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the solid earth tremble. On the 13th the brigades moved closer to
the stirring scene, and for several hours lay in front of Chief Burn-
side's headquarters, listening to the terrific artillery fire, the sharp
rattle of the muskets, and w^atching the smoke ascending from the
burning buildings. Again the imperative order to "fall in." The
General in command in a few words said that the corps was the re-
serve of the Army of the Potomac, and that its duty now was to
cross the river and close the battle with a decisive victory.

Early in the afternoon the 131st, with its associate regiments,
cheerfully crossed on one of the pontoon bridges, marched
through the now deserted town under a heavy fire from the rebel
batteries to a rise of ground along the road back of it, where,
under shelter, the force waited until the line of battle was
formed and all were ready for the gfand assault. At the anxi-
ously awaited word Forward, a prompt and resolute rush was
made at a double-quick. But, sad to own, it was a useless and
costly onset. About two hundred yards forward a line of Union
troops lay prostrate on the ground, who had been severely re-
pelled in a prior charge, and reaching this base the order to lie
down likewise was by a general impulse obeyed, — the men had
been hit about the head and shoulders ; two of Baker's comrades
near him were shot in the mouth, — and while thus stretched out
on the field commenced tO' fire upon the enemy, who was well
protected behind a stone wall, and in consequence suffered but
little. The troops, when finally ordered, with one accord jumped
to their feet and made another determined effort to advance, keep-
ing up a steady fire, and some of the men got within a hundred
feet of the wall, but vain was the struggle, as the whole height
around the town was crowned with strongly manned forts and
intrenchments, absolutely unassailable by a direct, open assault,
and the attempt, in the opinion of all who participated, should not
at that time have been made. Besides the appalling fire from
the forts and wall in front, a murderous, raking cross-fire came

The Gernhardt Family History.

from batteries perched on the crest'of the semi-encircling hill both
on the right and on the left. It was to our army but a sickening
field of slaughter. Nothing was accomplished by the splendid
valor and the fearful sacrifice. Seeing the fearful loss and the
utter hopelessness of the effort to drive or capture the enemy, the
troops were withdrawn. Our kindred's company went into the
fight with fifty-three men, of whom twenty-two were either killed
or wounded. Four of these hapless ones lay and died close by
him. To one he gave his canteen, and from him received a mes-
sage to take home to his wife. About this time he was himself
wounded near the elbow of his right arm, not seriously, but the
hurt became very painful, though it did not prevent him from
keeping his place in the line.

One of the company, William Willits, who was struck by a
ball near the shoulder, asked Baker to lead him off the field.
Baker told him that he did not then dare to leave the company,
but said that he should go to the rear and that he would soon find
some one there to take care of him. He never saw that stricken
comrade again. It was not until sunset that the 131st was relieved,
vet the afternoon, with all its excitement and horrors, seemed to
him strangely as if lasting but one short hour. All were too much
absorbed to think of the time of day. The regiment rested at
night on the field, and the next day was quartered on the streets
of the town. On the evening of the 15th it took a position to the
right to support a battery of artillery, and at three o'clock the next
morning the town was quietly and willingly evacuated — as it was
of no practical use tO' us with that stubborn rebel army back of it.
The Confederates did terrible execution from behind their wall and
Intrenchments, but they were not just then anxious to follow up
their successful resistance by risking a fight with such a valorous
foe outside of their formidable works, and very obligingly let our
troops have plenty of time to get away.

Stephen Flick, one of the company, who was hit by a Minie
ball in the mouth, was not seriously injured, though four of his
teeth were knocked out, and, as Lieutenant De La Green, of Co.
H, once informed me, "the ball knocked the bov head over heels.'

The Gernhardt Fainily History.

The ball was of course almost "spent, as it lodged in the roof of
his mouth, and was quickly removed by himself. He carried it
about for months as a precious pocket piece, often displaying it to
his not envious comrades, and insisting that he was the only man
in the regiment who could perform the wonderful feat of catch-
ing a ball, shot from a gun, with his mouth.

Baker was never again under so hot a fire as when in front
of the heights of Fredericksburg, but he again saw some-
thing of the perils and hardships of war. After a short
rest in winter-quarters, Burnside decided to attempt an-
other campaign, but after some days of marching about
in mud over shoe top, through rain and in chilling
winds, building corduroy roads and moving trains, the move-
ment was wisely given up, and the 131st marched back into new
and better quarters, about two miles from the old camp. On
the 28th of April it set out under Hooker on the memorable
Chancellorsville campaign, of which Baker says he will ever have
very vivid recollections. The roadside on the way was lined
with stragglers from the columns in advance. Now and then
one of the weaker ones would sink down, worn out, and die.
Pack mules and horses were in like manner overcome and were
unloaded and left to perish. The regiment, about noon on Fri-
day, May 1st, arrived at the Chancellor House, where Gen. Hooker,
who had succeeded Burnside, had established his headquarters.
Baker now heard heavy firing, and realized that another great
battle was about to be fought, and that he would be in it. He
was delighted to see a lot of prisoners, who were being hurriedly
pushed to the rear, and hoped Lee's whole army would soon be
in the same harmless predicament. He soon saw, however, that
the Union forces were falling back, but persuaded himself that
it was only to get a better position, or to draw the unfriendly
Johnnies into a trap. The privates, and even the officers of com-
panies and regiments, usually know little or nothing about the
plan of battle, of the disposition and movements of the columns
of a large army, that often cover many square miles of territory,

The Gernhardt Family History.

of which they have but a hmited view. "Where ignorance is
bhss, 'tis folly to be wise."

Hooker, with an army twice as large as Gen. Lee's, started out
confident of victory, and even issued an order of congratulation
to his troops on the evening of April 30, in which he boastfully
said, "Our enemy must ingloriously fly, or come out from behind
his defenses and give us battle on our own ground, where certain
destruction awaits him." Lee's army was then regarded as in a
dangerous dilemma. Things were moving encouragingly for the
Union army, and the men were eager for battle ; but suddenly
Hooker became alarmed, and sent very positive orders for his ad-
vanced columns to give up his "own ground" and fall back to
Chancellorsville. He thus lost the advantage he had gained, dis-
couraged his soldiers, and was compelled to fight in self-defense
on the unfavorable ground of the Wilderness. It is a matter of
history that all of Hooker's generals condemned his action.
When referring to the service of the Donmoyer brothers, Lewis
and Rudy, of the John Gernert branch of our family, one of the
notable incidents of this great battle has already been mentioned.
But the grievous result of the conflict is well known, and need not
be rehearsed here.

Baker's company was detailed as Headquarters Baggage
Guard, but through forgetfulness or some mistake was not or-
dered to the rear until a body of the rebels were within several
hundred yards of the train, charging through the woods and yell-
ing like so many demons. When they got into close range a gen-
eral volley was poured into- them that hurled them back, and pun-
ished them severely for their daring. The train then passed on to
the rear, but was somewhat impeded by the maneuvering of the
infantry and artillery, and the thick woods through which it had
to move for some distance. The mules often added to the trouble
by being contrary and getting tangled up by trying to get around
the trees in their own mulish way. On the 2d the company was
ordered to the left where the division lay, and from which heavy
firing was heard all day. About six o'clock the noise of battle in-

The Gernhardt Family History.

creased, and was kept up all night, charge after charge being made
by both sides with a reckless fury that was terrible. The very
ground on which the boys stood again shook, as it did at Freder-
icksburg, from the fearful booming of the many cannon. On the
3d they were ordered to cross the Rappahannock at United States
Ford, while the battle was still raging, and camped a short distance
from the river, in a clearing surrounded by pine woods, near the
Union hospital, and where they had the gratification of seeing a
body of 1,500 rebel prisoners under guard that had been taken
during the night and morning.

On the morning of the 4th Baker and his mess were rudely
awakened by shells dropping and exploding around their camp.
The first impression was that the Johnnies had got around in the
rear, but it was soon ascertained that during the night they had
sneaked up near enough through the woods to plant a battery of
six guns within range, and at the dawn of day opened in a lively
way on the camp and hospital. Five or six were killed and a
number wounded, most of the casualties occurring in the hospital,
but no one in Baker's company was injured. One shell fell
among the prisoners, by which one of them lost a leg. A detach-
ment of cavalry quartered close by immediately formed and
charged and captured the battery, and stopped the annoyance.

The great victory that Hooker promised was not won. The
wide-awake enemy did not "ingloriously fly," and he did not meet
with "certain destruction." He followed up Hooker and made
hiui fly. But it is just as undeniable that he was in the end him-
self so worn and crippled that he was again satisfied to let the
Army of the Potomac get away very easy to the left bank of the
Rappahannock. He was manifestly thankful to be rid of such an
antagonistic visitor, and if in order would doubtless have given
him a free pass to recross the Potomac. He did not even trouble
Hooker's rear guard, which got off as safe as the troops that
crossed on the pontoons before it. The Union army had faith in
the cause for which it fought, and had confidence in itself, and full
assurance of its final triumph, but it had not yet found the right
leader. It appreciated the valor, the loyalty, and the patriotism

224 The Gernhardt Family History.

of Pope, of Burnside, of Hooker, and of McClellan, but it did not
believe that either of them had all the qualifications that make a
great chief for a great army.

Several weeks after this last fruitless struggle the time of the
131st expired, and it received orders to go back to Harrisburg and
be mustered out. Baker was at home only a few weeks when, in
response to a call for volunteers to repel the rebel invasion of the
North, he re-enlisted, and as a sergeant served in Co. E of the 37th
Penn'a Vol. Militia. As I belonged to the same company, his
part in the brief Gettysburg campaign may be known by turning-
back to the account given of my own slender war experience.

V. PETER FOGLEMAN3, b. July 11, 1820; m. first, Mary
Ann Buck, in 1843; she d. July i, 1851, and is buried by the side
of his parents in the old Delaware Run graveyard. He m. second,
Hannah Buck, a sister of his first wife, March 16, 1852. Peter d.
in Dubuque County, Iowa, Oct. i, 1881. Had fifteen children,
and his is, therefore, the banner family of Heinrich's lineage :

I. Daniel Wesley Fogleman'^, b. Aug. 18, 1844; m. Mary
Elizabeth Young, Sept. 13, 1865. She d. March 30, 1901.
He now resides in Williamsport, Pa. Enlisted March 24,
1865, and served some months as a member of Co. K, 88th
Reg't, Pa. Vol. Infantry. As the fighting ceased soon
after he entered the service, he did not learn from experi-
ence how vigorously the enemy fought in his mistaken and
doomed cause. Had eight children :

i. Mary Almcratta^, b. April 2, 1867; m. Gabriel Miller,
Aug. 9, 1894; r. Williamsport, Pa. Three children:
Roscoe Albert M.^ b. March 12. 1895; Elwood Gabriel
M.6, b. Nov. 28, 1900; Charles William M.^, b. Feb. 27,

a. Daniel Ludimg^, b. March 16, 1869; d. Aug. 17, 1877.

in. Minnie Allita^, b. July 28, 1871 ; m. George Donnel,
Nov. 6, 1890; r. Montoursville, Pa. Six children:
Raymond W.^ b. July 17, 1889; Edna Mary^ b. June
13, 1891 ; Richard Childs^, b. March 19, 1893; George
Edward^, b. Feb. 4, 1895; Marion Julia^ b. April 14,
1897; Nellie Margaret^, b. June 2, 1902.

The, Gernhardt Family History. 225

iv. Lula Anna^, b. Jan. 7, 1874; d. Nov. 7, 1879.

V. Harry Roscoe^, b. Aug. 10, 1876; d. Sept. 3, 1876.

vi. William Wesley^, b. Oct. 10, 1877; m. Sadie Ickes, Feb.
8, 1900. One daughter: Margaret Elizabeth^, b. Nov.
29, 1900.

vii. Laura Ella^, b. June 13, 1880; m. George Duitch, Dec.

29, 1897. Three children: Lula^, b. May 12, 1898;
Barnard^, b. Jan. 28, 1900; Margaret F.^, b. Nov. 29^.

via. Edith Pearl^, b. Aug. 25, 1885.

2. Hiram Augustus Fogleman^, b. May 29, 1846; m. Bessie

Viletta Smith, April 14, 1870; r. Creston, 111. Enlisted in
the 88th Reg't, Pa. Vol. Infantry, at the same time his
brother D. W. enlisted, and was honorably discharged at
the same time. Three children :

i. Emma Janc>, b. Oct. 24, 1870; m.^ Bowles, April

30, 1890; r. Creston, 111. One son: Clifford Val.^ b.
Feb. 14, 1891.

n. William Herbert'^, b. March 22, 1876.

Hi. Alma Mclvina^, b. May 29, 1878; m.x Blackmore,

June 21, 1899; r. Creston, 111. One daughter: Bessie
Genevieve^, b. May 27, 1900.

3. Elmira Fogleman^, b. July 18, 1843 ; ni. Tillman Stadler,
Jan. 12, 1867; r. Millville, Columbia County, Pa. Two
children :

i. Ada^, b. Oct. 11, 1867; m. H. J. Shoemaker, July 23,

1895 ; r. Millville, Pa. One daughter : Eva^, b. March

3, 1897-
a. Frank^, b. Dec. 15, 1868; m. Elizabeth Watts, Dec. 25,

1890; r. Millville, Pa. Two children: Zella^, b. May

29, 1891 ; Mary6, b. April 12, 1893.

4. John Calvin Fogleman*, d. in childhood, March 20, 1866.

5. William Franklin Fogleman^, b. December, 1850; d.

July 28, 1 85 1.

6. Melvina C. Fogleman^ b. Dec. 12, 1852; m. John Lyman

Reed ; r. Oregon, 111. Two children : Beulah^, b. Oct. 22,
1884; WilburS, b. Sept. 19, 1886.

226 The Gernhardt Family History.

7. David Emerson Fogleman^ b. Dec. 12, 1853; m. Laura

Jane Thayer, Nov. 8, 1874; r. Riverside, California. Five
children :

i. Alice Mac^, b. May 13, 1875; "i- Guy W. Finney, Sept.
6, 1893 ; r. Montour, Tama County, Iowa. He served
one year in the Spanish- American War. Two boys :
Merril Johnson^, b. Sept. 9, 1896 ; Max Rodney^, b. Aug.
26, 1900.

ii. Frank Andrezvs^, b. March 3, 1877; m. Allie Mabel
Leeds, Feb. 2, 1898 ; r. Cherokee, Iowa. Four children :
Lester Luverne^, b. Nov. 12, 1898 ; Blanche Grace^, b.
Nov. 8, 1899; Dorothy Mildred^, b. April 29, 1901 ;
Harold Vernon^, b. Feb. 21, 1903.

Hi. Leroy Milton^, b. March 26, 1879.

iv. Glen Oliver^, h. Nov. 16, 1885.

V. Blanche Edna^, b. June 8, 1893 ; d. Sept. 20, 1894.

8. Wilson Jefferson Fogleman^, b. June 18, 1855 ; m. first,
Susanna Rebecca Gearhart, Nov. 8, 1877 ; she d. Aug. 30,
1884; second. Charity M. Zarr, Jan. 20, 1886; r. Washta,
Cherokee County, Iowa. Five children :

%. Jennie WilUna^, b. Aug. 6, 1878; m. Raymond B. Fer-
guson, Dec. 31, 1900.
ii. Arden Carson^, b. March 3, 1880.
Hi. Odessa Rebecca^, b. April 14, 1882.
iv. Laura^, h. March 26, 1890.
V. Thelma Arlene^, b. March 19, 1899.

9. Alma J. Fogleman^, b. Nov. 17, 1856; m. William Hol-

land, Sept. 15, 1880; r. KeKalp, 111. One son: Glenn^, b.
April, 1 88 1.

10. Lydia Minerva Fogleman^, b. Feb. 16, 1859; m. Lewis
E. Board, March 12, 1885 ; r. Dubuque, Iowa. Four chil-
dren: Artley K.^, b. Aug. 29, 1887; Ray E.^, b. Feb. 7,
1889 ; Erma^, b. March 6, 1893 ; Lisle E.^, b. July 25, 1893.

11. Charles E. Fogleman^, b. Aug. 3, i860; m. Mary Alice
Zarr, Feb. 12, 1884; r. Washta, Iowa. Three daughters:
Ethel MaeS, b. May 3, 1885 ; Lulu Mabel^, b. June 19, 1886 ;
Jessie Belle^, b. March 23, 1890.


The Gernhardt Family History. 227

12. Rebecca Ellen Fogleman^, b. June 5, 1862; unm. ; r.
Oregon, 111.

13. Peter Elmer Fogleman^ b. Sept. 8, 1863; m. first, Ida
M. Crouch; second, Burnice Tilton ; r. Cherokee, Iowa.
Four sons: Purl^, b. Dec. 31, 1887; Harry^, and Harlow"*,
twins, b. July 27, 1898; Claud Elmer^, b. July 26, 1900.

14. Emma C. Fogleman^, b. March 22, 1867; m. Thomas
Becker, June 17, 1887; r. Oregon, Ogle County, 111. Three
children: Mabel^, b. March, 1889; Edna M.^ b. July,
1890; Elwood H.5, b. September, 1900.

15. O. Frank Fogleman^, b. April 9, 1870; m. Sarah Strief,
June 30, 1891 ; r. Marcus, Cherokee County, Iowa. Six chil-
dren : Emma^ b. March 30, 1892; Libbie M.^, b. June 10,
1894; Letta M.5, b. March 6, 1896; Oliver F.^, b. September,
1898; Amos E.s, b. Aug. 19, 1900; Ernest W.^, b. Dec. 30,


Margaret (twin sister of Catharine Fogleman) and John
Litchard, of Muncy Creek Township, Lycoming County, Pa.,
united in the bonds of wedlock soon after the purchase of the
Sinking Springs property by her father, Heinrich, or about 1806 or
1807. She died June 12, 1836. According to the inscription on
her tombstone in the town of Sparta, N. Y., she was "aged 55
years," but this is clearly an error. She and her twin sister, Cath-
arine, were bom February 18, 1783 — two years and four months
after their brother John, and two years and six months before
the birth of Baltzer — so that at her demise she was but 53 years
and four months old. Her husband, John, died June 18, 1867, in
his 79th year.

John Litchard was the youngest of the three sons of Joseph
Litchard, an Englishman by birth, who was one of the early set-
tlers of Lycoming County. He (Joseph) came to America when
quite young, and to pay his transportation indentured himself into
the service of a German family in Berks County, Pa., where he

228 The Gernhardt Family History.

learned to speak German, and when the term of his service ex-
pired he married a German girl. xA.s he and his wife, with their
first child, came to ^luncy Valley with the pioneer, Henry Shoe-
maker, a settler from Berks County, who had emigrated from Ger-
many sometime before the Revolution, it has been surmised that
they may have come here before the Indian troubles of 1778 and
1779, as Shoemaker had settled, and bought the grist mill, on
Muncy Creek, of John Alward — the first grist mill erected on the
West Branch of the Susquehanna River west of the Muncy Hills —
just prior to that eventful and calamitous era. When it was
learned from some friendly Indians (notable among whom was
the faithful Job Chilloway) that the blood-thirsty savages were
preparing to raid the valley and murder, scalp, pillage and burn,
the mill gearings were buried and thus saved, but the building was
burned by the ruthless red men. The valley was soon deserted
by the frightened white settlers.

Several years later most of the stampeded inhabitants returned
to the valley, however, and many new settlers came with them, or
soon after followed. After General Sullivan's memorable cam-
paign, with one-third of General Washington's army, into the
country of the Six Nations in western New York, in the summer
of 1779, destroying their villages, crops and orchards, and punish-
ing them severely for the outrages the}' had perpetrated on the
defenseless inhabitants along the frontiers, there was no further
serious trouble with them on the West Branch of the Susquehanna.
It is more likely, therefore, we think, that Joseph, with his wife
and their infant son, Joseph, came with Henry Shoemaker when
he returned to his landed possessions in the month of May, 1783, —
James, the second son of Joseph, who died in 1875 at the age of
90, was born in 1784 or '85, — moving with wagons from their
homes to Harrisburg, and proceeding thence by canoes up the
Susquehanna to Muncy. Joseph continued in the service of his
friend Shoemaker, felling trees and raising crops on the land
around his new grist and saw mill, for about ten years. Having
now a family of four children to provide for, (one a daughter,
Fanny,) he wisely concluded that he ought to have land and a

The Gcrnhardt Family History. 229
« ■

home of his own. Shoemaker had bought up several thousand
acres of the recently patented lands, and now — about 1793 — sold
Joseph a 400 acre tract of wild land on the Muncy Hills, about
four miles south-east from the grist mill, for what now seems the
paltry sum of $50, or 12 1-2 cents per acre.

Joseph commenced at the bottom round to ascend the ladder
of fortune and independence. He had but little besides the virgin
soil, the trees, some springs of good water, pure air, sunlight, and
such blessings as nature in that primitive wilderness could fur-
nish. There was no road to the land, so they had to grope their
way through the woods and over the rolling ground as best they
could. During the first year there was not a human habitation
within several miles. Joseph selected a spot for a rude shanty,
and there he lived with his family on the "ground floor," until he
could at his convenience construct a log cabin. Joseph junior,
the eldest of his boys, became the chief hunter of the family, and
often replenished the family larder with venison and bear meat.
The fat of the bears and raccoons was made use of for shortening
and to fry doughnuts. The conditions of life were much the
same as already described when Heinrich and Rosine Gernhardt
commenced their struggle for the blessings of existence in the
forest of Northampton County. The howling of hungry wolves
was one of the most familiar of the forest sounds. Once when
the old folks had gone from home the children were so alarmed
by their yelping that they crawled up on the roof of the cabin for
fear that the uncanny beasts would come and eat them up. Wild
turkeys were so numerous and bold that they sometimes had to be
driven away from the clearings, just as chickens are now often
expelled from our gardens.

The principal part of the Litchard tract is now owned and occu-
pied by a grandson of Joseph, Jacob Litchard, a prosperous and
greatly respected citizen, owner of three good farms, who was
next to the youngest of the twelve children of James. His almost
exceptional vigor at the age of 71 augurs that he may live to be
a nonagenarian, like his father ; and as he has sons and grandsons,

230 The Gernhardt Family History.

the native place may remain in the family name many years
longer. Joseph died about 1838, and, Hke his son, and Abraham
of old, was "buried in a good old age." He and his wife were
interred in the graveyard of the Old Immanual Lutheran Church,
the land for which was donated by Henry Shoemaker, and is
about half a mile from the site of the old grist and saw mill.

It was here, and under these primitive conditions, that John
Litchard grew up into manhood ; and it was here on a tract of land
adjoining the 400 acres, as Jacob recently informed me, that John
and Aunt Margaret (Gernhardt), about 1807, commenced their
married life, a period of which but little is now remembered. How
many facts and incidents of interest were consigned to the graves
of our kindred of the second generation can not even be conjec-
tured. From the Muncy Hills John and Margaret moved and
dwelt for some years on a farm about one mile east of Muncy,
then a hamlet known as Pennsboro. The six eldest of their ten
children — William, David, John, George, Elizabeth and Mary —
were all born in Muncy Creek Township, Lycoming County, the
first named December 8, 1808, and Mary on the i8th day of April,
1818. It was while Mary was a babe that Margaret and her fam-
ily migrated to the town of Sparta, N. Y., and settled near her
sister, Magdalena Shafer, on the second tract of land that her
father, Heinrich, had bought, and which, according to his last will

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