in Asia; in some parts it is said to
be 9,000 miles in length, and nearly three in breadth.

11. Russia is bounded by the Frozen Ocean on the
north, by Asiatic Russia on the east, Tartary and Turkey
on the south, and by Sweden, Austria, and Prussia on
the west.

12. The principal towns are Petersburgh, Moscow,
Archangel, Cherson, Astrachan, and Tobolsk.

13. The principal rivers are the Wolga, the Don, the
Nieper, and Niester; and the chief l^es are Ladoga
and Onega.

14. Prussia is bounded by the Baltic and Russia on
the north and east, by Germany on the west, and by
Bohemia on the south.

15. The chief towns are Berlin, Koningsberg,^ Breslaw,
Warsaw, and Dantzic; and the principal rivers are the
Vistula, the Pregel, and the Memel.

16. It is divided into Royal Prussia, on the west of
the Vistula, and Ducal Prusma on the east,

17. Holland is bounded on the north by the German
Ocean, on the west by the British Channel, on the east
by the German Ocean, and on the south by some of
the newly acquired dominions of France.

18. Holland consists of seven provinces, formerly
denominated the " United Provinces,'^ viz. Groningen,
Griesland, Overyssel, Holland, Utrecht, Guelderland,
and Zealand.

19. The chief towns are Amsterdam, Leyden, Rot-
terdam, Haerlem; and the principal rivers are the Rhine,
the Maese, and the Scheldt.


1. How is Lapland characterized ?

9* How is Lsplaod boimded^ and whiob are its chief towns 1

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& What is the extent of Denmark ?

4. How is Norway characterized ?

5. How is Denmark hounded ?

6. Of what does Denmark consist, and where is the capital ?

7. What principal islands are subject to Denmark ?

8. How is Sweden bounded ?

9* Which are the chief towns of Sweden ?
Point them out in the map.

10. How is Kussia characterized ?

11. How is it bounded ?

12. What are the principal towns of Russia?

13. Which are the chief rivers T

14. How is Prussia bounded ?

15. Whioh are the chief towns and iiTerft?

16. How is Prussia divided?

17. How is Holland bounded ?

18. Of what does it consist ?

19. Which are the chief towns and rivers ?



1. Hie Aostrian dominions are bounded on the west
by the Gennan states, on the north by Prussia, on the
east by Russia, and on the south by Turkey in Europe,
the Gulf of Venice, and Italy.

2. The principal states are Ganicia and Bokovia on
the north and east of the Carpathian Mountains : from
north-west to south-east are Bohemia, Moravia, Hun-
gary, and Transylvania : and on the south are the Tyrol,
Carinthia, Camiola, Croatia, and Sclavonia: Istria is
situated on the Gulf of Venice.

3. The chief towns are Vienna, Presburgh, Buda,
Cracow, TVieste, and Venice: and the principal river is
the Danube, whose lengdi is estimated at 1 ,300 miles
from its rise in Swabia, till it &lls into the Euxine, or
Black Sea : to this may be added the Morau, the Adige,
and the Elbe

4. The principal mountains are the Tyrolese, the Alps,
and the Carpathian.

5. The Gennan States are bounded by Denmark and

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the Baltic on the north, by PmsBia and the Austrian
dominions on the east and south, and by France and
Holland on the west.

6. Germany is divided into that part which is north
of the Mayne, and that which is south of it; both parts
are subdived into parts, called circles, and these are
again divided into principalities, duclues, electorates,
bishopricks, &c.

7. In Germany, north of the Mayne, are the circles
of Westphalia, of Upper and Lower Saxony : the duchies
of Mecklenburgh, Lunenburg, and Magdeburg: the
bishopricks of Osnaburg, Munster, Wurtzburg, &c. &c.

8. In Germany, south of the Mayne, are the circles
of Franconia and Swabia: the bishoprick of Mentz,
the Palatinate, and Bavaria: the duchy of Wurtem-
burg: the bishopricks of Spire, Augsburg, &c.

9. The chief towns are Dresden, Hamburgh, Leipsic,
Frankfort, Munich, Wurtemburg, Augsburg, and Prague.

10. The principal rivers are the Danube, rising in
Swabia; the Rhine, the Mayne, and the Elbe.

llr France, one of the most westerly empires of
Europe, is bounded on the north by the British Channel
and Holland; by Germany, Switzerland, and part of
Italy on the east; on the south by the Mediterranean
and Spain; and by the Atlantic on the west.

12. France was formerly divided into provinces; but
since the revolution it has been divided into depart-

13. The principal towns are Paris, Lyons, Marseilles,
Boiurdeaux, lisle, Valenciennes, Amiens, and Toulouse:
the mountains are the Alps, which separate it from
Italy; and the Pyrenees, wnich, till lately, marked the
boundaries between France and Spain.

14« The chief rivers are the Rhone, the Garonne, the
Loire, the Seine, and the Somme. France is likewise
celebrated for its canals, the canal of Languedoc is 180
miles in length.

15. Switzerland, situated among the Alps, is bounded
on the north by Germany, on the west by France, and
on the south and east by Italy.

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16. It is divided into cantons. Its chief towns are
Bazil, Berne, Zurich, and Lauzanne.

17. The sources of the Rhine and Rhone, two of the
grandest rivers in Europe, are among the mountains of
Switzerland. The chief lakes are those of Constance
and Geneva.

18. Besides the Alps, which separate Switzerland
from Italy, there are the mountains of St. Gothard and
Mont Blanc, which are the most lofty of any in Europe.


1. How are the Austrian dominions bounded?

ft. What are the principal Austrian states and kingdoms?

3. Which are the towns and rivers?

4. Which are the mountains?

•5. How are the German states bounded?

6. How is Germany divided?

7s What does Germany north of the Mayne chiefly include? '

8* Which are the principal circles south of the Mayne?

9, Which are the chief towns?

10. Which are the principal rivers?

11. What are the boundaries of France?

12. How is France divided ?

13. Which are the principal towns and mountains?

14. Which are the rivers, and for what else is France cele-

15. How is Switserland bounded?

16. How is it divided, and what are its chief towns?

17. What rivers take their rise in Switzetrland; and what are
I3ie lakes?

18. Which are the highest mountains in Europe?



1. Italy is bounded by the Adriatic and Mediterra-
nean Seas, and by the Alps, which separate it from
France, Switzerland, and Germany.

2. It is divided into the southern part, which com-
prehends the kingdom of Naples: the central, which

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consists of the dominions of the Church, and the kingdom
of Etniria; and the northern, which comprehaick the
kingdom of Italy, including Venice.

3. Rome, Florence, Naples, Milan, are the principal
towns; and the Po the chief river. The Tiber has been
long celebrated; and so have the lakes Maggiore and

4. Sicily, the largest of the Italian islands, is sepa-
rated from the south-west of Nc^les by the Strait of
Messina, &mous for the Scylla and Clmrybdis of the
ancients. The chief towns of this island are Palermo,
Messina, and Syracuse.

5. Sardinia, Corsica, Malta, Candia, and Rhodes,
are all considerable islands in the Mediterranean.

6. Turkey in Europe is bounded on the north by the
river Niester, and the Austrian dominions ; on the east
and south by the Bladt Sea, the sea of Marmora, the
Archipelago, and Mediterranean; and on the west by
the Gulf of Venice and Dalmatia.

7. It is divided into provinces, of which the northern
are Moldavia, Bessarabia, Wallachia, Servia, and Bosnia :
those in the middle are Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia,
Albania, and Epirus; and the southern are Thessaly,
Achaia, and the Morea, which are called Greece.

8. The chief cities are Constantinople, Adrianople,
and Belgrade; and the most celebrated mountains are
Pindus and Olympus, which separate Thessaly fron^
Epirus; Parnassus in livadia; Athos and Heemus.

9. The islands are numerous, of which Rhodes and
Candia, in the Mediterranean, are the chief; besides
these there are Zante, Cephalonia, Corfu, and others,
west of Turkey, forming a republic of the Seven Islands.

10. Spain, on account of its westerly situation, an?
ciently called Hesperia, is bounded on the north by the
Bay of Biscay and the Pyrenean Mountains; on the
east by the Mediterranean Sea; on the south by the
Straits of Gibraltar; and on the west by Portugal and
the Atlantic.

11. Spain is divided into fourteen provinces. Its

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chief towns are Madrid, Barcelona, Seville, Coninna,
and Cadiz; and the principal rivers are the £bro, the
Tagus, and the Douro.

12. The chief islands near Spain are Majorca, Mi-
norca, and Ivica. Gibraltar stands on a promontory
in the south of Spain. "^

13. Portugal is bounded on the south and east by
the Atlantic Ocean.

14. It is divided into provmoes, and its chief towns
are Lisbon and Oporto. The Azores belong to the Por-

15. The united kingdom of Great Britain and Ire-
land, consists of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.

16. These islands are situated in the Atlantic ocean;
but that part of the ocean south of England is called
the Straits of Dover; on the eastern side it is called the
German Ocean; and the part between Great Britain and
Ireland is called St. George's Channel, or the Irish Sea.

17. England is divided into forty counties; "Wales
into twelve ; and Scotland into thirty-three.

18. Ireland is divided into four large provinces, viz.
Ulster to the north, Leioster eastward, Munster south-
ward, and Connaught to the west; and these are sub-
divided into thirty-two counties.

19. The three capitals are London, Edinburgh, and
Dublin. In England the three towns next in import-
ance are Manchester, Liverpool, and Bristol; in Scot-
land, Glasgow, Perth, and Aberdeen; and in Ireland,
Cork, Limerick, and Belfast.

20. The principal rivers in England are the Thames,
the Severn, the Humber, the Mersey, the Trent, and
the Medway; in Scotland they are the Forth, the Tay,
the Dee, and tiie Don.

21. The islands belonging to Scotland are the Shet-
land, the Orkney, and the Hebrides or Western Islands;
and the most considerable lakes are Loch or lake Tay;
Loch Lomond, and Loch Ness.


1. How is Italy bounded ?

2. How is it diyided, and of what do the divisions consist t

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3. Which are the principtl towns and principal riyers?

4* How ia Sicily characterized 7

5. Which are the considerable islands in the Mediterranean 1

6. How is Turkey bounded 7

7. How IS Turkey divided ?

8. Which are the chief cities and mountains ?

9. Which are the principal islands t

10. What was Spain formerly called, and how is it bounded ?

11. Which are the chief cities?

12. Which are the principal islands, and how is Gibraltar si-

15. How is Portugal bounded ?

14. How is it dirided, and what are its chief towns?

15. Of what does the united kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland consist?

16. How is it situated ?

17. Into how many counties is the United Kingdom divided ?

18. How is Ireland divided?

19. Which are the principal towns?

20. Which are the principal rivers in England and Scotland ?

21. Which are the islands and lakes of Scotland?



1. The extent of Asia from the Hellespont to East
Cape is more than 7,000 miles, and its greatest width
north and south is about 5,000 miles. Its boundaries
are Europe and the Arabian Gulf; the Frozen and
Pacific Oceans.

2. Asia comprises, according to Pinkerton, Asiatic
Turkey and Russia, the Chinese empire, Japan, the
Birman empire, Siam, Hindostan, Persia, Independent
Tartary, and Arabia.

3. The Asiatic islands are divided into the Oriental
Archipelago; Australasia, or New Holland; and Poly-
nesia, or the small isles in the Pacific Ocean.

4. The oceans and seas adjoining Asia, are the
Northern, Indian, and Pacific Oceans : the Black Sea,
the Seas of Korea, Tonquin^ and Siam; the Bay of

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Bengal, the Arabian or Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the
Levant, and the Archipelago.

5. The principal straits in Asia are Bhering's, which
separates it from America; the straits of Malacca, Smida,
Java, Sumatra, Ormuz, and Babelmandel, which sepa-
rates Arabia from Africa.

6. The principal rivers are the Kian Ku; the Koan
Ho, the Lena; the Yenisei, and the Ob, the Amur, the
Burrampooter, the Granges, the Euphrates, and the

7. The mountains, of most consequence, are the
Uralian, the Altaian, Swansk, Yablonnoy, the Thamo;
those of Thibet, the Taurus; the Gauts of Hmdostan;
and the Caucasian, which reach from the Black to the
Caspian Sea.

8. Asiatic Turkey is bounded on the north by the
Black Sea and the Caucasian Mountains; on the east
by the Caspian Sea and Persia; and on the south and
west by the Red Sea, Arabia, and the Mediterranean.

9. The chief towns are Aleppo, Damascus, Smyrna,
Bassora, and Bagdad. The principal rivers, the Eu-
phrates and Tigris; and the principal mountains, the
Taurus, Libanus; and Ararat.

10. Asiatic Russia, or Siberia, is bounded on the
north by the Arctic Ocean; on the east by the seas of
Kamtshatka and Ochotsk; on the south by the Altain
chain of mountains and other lofty ranges ; and on the
west by European Russia.

11. The chief towns are Astracan^ Azof, Tobolsk,
Kolywan, Irkutsk.

12. The Chinese empire is of vast extent, and con-
sists of China Proper, the territory of the Monguls, and
the region of Thibet.

13. China Proper, is bounded on the east and south
by the sea; on Uie north by the great wall and the
Desert of Shamo; and on the west by Thibet. The
chief cities are Pekin, Nankin, and Canton.

14. Chinese Tartary, or the territory of the Monguls,
18 bounded on the east by the sea, on the south by


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China Prq[)er and Thibet, on the west by the Cloudy
Mountains and Great Bucharia and on the nortii by
Asiatic Russia.

15. Thibet is included between China and Hindostan.
The chief town is Lassa.

16. The Japanese Islands have been compared widi
the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, they
form a great msular power near the eastern extremity
of Asia, as the British Isles do near the western extre-
mity of Europe.

17. The most considerable of the Japan Islands is
Niphon : the chief towns are Jeddo, Miaco, and Na-

18. The Binnaa em{»re is bounded on ^ north by
mountains that separate it from Asia, on the east it
borders on Thibet and China, and cm. the west it is
separated by a range of mountains that separate it from
the British dominions in Bengal. The chief cities are
Ava and Pegu.

19. Hindostan lies to the south of Asia, and extends
from Cape Comortn in the soutii, to the mountain^
which form the northam boundary of Cashmir. It is
bounded by Persia, Thibet, the Birman empire, and iJie
sea. Tlie diief cities are Calcutta, Dacca, Paka, and

20. Persia has the Caspian Sea and part of Tartary
on the ncHth, Indm on the east, it is bounded by the
ocean and Persian Gulf on the south, and Asiatic Turicey
on the west. Its t^iki cities are Ii^ahaft, Shiraz, and

21. indfependent Tartaay extends east and west from
the Caspian Sea to the moiiHtains of Bekir, and from
the mountains of Graur in the sou& to the boundaries
of Russia.

22. The divisions of hidepcodent Tartary are, (1.)
llie Steps, or barren plains in the north. (2.) Hie
kingdom of Kiaurzan. (3.) Sogd. (4.) Great Bu-
charia. (5.) The provinces of Balk, Kflan, and Gaur.
The chief toww are Samarcand, Boldiara, and Balk.

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gboohapht. oa

23. Arabia is bounded by the Red Sea and the In-
dian Ocean on the west and south, by Persia and the
Persian Gulf on the east, and on the north by Asiatic

24. It is divided into Stony Arabia, north of the
Red Sea, Arabia the Desert on the east, and Arabia the
Happy cm the south-west. The chief towns are Mecca
and Medina.

25. TheEastemArcMpelagoisdividedkito the islands
of Sunda, Borneo, the Manilks,theCelebesian Isles, and
the Spice Islands.

26. Australasia consistsof New Holland, New Guinea,
New Britain, New Zealand, and Van Diemen's Land.

27. Polynesia includes the Pelew and Ladrone Islands ;
the Carolmes and Sandwich Islands, the Marquesas, So-
ciety, Friendly, and Navigator's Islands.


1. Wfattt art the «zt«itt and botmdariM of Asia?
t. What ampvM doea Aaia oompriae t
Poiat tham oat.
S. How are the Asiatic islands divided ?

4. What oceans and seas are adjoining to Asia?
Shew them on the map.

5. Which are the principal straita ?
Point them out.

6. WhidiaredieohiefriYeii? *
Traea tham out on tiie mi^

7. Which are the principal movntoins ?
a. How is Asiatic Turkey bounded ?

9. Which are the chief towns and mountains ?

10. How is Asiatic Hussia hounded ?

11. Which are the chief towns ?

It, Of what does the Chinese empire evmsist?

15. Mtfw is China Proper boanded, and whoft areilie ohief ekifla?
14. How is Chinese Tartary bounded ?

1$. How is Thibet situated, and what is the chief town ?

16. How are the Japanese Islands characterised ?

17. Whieh is the most considerable of (he Japan Islands, and
what are the chief towns ?

IB. How is the Birman lempire bounded, and what are the chief


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19. What are the extent, boundaries, and chief cities of Hin«

20. Which are the boundaries and chief cities of Persia?

21. What is the extent of Independent Tartary?

22. How is it divided?

23. What are the boundaries of Arabia ?

24. How is Arabia divided?

25. Of what islands do the Eastern Archipelago consist ?

26. What does Australasia comprise ?

27. What does Polynesia include ?



1. Africa, a vast peninsula, in some parts more than
4,000 miles in length, and as many in breadth, lies to the
south of Europe, and is separated from Asia by the Red

2. Africa, according to Pinkerton, is divided into
Abyssinia, ]^ypt, the Mahomedan states in the north-
western parts of Africa, the colony of the Cape, and
eastern Africa.

3. There are no inland seas, and but one lake of any
note, viz., the lajce of Maravi; the chief rivers are the
Nile, the Niger, and the Senegal.

4. The chief mountains are the Atlas, that reach from
Morocco to Egypt; and the Mountains of the Moon,
among which the Nile takes its rise.

. 5. Abyssinia is divided into several provinces, of which
the principal are Tigri, Grojam, and Dembea. Gondar
is the capital of the empire.

6. E^ypt, a kind of valley, through which the Nile
flows, is 500, miles in length; and is bounded on the
north by the Mediterranean, on the east by the Red Sea
and the Isthmus of Suez, on the south by Nubia and
Abyssinia, and on the west by Barca.

7. It is divided iiito Upper, Middle, and Lower, The
diief cities are Grand Cairo, Alexandria, Rosetta, and

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' 8. Between Egypt and Abyssinia is the ancient Ethi-
opia, now denominated Nubia, an extensive tract, 600
miles long, and almost as many broad.

9. The greatest part- of Nubia is occupied by vast
deserts ; but Dongola on the north, and Sennaar on the
south, are states of some small consequence.

10. The northern Mahomedan states are Tripoli, Tu-
nis, Algiers, and Morocco. Tripoli is Africa Proper,
and the Lybia of the ancients : Tunis was formerly the
chief seat of Carthaginian power.

11. On the western coast are Sierra Leone ; Guinea,
divided into the Grain, the Ivory, and the Gold coasts ;
Benin, Loango, and Congo; Zaara, or the Great Desert,
said to be half as large as Europe; andCaffraria, that ex-
tends to the Cape of Good Hope.

12. The Cape of Good Hope is the most southerly
part of Africa.

13. On the eastern coast of Africa are Natal, Sabia,
Sofala, Mocaranga, Mosambico, and Zanguebar, which
are succeeded by the desert regions of Ajan and Adel.

14. Madagascar, an island on the east of Africa, is
one of the largest islands in the world.

15. On the west is St. Helena, the Cape de Verd and
Canary Islands, and Madeira.


1. How is .Africa situated ?

2. How is it divided ?

3. What is remarkable respecting its waters ?

4. Which are the chief mountains t

5. How is Abyssinia divided, and what is the capital ?

6. What is the extent, and what are the boundaries of Egypt ?

7. How is Egypt divided, and which are its principal cities 1

8. How is Nubia situated ?

9. With what is Nubia principally occupied 1

10. Which are the northern Mahomedan states ?

11. What are the principal places on the western coast t

12. How is the Gape of Good Hope situated ?

13. What places are in the eastern coast 1

14. How is Madagascait situated ?

15. What islands are on the west of Africa?

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1. America extends from the 72 degree north lati-
tude, to the 54^ south latitude, or almost nine thousand
miles in length, and in some parts of North America it is
more than four thousand miles in breadth.

2. America is divided into North and South, heio^
separated by the Isthmus of Darian and Panama.

3. North America includes the United States, the
Spanish and British dominions, besides those parts that
are still left to the native tribes.

4. South America, independently of what remsuns to
the native tribes, is divided among the Spanish, Portu-
guese, French, and Dutch. ^

5. The inland seas of North America are the Gul&
of Mexico, California, and St. Lawrence, with Hudson'^
Bay, and Davis's Straits.

6. The lakes, which make one of the grandest fea-
tures of the world, are Superior, Michigan, Huron, Wen-
nipeg, and the Slave-Lake; and the principal rivers are ,
the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the St. Lawrence,

7 . The most celebrated mountains are the Apalachian,
passing through the territory of the United States.

8. The United States are divided into the northern,
middle, and southern. (1.) The northern iodude Ter-
mont. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticat, and
Rhode Island.

(2.) The middle consists of New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the territory cm the north-
west of the Ohio.

(3.) The southern are Maryland, Vkgima, Kentudty,
North Carolina, Georgia, and the country south of Ken-

9. The chief cities are "Washington, PhiladelpKa,
New York, Boston, Baltimore, and Charlestown*

1 0. The Spanish dominions are East and West Florida
and the Mexicos. Lonitiana formerly made a part of the

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Spanish dominions, but was ceded to the United States
for a sum of money.

11. The British dominions include Upper and Lower
Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Island of
Breton, Newfoundland, and the Bermuda, or Summer-

12. The native tribes possess Greenland, Labrador,
and the vast regions about Hudaon's Bay, and the
eouBtry on the western coast.

Online LibraryJeremiah JoyceA familiar introduction to the arts sciences, with original introductory essays upon the subject of each lesson. For the use of schools and young persons. Containing a general explication of the fundamental principles and facts of the sciences, divided into lessons, with questions subjoined to each, → online text (page 8 of 35)