Copyright
Jerome Allen.

Temperament in education; also, success in teaching online

. (page 1 of 6)
Online LibraryJerome AllenTemperament in education; also, success in teaching → online text (page 1 of 6)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


"^^ T"^ "E Jl T 00 ^ "*S^ 1 '''f ''"' T*** '& W

r*lrOM H f A "H M

L. IV W F I -Lw. ML* E* L* i m



LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
Deceived JAN 3 1893 . /gp
o.yQ~l3~1 . Class No.




i&tatrtttfl Circle
mo* n.



TEMPERAMENT IN

EDUCATION;



ALSO,



SUCCESS IN TEACHING.



JEROME ALLEN, PH.D.,

PROFESSOR OF PEDAGOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK;
ASSOCIATE EDITOR OF THE. " SCHOOL JOURNAL, 11 N. Y.



NEW YORK AND CHICAGO :

E. L. KELLOGG & CO.

1890



COPYRIGHT, 1890,

E. L. KELLOGG & CO.,

NEW YORK.



INTRODUCTION.



THE author lays no claim to be the originator
of the facts concerning temperament. Most of
these have been known for more than two thousand
years. All he has tried to do is to bring together
and present such admitted principles as can be used
by those who wish to study children and improve
themselves. The attempt is here made not to
talk about temperament or talk at it, but teach it,
as far as the printed page can be made to teach.

The simple reading of these pages will do very
little good. Such use of them may serve to pass
away an hour, but with little profit. The only
way to make them of real educational value is to
do exactly what is directed to be done. There is
enough here outlined for six months' study, and
at the end of that time whoever does the work will
be on the way to know himself and those about
him far better than ever before. It is a principle
in psychology, that WQ cannot understand in others
ivhat we do not experience first in ourselves. The
object of this paper is to give its students more in-
timate knowledge of themselves.



INTRODUCTION.



Free use in both thought and expression lias
been made of the following books:

" Stewart on Temperament/' London, 1885.

"The Characters of Theophrastus," London,
1831.

Lavater's " Looking Glass," London, 1800;
Lavater's "Essays on Physiognomy/' New York,
1871.

George Bancroft's essay on "The Doctrine of
Temperaments/' New York, 1824.

JEROME ALLEN.

NEW YORK, Jan., 1889.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Introduction, 3

Temperament in Education, ....... 7

How we can Know the Mind, . . . . . .7

Native Characteristics of Children, 8

The Proposition of Cicero, ....... 8

Remarks of Addison, 8

What Dr. South says, 9

How TO STUDY OURSELVES, 31

Individual Examination, ....... 11

A Sanguine Temperament, 11

Questions, 12

Conclusions, .... . . . . .13

The Bilious Temperament, 13

Questions, .... . . . . .14

Lymphatic Temperament, . .14

Questions, .... . . . . .15

Nervous Temperament, . .15

Questions, 16

The Sanguine Temperament, 17

Physical Characteristics, . . . . . . .17

Mental Characteristics, . . . . . . .17

The Bilious Temperament, 18

Physical Characteristics, 18

Mental Characteristics, 18

The Lymphatic Temperament, 19

Physical Characteristics,

Mental Characteristics, . . . . . . -19

The Nervous Temperament, 20

Physical Characteristics, . . . . . . .20

Mental Characteristics, ....... 20

Sanguine and Bilious Temperament, 21

Sanguine and Nervous Temperament, . . . . . 21

Sanguine. Bilious, and Nervous Temperament, . . .21

Compound Color Characteristics, 22

5



CONTENTS.



PAGE

A Balanced Temperament 1 22

A Balanced Temperament II, 2l>

A Balanced Temperament III, ...... 23

The Semi-balanced Sanguine Temperament, . . .21

The Semi-balanced Bilious Temperament, . . . . 21

The Semi-balanced Lymphatic Temperament, . . . 25
The Semi balanced Nervous Temperament, .... 2-">

THE BEST TEMPERAMENT, 20

Self-study 27

Temperament, . . . . . . . . .27

Physical Characteristics, 27

Mental Characteristics, ....... 27

Personal Questions, 28

How TO IMPROVE, . . ;J5

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS, 40

How TO STUDY CHILDREN, 44

Its Importance, 44

In What Particular Children are Alike, . . . .45

A FEW FACTS IN CHILD- GROWTH, . . . . .47

Instructive Senses, 47

Sentiments, 47

Native Intellectual Endowments, 48

Early Acquired Intellectual Endowments 48

Later Acquired Endowments, 48

A Few Facts, ... 49

How TO PROMOTE HEALTHY CHILD- GROWTH, . . . 51
CONCERNING TEMPERAMENTAL DIFFERENCES, . . .55
General Notes, 57

WHAT WILL INSURE A TEACHER'S SUCCESS, and Bring

Good Pay and a Permanent Place, 59

Teachers' Associations, 72

Teachers' Institutes, 73

Summer Schools, 74

Apparatus, 77

Kindergarten Helps, 79

Collections Made and Used, 79

Maps Made and Mounted, 80



" OT rai
iRSX

TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.



THE study of temperament has occupied an im-
portant place among scholars for more than two
thousand years, although it has been but recently
valued on account of its educational benefits. It
is now admitted to be especially useful to the
teacher. Temperament takes into consideration
all bodily influences as far as they show mental
characteristics.

How we can Know the Mind. We have no
way of judging of the mind but by its manifesta-
tions through the body, and we can only judge
what another thinks by what he does and how
he looks. Individuals are frequently met whose
characters are stamped upon their faces, so that by
their very appearance they show what they are.
Within certain limits we can judge of the thoughts
of all people by outward signs. It is for the pur-
pose of pointing out what these appearances and
signs are that this treatise is written.

Great injury results from the wrong education
of children. Nothing is more important than to
find out as early as possible in what sphere of life



8 TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.

a child can attain the greatest success when he
arrives at maturity.

Native Characteristics of Children. There are
some boys who never could be qualified to become
lawyers, but they would make excellent physicians.
There are others who might attain great eminence
as builders or engineers, and who would sink far
below mediocrity as doctors or clergymen. The
most eminent men have recognized the necessity
of early deciding what a child can best do in after
life. Cicero sent his son to Athens and placed
him under the care of Chrysippus, who was one of
the greatest philosophers of the age; but history
informs us that the young man proved a block-
head, and showed that he was incapable of improv-
ing even under the instruction of so eminent a
teacher.

The Proposition of Cipero. In view of this fact
Cicero proposed "that there should be triers, or
examiners, appointed by the state to inspect the
genius of every bright boy and to allot him the
part that is most suitable to his natural talent."
It was the custom of Socrates to question his pupils
for the purpose of ascertaining their thoughts and
talents; and it is related that Clavius, a German
mathematician, was considered a hopeless block-
head until one of his teachers tried his talents in
geometry, when it was discovered in what direc-
tion his genius lay. He afterwards became one of
the most eminent mathematicians of the age.

Remarks of Addison. In 1713 Addison said in



WHAT DR. SOUTH SAYS.



the Spectator "that nothing is more usual than
to see forty or fifty boys of several ages and tem-
pers and inclinations, ranged together in the same
class, employed upon the same authors, and en-
joined the same tasks. Whatever their natural
genius may be, they are all to be made poets, his-
torians, and orators alike. They are all obliged to
have the same capacity, to bring the same couplet
or verse, and to furnish out the same portion of
prose. Every boy is bound to have as good a
memory as the captain of the form. Instead of
adapting studies to the particular genius of the
youth, ive expect from a young man that he should
adapt his genius to the studies'." Could anything
be more applicable to our condition to-day ? Ad-
dison suggests that it would 'be well to examine
pupils under the inspection of teachers, in refer-
ence to their capacities and temperaments, and
make such a distribution of them into proper
classes and divisions as their genius qualifies them
for, as professors, trades, engravers, or service by
land or sea. Here Addison was as wise as Cicero.
What Dr. South says. It is remarked by Dr.
South that " some ministers run their heads against
a pulpit who might have done excellent service at
a plough-tail ; and many lawyers, failures at the
bar, might have made very elegant watermen, and
have brilliantly shined at the occupation of scrub-
bing the Temple stairs. On the other hand, he
says that he knew a corn -cutter who would have
made an excellent physician, and several tailors



10 TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.

that would have made good barbers, and builders
rolling under their burdens who might have man-
aged a needle with great dexterity."

The study of temperament then, is of great use
to parents and teachers, and as such its outlines
are here recorded. We have drawn from all
sources, especially the ones mentioned in the " In-
troduction" to this treatise, and while we make
no special acknowledgments, yet ideas and words
have been taken from every place where we could
get them. The arrangement is our own, many of
the observations are ours; but many of the thoughts
and many also of the applications we lay no claim
to have originated.



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES. II



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES.

Individual Examination. To enable us to know
ourselves, each individual must make certain ex-
aminations. It would be well for each one reading
this article to answer the following questions :

Am I quick or slow to perceive the point of a
joke ?

What is the color of my hair ?

Do I know of any one whose hair is the same
color as my own?

Is this person also slow or quick to perceive a
joke ?

What is the texture of my hair fine or coarse?

Notice now whether there is any relation be-
tween the fineness or coarseness of the hair and
quickness of perception.

In fully determining this question and its im-
plied relations, you must examine several persons,
and make the following observations carefully and
deliberately :

A Sanguine Temperament. First find a person
whose complexion is florid, whose skin is fair, with
blue eyes, light hair, animated countenance, bright-
red lips, and active and easily excited circulation ;
a person who blushes readily, whose muscular



12 TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.

fibres are firm without rigidity and elastic without
feebleness. If possible, find one who fills all of
these conditions: it may not be easy at first to do
this, but by a little searching such a one will be dis-
covered among your acquaintances. This indi-
vidual should have a well-developed figure, and a
head and nose a little larger than usual, broad
chin and cheeks, ruddy complexion, and inclined
to grow fleshy as lie grows older. The hair of
such a person will be soft, and not much, if at all,
curly, of a Dale color, and often passing through
different shades to red. The skin will be smooth
and often white, the eyes usually blue, and the
habit of the body soft and plump. The strength
of the whole body will be moderate, and exercise will
readily bring perspiration. All of these peculiari-
ties can be found after a little searching, and it
will be necessary to study such an individual ;
making observations in writing, if you desire to
make thorough work, and ascertain the following
points :

Questions. Is this person irritable, or cheerful,
or morose ; unsteady in purpose, or steady and per
sistent? Is he full of spirits, outspoken, frank and
joyous, with " a kind of impetuosity of temper/'
or is he the opposite ?

Would you judge that the one you have selected
is a steady, calm, quiet person, not much elevated
in emotion, and not often very much depressed ;
never laughing immoderately, and never crying ; or
the opposite ?



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES. 13

Would such an individual as this make a good
lawyer or a judge, or a good teacher; or, on the
other hand, would he be more likely to make a good
mechanic, a good bridge- builder, a good engineer,
or a faithful day-laborer ?

By examining carefully the characteristics of
such an individual as this, you will come to the
following general conclusions, viz. :

Conclusions. The strength of the whole body is
but moderate; the mind is sensible, although often
irritable, yet cheerful, and unsteady. The spirits
are full, but liable to sudden changes; frank and
joyous, sometimes becoming quite angry. We
shall have more to say about this temperament
farther on.

The Bilious Temperament. Having finished for
a time your examination of the sanguine tempera-
ment, turn your attention to another, and find
some person who has black curling hair, dark
eyes, a swarthy and at the same time ruddy com-
plexion, and thick rough hair and skin, and a
strong, full pulse. The eyes of such an individual
should be black or dark brown, the complexion
may be dark or darkish, and the face may be often
pale olive, and perhaps square. The nose may be
outspread, the neck short, and the whole build
thick-set. The peculiarities of the face and nose
and neck and build are usually nearly the same in
all the temperaments, so that these peculiarities
must not be relied upon in order to determine the
temperament as much as the color of the hair and



14 TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.

the eyes and complexion. Having found such a
person as this, ascertain the following facts:

Questions. Is he impulsive or the opposite? Is
he seriously inclined thoughtful ? or, on the other
hand, is he given to thoughts of levity without
much reason or though tfulness? Does he jump at
conclusions and then change them as soon as he
arrives at them, or are his conclusions thoughtfully
arrived at?

In business matters is he cool and wary, or is
he chimerical, hasty, frequently making serious
blunders, rushing on "where angels fear to tread"?
Is he passionate or dispassionate? Jealous, re-
vengeful, and unscrupulous, or the opposite? Is
he eager, earnest, and persistent ? or careless and
intermittent ?

Does he endure in his work from day to day and
even from year to year? or does he frequently
change and become discouraged in his pursuits?
Does he prefer business or profitable occupations,
or intellectual pursuits, or otherwise?

Is he happy or miserable? In the pursuit or
attainment of wealth, power, and family welfare
is he decided or undecided in speech, always
ready and well informed on the subject with which
he is most conversant, or is he undecided and
never ready, and always liable to make mistakes?

Lymphatic Temperament. Now let the bilious
temperament rest for a while, and find a person
who has light, sandy, or white hair, light-gray eyes,
having a pallid and perhaps an unhealthy white-



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES. 1 5

ness of skin, which is almost bereft of hair, and
small blood vessels ; having a weak, slow pulse,
cold surfaces, general defect of vital functions.
Such a person may have flaccid muscles, more or
less pallor of countenance; he will probably be
slow-moving and pale-faced, his hair may some-
times be fair brown, but is always thin, and his
eyes a brown-gray, or light hazel, thinly colored,
the white often in too great proportion, and lus-
treless.

Questions. Now ascertain the following points :
Is his memory good or poor? What about his
reasoning powers? Is his judgment sound and
logical ? Has he a character for common-sense and
straightforward, direct dealings with his fellow-
men? Socially does he make the best of company,
and yet is he a good friend ? Is he impulsive or
slow and heavy; are his conclusions thoughtfully
arrived at or the opposite ? Is he excitable, readi-
ly provoked? On the other hand, is he not excita-
ble and not easily provoked; readily forgiving,
but never forgetting? Is he persistent, although
not ardent ? How about his business habits ? Does
IK; endure keeping at his work day by day, or is
hard labor rather avoided ? Do personal comforts
and indulgences make him happy, or is he careless
about it? Is he slow of speech and always well in-
formed, or does he speak very quickly and very
rapidly, and seldom certain about what he says?

Nervous Temperament. N ow select another per-
son having fine susceptibilities, great rapidity of



16 TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.

action, ideas, and of speech; in the expression of
his feelings and ideas having great vividness of
imagination. Such a person will have small mus-
cles, but great vivacity of sensation, sudden and
changeable determinations and judgments. Find
one whose face tapers from a high or broad fore-
head down to a thin chin; small features, long
neck and slight figure. The hair should be light
brown, the eyes gray, and the complexion pale,
and clear; the body must not be at all inclined to
corpulency, but should rather be tall and extremely
thin.

Questions. Now having found such a person
determine the following conditions: Is this indi-
vidual impulsive, animated, rapid, or the opposite?
Are conclusions drawn so hastily that they are
often regretted, or does he draw his conclusions
slowly and never regrets a step he has taken ? Is
he soon excited and readily provoked, or the oppo-
site? If he becomes excited is he soon reconciled,
or does he hold a grudge for years ? Is he im-
aginative, sensitive, particularly fastidious, or the
opposite? Is he resolute or irresolute? Is he
persistent after a final decision, enduring in work,
never giving up, and in danger of physical bank-
ruptcy, or the opposite ? Are intellectual and
muscular pursuits enjoyed more or less than eat-
ing or drinking. 2. From what source does this in-
dividual get his happiness, from what enriches the
mind, or what enriches the pocket; from travel,
art, or literature, or from the delights of a good



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES. I?

table? Is his speech rapid often very rapid, or
slow frequently very slow ? Is he undecided or
decided; and does precision often give place to
fancy ?

THE SANGUINE TEMPERAMENT.



Physical Characteristics.


Mental Characteristics.


1.


r Hair. Eed, or red-


1. Impulsive. Buoyant




ish.


and cheerful. Fa-


2- 8.


Eyes. Blue.


vorable conclu-


3. -o


Complexion. More


sions thoughtlessly


o


or less florid.


drawn.




L (Color of the face.)


2. Excitable.






Keadily provoked.


4 ' rt -


IFace. Square,


Easily reconciled.


5. g


Nose. Outspread.


Emotional.


6. &*

7.*


Neck. Short.
Build. Thick-set.


3. Ardent in everything.
Not persistent.






4. Not enduring in






work.






5. Muscular pursuits






preferred to intel-






lectual.






6. Equally happy in the






pursuit of little as






of great ends.






More happy in pur-






suit than enjoy-






ment.






7. Firm, outspoken






speech. Not mi-






nutely informed.



* The same in the Sanguine, the Bilious, and the Lym
phatic.



IS



TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.



THE BILIOUS TEMPERAMENT.

(The CHSLERIC, from CHOLER-BILE.)



Physical Characteristics.


Mental Characteristics.


1.


'Hair. Black.


1. Not impulsive. Seri-


2.


Eyes. Black or


ous. Conclusions




dark brown.


thoughtfully a r-


3. S


Complexion. Dark


rived at.


^


or darkish.


2. "Passionate, jealous,




(Color of the face.)


revengeful, unscru-




" Pale olive."


pulous. "




Laycock.


In business matters,






cool and wary.


4 - a


:Face. Square.


3. Eager, earnest, per-


5. | .


Nose. Outspread.


sistent.


6.


Neck. Short.


4. Enduring in work.


7.* |


Build. Thick-set.


5. Business or gainful






pursuits preferred






to muscular or in-






tellectual, but able






to excel in all.






6. Happy in the pursuit






and attainment of






wealth, power, and






family welfare.






7. Decided speech. Al-






ways ready, and in-






formed.



* The same in the Sanguine, the Bilious, and the Lym-
phatic.



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES.



THE LYMPHATIC TEMPERAMENT.
(PHLEGMATIC.)

Physical Characteristics. Mental Characteristics.



1.


Hair. Fair brown


1. Not impulsive. Slow.




(flaxen).


Heavy. Conclu-


2.


Eyes. Brown gray


sions thoughtfully




(green or light


arrived at.




hazel). Thinly


2. Not excitable.




colored. The


Not readily provoked.


fe


white often in


Forgives, but never


!<


too great pro-


forgets.





portion. Lus-


3. Persistent,not ardent.




treless. "Dim-


4. Enduring in work. A




eyed."


plodder in business.


3.


Complexion. Col-


5. Muscular pursuits a-




orless; dense.


voided.




(Color of the face.)


6. Happy from personal




. Opaque.


comforts and in-




dulgence.


4. - (Face. Square.


7. Slow manner o f


5. M Nose. Outspread.


speech. Always in-


6. & } Neck. Short.


formed.


7. * [ Build. Thick-set.





* The same in the Sanguine, the Bilious, and the Lym-
phatic.



^^

U7T F



20



TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.



THE NERVOUS TEMPERAMENT.


Physical Characteristics.


Mental Characteristics.


1.


Hair Light brown.


1. Impulsive. Animat-


2. g


Eyes. Gray.


ed. Rapid. Con-


3-1-


Complexion. Pale.


clusion, so hastily





Clear.


drawn that they




(Color of the face.)


are often regretted.




2. Excitable. Readily


4. ,


Face. Tapers to a


provoked.




narrow chin


Reconciled immedi-




from a high or


ately.




broad forehead.*


Imaginative. Sensi-


5. -


Nose. Narrow.


tive.


6. <


N<ck. Long.


Particular. Fastidi-


7. ^


Build. Slight.


ous.




Slim. Never


3. Irresolute. Persist-




corpulent. Of-


ent after final de-




ten tall and ex-


cision.




. tremely thin.


4. Enduring in work ;




will never give in.




In danger of physi-




cal bankruptcy.




5. Intellectual and mus-




cular pursuits.




6. Happiness from what-




ever pleases the




senses and enriches




the mind Travel,




Art, Literature.




7. Speech rapid, often




very rapid. Fre-




quently undecided.




Precision gives




place to fancy.



* The forehead being large compared with the rest of
the face, the Nervous is sometimes called the Cerebral
Temperament.



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES. 21

SANGUINE AND BILIOUS TEMPERAMENT.

Hair, .... Eed or reddish.

Complexion, . . More or less florid.

Face, .... Square.

Nose, .... Outspread.

Neck, .... Short.

Build, .... Heavy (thick-set).

(Six Sanguine characteristics: see scheme.)
Eyes, .... Black or dark brown.

(One Bilious characteristic: see scheme.)

SANGUINE AND NERVOUS TEMPERAMENT

Hair, .... Red or reddish.
Eyes, .... Blue.
Complexion, . . More or less florid.
Nose, .... Outspread.

(Four Sanguine characteristics: see scheme.)
Face, .... Tapering from a high or broad

forehead to a narrow chin.
Neck, .... Long.
Build, .... Slim.

(Three Nervous characteristics, see previous
table.)

SANGUINE, BILIOUS, AND NERVOUS TEMPERA-
MENT.

Hair, .... Red or reddish.

Complexion, . . More or less florid.

Face, .... Square.

Neck, .... Short.

Build, . . . Heavy (thick-set).



22 TEMPERAMENT IN EDUCATION.

(Five Sanguine characteristics: see scheme.)
Eyes, .... Black.

(One Bilious characteristic.)
Nose y .... Narrow.

(One Nervous characteristic.)

COMPOUND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS.
(THE HAIR.)

1. Dark red, . . Sanguine and Bilious charac-

(red and black.) teristics.

2. Fair red, . . Sanguine and Lymphatic char-

ged and sandy. ) acteristics.

3. Brown, . . . Sanguine and Nervous charac-

(red and gray.) teristics.

4. Dark brown, . Bilious and Lymphatic char-

(black and sandy.) teristics.
(THE EYES.)

1. Dark blue, . . Sanguine and Bilious charac-

(blue and black. ) teristics.

2. Brown, . . . Bilious and Lymphatic char-

(black and brown gray.) [acteristics.

3. Dark gray, . . Bilious and Nervous charac-

(black and gray.) teristics.

A BALANCED TEMPERAMENT. I.

Face. Oval. The blended square

and tapering faces
of the four tempera-
ments.

Build. Medium. The blended stout and

slim builds of the
four temperaments,



HOW TO STUDY OURSELVES. 2$

Nose. Outspread. Sanguine, Bilious, and

Lymphatic.

Neck. Long. Nervous.

Hair. Black. Bilious.

Eyes. Blue. Sanguine,

Complexion. Colorless. Lymphatic.

A BALANCED TEMPERAMENT. II.

Face. Oval. The blended square

and tapering faces
of the four tempera-
ments.

Build. Medium. The blended stout and

slim builds of the
four temperaments.

Nose. Outspread. Sanguine, Bilious, and

Lymphatic.

Neck. Long. Nervous.

Hair. Fair brown. Lymphatic,

(flaxen)

Eyes. Blue. Sanguine.

Complexion. Dark. Bilious.

A BALANCED TEMPERAMENT. III.


1 3 4 5 6

Online LibraryJerome AllenTemperament in education; also, success in teaching → online text (page 1 of 6)