Jeremy Taylor.

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




jcflBB3



' J*, ' 1

m







THE



WHOLE WORKS



OF THE



RIGHT REV. JEREMY TAYLOR, D.D.

LORD BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE.



VOLUME XIV.

CONTAINING

THE CONCLUSION OF THE RULE OF CONSCIENCE; THE DIVINE INSTI-
TUTION AND NECESSITY OF THE OFFICE MINISTERIAL; AND,
RULES AND ADVICES TO THE CLERGY.



THE



WHOLE WORKS



OF THE

RIGHT REV. JEREMY TAYLOR, D.D,

LOUD BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE :

WIl H

A LIFE OF THE AUTHOR,

AND

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF HIS WRITINGS,

E THE

RIGHT REV. REGINALD HEBER, D.D.

LATE LOKD BISHOP OF CALCUTTA.

THIRD EDITION OF THE COLLECTED WORKS.

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES.
VOL XIV.



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS; J. RICHARD-
SON; HATCHARD AND SON; J., G., AND F. HIVINGTON; J. BOHN ; HAMILTON,
ADAMS, AND CO.; DUNCAN AND MALCOLM; SiMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO.;
E. HODGSON; B. FELLOWES ; H. BOHN; C. DOLMAN; H. BICKERS; J. II. I'AHKER,
OXFORD; J. AND J. J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE; G. AND J. ROBINSON", LIVER-
POOL; AND W. STRONG, BRISTOL.



Sl.DCCC.XXXIX.



LONDON:

PRINTED BY JAMtS MOVES, CASTLE STREET,
LEICESTER SQUARE.



BR75

T
I 13



CONTENTS



OF



THE FOURTEENTH VOLUME.



THE RULE OF CONSCIENCE.



BOOK III. CHAP. IV.

CONTINUED.

OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH IN CANONS AND CENSURES, WITH
THEIR OBLIGATIONS AND POWERS OVER THE CONSCIENCE.



RULE IX. PAGE

Excommunication, inflicted upon a light Cause, binds externally, but
not internally ; but if it be inflicted upon an unjust Cause, it binds
not at all 1

RULE X.

It is not lawful to communicate with those whom the Church hath,
by a just Sentence, excommunicated 9

SECTION III.
Of Canons Ecclesiastical , 16

RULE XL

The Canons of the Apostles, which are of Order and external Govern-
ment, do oblige the Conscience by being accepted in several
Churches, not by their first Establishment 17

RULE XII.

All those Rituals, which were taught to the Church by the Apostles
concerning Ministries, which were of Divine Institution, do oblige all

Christendom to their Observation 21

VOL. XIV. b



IV CONTENTS.



RULE XIII. PAGE

In the rules which the Apostles gave to their Churches in Things
indifferent, the Church hath a Liberty; but it is not used but for
great Reason and great Necessity, and for the Edification of the People
committed to their Charge 26

RULE XIV.

The Canons of the ancient general and provincial Councils are then
Laws to the Conscience, when they are bound upon us by the Authority
of the respective Governors of Churches 47

RULE XV.

The laudable Customs of the Catholic Church, which are in present
Observation, do oblige the Conscience of all Christians 49

RULE XVI.

The Decrees and Canons of the Bishops of Rome oblige the Conscience
of none but his own Subjects , . . . 67

SECTION IV,

Of the Matter and Conditions of Ecclesiastical Laws required to the
Obligation of Conscience , 73

RULE XVII.

Ecclesiastical Laws, that are merely such, cannot be universal and
perpetual 73

RULE XVIII.

Ecclesiastical Laws of Ceremonies and Circumstances of external
Observances, do not bind the Conscience beyond the Cases of Con-
tempt and Scandal 90

RULE XIX.

Ecclesiastical Laws must be charitable and easy ; and when they are
not, they oblige not 94

RULE XX.

Ecclesiastical Laws must ever promote the Service of God and the
Good of Souls ; but must never put a Snare or Stumbling-block to
Consciences 106

SECTION V.
Of Ecclesiastical Laws of Faith, or Articles of Confession 150

RULE XXI.

The Catholic Church is a Witness of Faith, and a Record of all necessary
Truths; but not the Mistress and Ruler of our Creed; that is,
cannot make any Laws of Faith 150



CONTENTS. V

RULE XXII. PACE

The Decrees of general Councils are of great Use in the Conduct of
Conscience, but not the proper Measure, or last Determination, of
Matters of Belief 154

RULE XXIII.

Subscription to Articles and Forms of Confession in any particular
Church, is wholly of political Consideration 158



CHAPTER V.

OF LAWS DOMESTIC J OR THE POWER WHICH FATHERS OF FAMILIES
HAVE TO BIND THE CONSCIENCES OF THEIR RELATIVES.

RULE I.

Children are bound to obey the Laws and Commandments of their
Parents in all Things domestical, and in all Actions personal
relating to the Family, or done within it 163

RULE II.

Fathers have a Power to chastise their offending Children, but not a
Power of Life and Death 170

RULE III.

A Father hath Power over the Goods and Persons of his Children, so
as to be maintained by them 174

RULE IV.

The Father's Power does not extend to Matter of Religion, and
Persuasions of Faith 178

RULE V.

The Father's Power over the Children can remit an Injury done to
them, without their Leave or Consent 181

RULE VI.

A Father's Authority cannot abide after his Death ; but the Son's
Piety to his Father must, and may, pass upon him some indirect
Obligations 182

RULE VII.

Neither the Father's Authority, nor the Son's Piety, can oblige them
to do an Action against the Laws of God, or of the Father and our
just Superior , 185

RULE VIII.

It is not lawful for Children to enter into any lasting Course of Life,
against the Will or Approbation of their Parents 191



VI CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VI.

OF THE INTERPRETATION, DIMINUTION, AND ABROGATION, OF HUMAN

LAWS.

SECTION I. PACK

Of Equity 223

RULE I.

When the Letter of the Law is burdensome and unjust, the Meaning
and Charity of the Law do only oblige the Conscience 223

SECTION II.
Judicial Interpretation 23?

RULE II.

When the Power that made the Law does interpret the Law, the
Interpretation is authentical, and obliges the Conscience as much
as the Law ; and can release the Bond of Conscience so far as the
Interpretation extends, as much as if the Law were abrogated 237

SECTION III.
A contrary or ceasing Reason 242

RULE III.

A Law made for a particular Reason, when the Reason wholly ceases,
does no longer oblige the Conscience 242

SECTION IV.
Dispensation 261

RULE IV.

The Legislator hath Authority to dispense in his own Laws, for any
Cause that himself shall prudently judge to be reasonable, so that
no distinct Interest be prejudiced or injured 261

SECTION V.
Commutation 265

RULE V.

The same Power that can dispense, can also commute, a Duty ; and as
in the first it eases, so in the latter it binds, the Conscience 265

SECTION VI.
Contrary Customs ; 267

RULE VI.

A Custom can interpret a Law, but can never abrogate it without the
Consent of the supreme Power 267



CONTENTS. Vii

SECTION VII. PAO*

Abrogation 273

RULE VII.

Abrogation of a Law by a competent, that is, by the supreme Power,
may be just and reasonable, though the Law itself be neither
unreasonable nor unj ust 273



BOOK IV.

OF THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF GOOD AND EVIL, THEIR
LIMITS AND CIRCUMSTANCES, THEIR AGGRAVATIONS
AND DIMINUTIONS.

CHAPTER I.

OF THE EFFICIENT CAUSES OF ALL HUMAN ACTIONS, GOOD AND EVIL.

SECTION I. PAGE

Of Choice and Election, voluntary and involuntary 278

RULE I.

An Action is neither good nor evil, unless it be voluntary and chosen 278

RULE II.

The virtual and interpretative Consent of the Will is imputed to Good
or Evil 305

RULE III.

The Act of the Will alone, although no external Action or Event do
follow, is imputed to Good or Evil by God and Men 344

RULE IV.

An involuntary Effect, proceeding from a voluntary Cause, is imputed
to the Agent, as if it were voluntary and directly chosen 356

SECTION II.

Of the Diminutions of voluntary Actions : and first of Ignorance, and
its Influence into the Morality of human Actions 362

RULE V.

Nothing is good or bad, but what we know, or concerning which we
can deliberate . . ... 362



\111 CONTENTS.

RULE VI. PACE

Ignorance does always excuse the Fact, or diminish the Malignity of it,
or change the Kind and Nature of the Sin 372

SECTION III.
Of Fear and Violence, and how these can make an Action involuntary 389

RULE VII.

Fear that makes our Reason useless, and suffers us not to consider,
leaves the Actions it produces free from Crime, even though itself
be culpable ". 389



CHAPTER II.

OF THE FINAL CAUSE OF HUMAN ACTIONS; AND ITS INFLUENCE OR
CAUSALITY OF GOOD AND EVIL.

RULE I.

In every good Action the Means and the End must be symbolical : so
that, 1. a good Action done for an evil End, and, 2. an evil Action
done for a good, are alike criminal 398

RULE II.

To do an Action of itself lawful, for temporal Regards, for ends of
Profit, Pleasure, or Honour, is not unlawful, except it be acci-
dentally 403

RULE III.

The End and Intention of a Law is under the Commandment, as much
as the Action itself commanded in order to the End 411



" Clerus Domini;" or, a Discourse of the Divine Institution, Necessity,
Sacredness, and Separation of the Office Ministerial ; together with
the Nature and Manner of its Power and Operation: written by
the special Command of King Charles 1 415

SECTION I.

Ministers of Religion have, in all Ages, been distinguished by peculiar
Honours 417

SECTION II.

The Ministers of Christ receive the Power of remitting or retaining
Sins.. 427



CONTENTS. IX

SECTION III. PAGE

The Ministers of Christ are commissioned to preach the Gospel 431

SECTION IV.
The Ministers of Christ are commissioned to baptize 443

SECTION V.

The Ministers of Christ stand between God and the People, in admi-
nistering the Eucharist C452 .

SECTION VI.
The Ministers of Christ derive their Power from God 461

SECTION VII.
The Ministry of the Gospel sanctifies the Person of the Minister 466

SECTION VIII.

No Man, in these Days of ordinary Ministry, must look for, or pretend
to, an extraordinary Calling 479



Rules and Advices to the Clergy of the Diocess of Down and Connor,
for their Deportment in their Personal and Public Capacities, given

at the Visitation of Lisnegarvey 489

1 . Personal Duty 491

2. Of Prudence required in Ministers 494

3. The Rules and Measures of Government to be used by

Ministers in their respective Cures 495

~'-4. Rules and Advices concerning Preaching 498

5. Rules and Advices concerning Catechism 503

6. Rules and Advices concerning the Visitation of the Sick .... 504

7. Of ministering the Sacraments, public Prayers, and other Duties

of Ministers 505



THE

RULE OF CONSCIENCE.



BOOK III. CHAP. IV. Continued.

OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH IN CANONS AND CENSURES,
WITH THEIR OBLIGATIONS AND POWERS OVER THE CON-
SCIENCE.



RULE IX.

Excommunication, inflicted upon a light Cause, binds exter-
nally, but not internally ; but if it be inflicted upon an
unjust Cause, it binds not at all.

1 . THIS latter part of the rule is evident and consented to by
all. For in this the civil and ecclesiastical power differ.
The civil power, if it condemns the innocent, hath effect
upon him, and does afflict'or put him to death : but the eccle-
siastical power does nothing, unless the man hath done the
mischief to himself. For God having undertaken to verify
what the Church does, it must be supposed that the Church
must do right, else God will not verify it ; and then it sig-
nifies nothing, but that the governors ecclesiastical have
sinned. " Ejiciunt oves qui contra justitiam de ecclesia
separant," saith St. Jerome ; a " They that, against right, cast
a man from the Church," they are ill shepherds, " and drive
the sheep" from their folds where Christ loves to see them :
and therefore Alexander II. b says, that " unjust excommuni-
cations are not to be slighted and neglected;" and Gerson c
says, ' it is honourable to the Church, that such a prelate
should be resisted to his face.' But this in case of injustice
and manifest abuse : such are those excommunications in

* In Jerem. c. xxiii. b xxiv. q. i. c. Audivimus.

c De Vita Spirit, an. Lect. ii. ad em.
VOL. XIV. B



2 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

the ' Bulla ccense Domini,' in which those persons who. do
their duty, who do not consent to the errors and abuses of
the Church of Rome, who read good books that discover
their horrible impieties, are excommunicated : it is ' brutum
fulmen,' it is harsh as the noise of peacocks, but does no
harm to them that are intended.

2. But now, in the other part of the rule, there is diffi-
culty, and it is occasioned by a discourse of St. Leo; d " Let
not the communion be easily or lightly denied to any
Christian, nor at the pleasure of every angry priest; because
the mind of the avenger ought, unwillingly and with a kind
of grief, to proceed to the infliction of vengeance, even upon
a great guilt. For we have known some, for slight actions
and words, excluded from the grace of the communion, and
a soul for which the blood of Christ was shed, by the inflic-
tion of this so severe a punishment, wounded, ancl, as it were,
disarmed and spoiled of all defence, exposed to the assaults
of the devil, that it might be easily taken." By which words
St. Leo seems to say, that he who, for a trifling cause, is
excommunicated, does nevertheless feel all the evils of that
greatest censure. He says well and true : but he does not
say, that he is separate from God, that he shall perish ever-
lastingly, that God will in heaven verify what is done upon
earth ; but he, reproving this impiety, that the greater excom-
munication should be inflicted for trifles, tells the real evils
which do follow: for the excommunicate, being separate from
the communion, denied the prayers of the Church, banished
from the communion of saints, is divested of all these excel-
lent helps and spiritual defensatives against the power of the
devil. Now this is very true, though the case were wholly
unjust ; and much more, if the cause be something, though
not sufficient. ' De facto,' the man is deprived of the helps
of the Church, and the advantages of holy ordinances : and
though God will, if the man be a good man and devout, hear
his private prayers, and supply him with secret strengths,
and in his behalf rebuke the devil ; yet it is a worthy cause
of complaint in St. Leo, to consider that this evil was done for
little things, and that for so small occasions God should be
put to his extraordinary way, and the man be deprived of the
blessings of the ordinary.

d In his 93d epistle.



IN CANONS AND CENSURES. 3

3. But whether this sentence, so slightly inflicted, do
really bind the soul before God, is a question which Origen 6
inquired into, but durst not affirm it ; but concludes that it
obliges in the Church and before men : for whether it obliges
before God or no, " Deus scit; nos autem pronunciare
non possumus, secundum quod scriptum est, ' Nolite judi-
care;' God only knows, but we must not judge." But yet
if it be his unhappy lot to fall into such a calamity, " factum
valet, fieri non debuit ;" the ecclesiastical ruler did very ill
in it, yet the man is bound to the Church. " Qui ergo in
peccato levi correptus non se emendat, nos quidem sic eum
debemus habere, quasi publicanum, et ethnicum, abstinentes
ab eo, ut confundatur ; He therefore that is taken and ex-
communicate for a small fault, and will not amend, we must
esteem him as a heathen and a publican, that he may be
ashamed." Indeed the Church hath put a heavy and an un-
equal load upon such a person, and hath erred greatly ; for
no man is to be separated from the Church of God, but he
that separated himself from God, and hath left his duty: but
therefore if the Church do excommunicate him whose action
or words, though it be faulty, yet it can consist with the state
of a good man, and does not destroy the love of God, the
censure was too heavy as to the external, and false as to the
internal ; for the man is not fallen from God, but does
communicate with the head, and continues to receive of the
Spirit of Christ.

4. But yet even such a man is bound externally : for this
is the meaning of that famous saying of St. Gregory ; f " Pas-
toris sententia etiam injusta timenda est; The sentence of a
bishop, though it be unjust, is to be feared ;" that is, though
it be in a cause that is not great and competent enough,
but if it be in a light matter, yet it is to be feared ; not only
because the man is deprived of the prayers arid communions
of the Church (which, though it happen to an innocent per-
son, is a great evil, and therefore is to be feared though it be
in all senses unjust) ; but also, because it binds the man that
is deprehended even in a light fault, to submit to the judg-
ment and satisfactions of the Church. The burden is very
great, and ought not to have been imposed ; but when it is,
it must be suffered, because no repentance can be too great

e Tract, vi. in Mutt. l In Evangel, homil. xxvi.



4 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

for any sin : and although the bishop made a false judgment
concerning: the man, and he does not stand so before God as

O *

before the Church, that is, for his first little offence ; yet being
censured and unfortunate, if he refuses to obey that which is
indeed too much to be imposed, but will do him no hurt, it
is not his first little sin, but his great contempt, that is to be
accounted for before God with the greatest severity.

5. But then if it be inquired, In what cases only excom-
munication may be lawfully inflicted ? the answer is easy :
but I choose to give it in the words of the fathers, because
there is in this case reason and authority too. " Ubi pec-
catum non est evidens, ejicere de ecclesia neminem possu-
mus, ne forte eradicantes zizania, eradicemus simul cum
ipsis etiam triticum :" so Origen : g " Unless the fact be
evident, no man must be excommunicate, for else we may
perad venture root up the wheat with the tares." But that is
not enough.

6. No man must be excommunicate but he that is
" peccator gravis et scandalosus, a grievous and a scan-
dalous sinner;" so St. Gregory : h and like to this is that
of Aristotle ; A/aXorsov ou craovv, dXXdfc roTg avidroig dia rw
fju>%6rigiav, " We must not separate from every sinner ; but
from the intolerable and malicious." For what should a
man proceed to violent remedies, when a gentle application
will make the cure? and, for a trifling cause, to cut a man off
from the communion of the Church, is to do as the man in
the fable, that, espying a fly upon his neighbour's forehead,
went to put it off with a hatchet and struck out his brains.
And therefore the fathers in the Council of Worms' decreed,
" Ut nullus sacerdotum quenquam rectse fidei hominem pro
parvis et levibus causis a communione suspendat : prseter
eas culpas pro quibus antiqui patres arceri jusserunt aliquid
committentes ; In the infliction of censures the Church
should follow the practice of the primitive fathers, excom-
municating no true believer but for some very grievous
fault."

7. Neither is this sufficient of itself: a scandalous sin
alone is not enough; for excommunication is the last re-
medy. " Omnia prius tentanda quam bello experiendum ;"
when nothing else will do it, then this is to be used : for if

* In Josue. homil. xxi. h In v. Penit. Psal. Can. ii.



IN CANONS AND CENSURES. 5

the man will be amended by private correction, or by public
admonition, if he be ready to hear his brother, or to obey the
Church, why should he be esteemed as a heathen man and a
publican? "Si non audierit Ecclesiam," is the condition of
using the keys ; " If he will not hear the Church :" so it is
in the charter ; if, being publicly convict and reproved by
the bishop, he will not be humbled, but remains incorrigible
and perseveres in his sin, then he is to be excommunicated and
smitten with the anathema. Like to this is that of Chrysippus :
ra. psv oXwj ra^asrs/^-rsff^a/, ra. Be ftiKgas svigrgotpiis
' ra ds lici (teTfyv, ru ds oXug ^/aAurfews a^ious^ai'
" Some things are to be turned from, with our head a little
aside ; and from some things we must run away : some things
are more earnestly to be avoided ; and from others we must be
parted for ever." So St. Gregory in the place above cited.
" Spiritual! gladio superbi et contumaces necantur, dum de
Ecclesia ejiciuntur ;" so St. Cyprian : k " The proud and con-
tumacious are slain by the spiritual sword, when they are
thrown out of the Church." " Inobediens truncatur," is St.
Jerome's 1 expression ; "He that is rebellious or disobedient
to the discipline and correction of the Church is to be cut off."
8. Now all these must be joined together. If the fact be
not notorious or proved, a man must not be so severely smitten
we know not why. And if the fact be evident, yet, unless it
be great, it deserves not the biggest punishment. For the
judge is cruel, and not just, that puts a man to death with
torments for spitting in his parlour : and the judgment of the
Church, being nothing else but an effective and terrible de-
claration of the judgment of God, must not be exterminating
and final, for things of little concernment, but according
to the wisdom which we see, and tl\e mercy which we hope for.
And after all, if it be evident and great, yet the last remedy
must not be used at first : and a man will not have his arm cut
off for a felon upon his finger, or the gout in his wrist, or an
ulcer that can,' by any other means, be cured. But when in
a great pestilence and danger of infection, there is no other
remedy; when the fire rages desperately, and can by no other
means be stopped ; then pull the house down, and separate
the infected from the city ; he is fit for nothing but charnel-
houses, and the society of the dead.

k Lib. i. ep. 11. ' Epist. i.



6 OF THE POWER OF THE CHURCH

9. This caution Gerson instances in pecuniary mat-
ters. For, saith he, not every contumacy against the orders
of courts ecclesiastical is to be punished with this death.
If it be in matters of faith or manners, then the case is com-
petent ; but when it is a question of money and fees, besides
that the case is full of envy and reproach, apt for scandal and
to bring contempt upon the Church, the Church hath no direct
power in it ; and if it have by the aid of the civil power,
then for that a civil coercion must be used. It is certainly
unlawful to excommunicate any man for not paying the fees
of courts ; for a contumacy there is an offence against the
civil power, and he hath a sword of his own to avenge that.
But excommunication is a sword to avenge the contumacy of
them who stubbornly offend against the discipline of the
Church, in that wherein Christ hath given her authority,
and that is, in the matters of salvation and damnation imme-
diate, in such things where there is no secular interest, where
there can be no dispute, where the offender does not sin by
consequence and interpretation, but directly and without ex-
cuse. But let it be considered, how great a reproach it is to
ecclesiastical discipline, if it be made to minister to the co-
vetousness or to the needs of proctors and advocates ; and



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