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GIFT OF




HEALTHFUL LIVING



p.



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS
ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., LIMITED

LONDON BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD,
TORONTO



HEALTHFUL LIVING

BASED ON THE ESSENTIALS OF PHYSIOLOGY
FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS



BY
JESSE FEIRING WILLIAMS, A.B., M.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF HYGIENE AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
LIEUTENANT IN MEDICAL CORPS, UNITED STATES ARMY



Illustrations by B. F. Williamson



Nefo gorfc v

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1921

All righto reserved



QP.3&



COPTBIOHT, 1919,

'./i b^THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
S^ vi^nd eicctrotyped. Published July, 1919.



INTRODUCTION

IN writing this book, I have been guided by two con-
siderations : first, to present the essentials of physiology
for the high school pupil in a form that would provide
motives and material that would enable him to interpret
intelligently conditions underlying the problem of effective
living, and second, to limit the technical discussion without
making the subject matter worthless as a scientific text,
incapable of providing the background necessary to secure
the first consideration.

As regards the limiting of material, it is evident that the
selection of what to give and what to omit is a matter of
judgment on the part of the author. If that judgment is
to be approved by the educational world interested, then
the anatomy should have a definite relation to the physiology,
and the physiology, although it may give incidentally a
scientific basis for more advanced study, should be deter-
mined by the larger question of usefulness in understanding
essential life processes.

The material and the method of presentation have been
tried out for several years with many students and there is
reason for feeling that a proper and satisfactory selection of
physiologic facts and principles has been made.

It is interesting to note that at one time physiology in the
schools was merely the teaching of anatomy. "How many
bones in the skeleton?" was a typical question. As the
texts improved and the method changed, function was
emphasized, and in most texts to-day, the presentation of

v

450954



vi Introduction

function is the goal of endeavor. It should be remembered,
however, that knowledge of the structure and function of the
body is of value in proportion as it helps the boy or girl to
live a finer and more vigorous life, or as it lays the foundation
for further study in this field. As regards these values, it
may serve effectively to teach not only hygiene, but also
social science and ethics.

The study of physiology should arouse interest in health
in the student and provide guidance for intelligent care of
the body. One effect of civilization on the race is that
health is increasingly harder to maintain. The gradual
but pronounced change in the character of our food, the
increasing emphasis laid upon studies, the prevalence of bad
housing conditions, the increase in sedentary occupations,
and the enforced use of the transportation facilities are a
few of the forces arrayed against the maintenance of health.
The school does not stand alone and unrelated to these
problems, and physiology to be of most service must help
to educate the child in the nature of the human body and the
dangers that confront its growth, development, and efficiency.

With this object in mind, distinct emphasis is given the
application of the physiological fact to the life of the reader.
Therefore, relatively little space is devoted to, the study of
the mechanism of the eye and ear ; but the physiology of
exercise is stated prominently, both in text and in illustra-
tion. The wisdom of such a course will be clear to every
one whether he judges by the standards of "pure science"
or by those of "applied science."

Spirited questions, which should suggest many others of
similar character, are placed at the end of chapters. There
are numerous laboratory experiments ; most of these require
only the simplest apparatus or none at all. The text is not
impaired if the experiments are not performed, but its value
is increased by the demonstration of both structure and func-
tion. At the close of each chapter is a glossary of technical



Introduction vii

terms used in that chapter. There is no thought of doing
away with the need for consultation or reference books ;
they are always necessary, and the brief glossary should
stimulate to greater use of dictionary and encyclopedia.

To acknowledge the service of those who have contributed
in the preparation of this book, gives me especial pleasure.
The organization is based partly on the plan of Coleman's
Elements of Physiology. All rights in that work have been
purchased by the publishers and this new book is offered to
the school public without apology for similarities or identities,
which are many. The task was to remodel a structure that
had been very valuable but was now in need of repairs.
The repairs have been made but it would ill become me to
deny the old in my enthusiasm for the new.

To Miss Marguerite Smith for the picture of girls' athletics,
to Miss Mary Gross for excellent illustrations of posture,
to Dr. Frank S. Matthews for the splendid pictures of adenoid
deformity, to Dr. Thomas D. Wood for numerous health
essentials which he has proposed, I desire to express my
thanks.

Students, instructors and friends who have gone over this
subject with me share with me whatever merit the book
may have, but I desire especially to acknowledge the in-
spiration and help of Professor Henry Carr Pearson, prin-
cipal of the Horace Mann School.

The criticism and suggestions of Professor Edward Law-
rence Hall-Quest, of the University of Cincinnati, have been
valuable indeed. Professor Hall-Quest has read the entire
manuscript, correcting mistakes and revising statements.
Numerous conferences with Professor William Paxton
Burris, Dean of Teachers College of the University of Cin-
cinnati have resulted in substantial aid in preparing the
manuscript.

Credit should be given to the Harvard Apparatus Co.,
The Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., The American Posture



viii Introduction

League, and The Scientific Temperance Federation for
the privilege of reproducing illustrations that have appeared
in other publications.

With such an indebtedness, I hesitate to call the book my
own. However, I am glad to owe something to all of these.

J. F. W.



CONTENTS

PART I
HOW THE BODY IS CONSTRUCTED *

PTER PAGE

I. THE CELLS OF THE BODY 1-11

The cell, the unit of structure. The origin of cells.
The properties of cells. Tissues formed from cell groups.
Organs formed from tissues. Similarity between living
organisms and social groups. Similarity between the
human body and a city.

II. TISSUES 12-37

Kinds of tissues. Epithelial tissues. Indications of
good health.

III. TISSUES (continued) 38-59

Connective tissues. Muscular tissues. Nervous
tissues. Building good tissues.

IV. ORGANS FORMED FROM TISSUES .... 60-71

The different systems in the body. Organs of the
muscular system. Organs of the skeletal system.
Organs of the digestive system. Organs of the respira-
tory system. Organs of the circulatory system. Organs
of the nervous system. Organs of the excretory sys-
tem. Organs of the reproductive system.

PART II
HOW THE BODY IS MOVED

V. THE SKELETON FRAMEWORK OF THE BODY ". . 72-94

The use of the skeleton. Parts of the skeleton. The
structure of a long bone. The composition of bone.
Joints.

ix



x Contents

CHAPTER PAGE

VI. HYGIENE OF THE SKELETON . . . 95-108

The nourishment of bones. Broken bones. Dis-
locations and sprains. Weak feet. Deformities of the
spinal column. Posture. Essential facts in the growth
and development of bones.

VII. THE MUSCLES 'AS THE MOTOR MACHINERY OF THE

BODY . . r V' 109-121

What the muscles do. Muscles and nerves. Kinds
of muscles. Voluntary and involuntary muscles com-
pared. The attachment of muscles. How muscles and
bones cooperate. Names and positions of muscles.

VIII. THE MUSCLES IN ACTION AND THE HYGIENE OF

EXERCISE 122-145

The neuro-muscular mechanism. Muscular energy.
Muscular tone. Muscular activity and fatigue. The
effects of stimulants and narcotics on muscular action.
The effect of exercise on growth. The relation of exer-
cise to health. Forms of exercise. Over-development
.of the muscles.

PART III
HOW THE BODY IS NOURISHED

IX. FOOD AND ITS ELEMENTS 146-157

Nutritive and non-nutritive elements in food. Com-
position of foods. Sources of food elements. Uses of
food in the body. Proportion of food elements in a
normal diet. Calculation of food values. The diet of
different peoples. The body's method of regulating the
food supply. The work of enzymes in digestion.

X. THE DIGESTION OF FOOD 158-188

The structure and functions of the alimentary canal.
The liver. Diagram of digestive mechanism. The
waste products from food elements.

XI. THE HYGIENE OF DIGESTION . . tt . . . . 189-210

Digestion and health. Digestion and environment.
Hobbies about nutrition. Man's original food re-



Contents xi



sources and how they have been enlarged. Present day
sources of food. Patent medicines. Eating and drink-
ing at meals. General rules modified by individual
needs. Cooking. The fireless cooker. Times for eating.

XII. THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD .... 211-234

How the circulation of blood serves the body. The
nature of circulation. The composition of the blood.
The heart as a pump. The blood vessels as tubes.
Blood pressure. The heart rate.

XIII. THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD (continued) . 235-255

How the heart is aided in its work. The lymphatic
circulation. Hygiene of the circulation.

XIV. THE RESPIRATION 256-285

Why breathing organs are needed. The respiratory
organs. The breathing process. The air we breathe.
The hygiene of respiration.



PART IV
HOW THE BODY IS CONTROLLED

XV. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 286-315

The functions of the nervous system. The nerve cell
the unit of the nervous system. Nerve action. Sensations.
Injury to nerves. General arrangement of the nervous
system.

XVI. HYGIENE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM . . . 316-331

Connection between body and mind. The effect of
activity of the nervous system. The effect of sleep. The
effect of fatigue. The effect of alcohol. Improper func-
tioning of the nervous system. Ten Golden Rules of
Health.

XVII. SENSATIONS AND THE SPECIAL SENSES . . . 332-356

Classification of the senses. The sense of taste. The
sense of smell. The sense of sight. The sense of hearing.
The sense of touch. The muscular sense. General
sensations of the body.



xii Contents

CHAPTER PAGE

XVIII. SOME SPECIAL REGULATIVE PROCESSES . . . 357-367

The regulation of the temperature of the body. The
regulation of body activity and growth. The control of
the voice.

PART V
HOW THE BODY IS INJURED

XIX. BACTERIA AND DISEASE ...... 368-399

Injury to the body by forces in its environment.
Microscopic forms of life. The effects of bacterial
growth in the body. The germ theory of disease.
Anti-toxins and immunity. Injury of the body -by
poisons in food. Injury of the body by physical agents.
Injury of the body by chemical agents. Diseases caused
by mosquitoes. Tuberculosis. Prevention of commu-
nicable diseases. Table of ways and means of com-
munication of the important infections of man. How
bacteria are destroyed within the body. How bacteria
are destroyed outside the body. A curious theory of
disease. Health rules for school children.

XX. THE EFFECT OF ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO . . 400-416

The body as a storehouse of energy. The meaning of
fatigue. The effect of stimulants on energy and nerves.
Alcohol. Tobacco.

APPENDIX. FIRST AID IN EMERGENCIES 417-426



HEALTHFUL LIVING



HEALTHFUL LIVING

CHAPTER I
THE CELLS OF THE BODY

I. The Cell, the Unit of Structure.
Protoplasm
Nucleus

One-celled animals
II. The Origin of Cells.

III. The Properties of Cells.

IV. Tissues Formed from Cell Groups.
V. Organs Formed from Tissues.

VI. Similarity between Living Organisms and Social Groups.
One-celled animals and primitive society
The developed body and modern society
VII. Similarity between the Human Body and a City.



The cell, the unit of structure. A brick wall is con-
structed from bricks. Assembled in a certain order, they
are the parts which compose the wall. It makes no dif-
ference whether the brick is round, square, or irregular,
whether it is painted red, green, or blue ; it remains, in all
cases, the unit out of which the wall is built. Consequently
we speak of the brick as being the unit of structure of the
wall (Fig. 1, A). In similar fashion, all forms of life are
composed of cells. Plants and animals are both constructed
from cells. They may vary in shape, size, color, and ac-
tivity, but, nevertheless, they are to be considered as the
units of structure. These units are so small that they can
be seen only by means of the microscope, but when we look



-Healthful Living




FIG. 1. A, brick wall ; B, segment of orange ;
C, cells from stomach. The cell is the unit of struc-
ture. Relative size is not shown. The cells in C
are much smaller than the cells in B.



at them through this instrument, we notice that they are
as definite in shape as the bricks in a brick wall (Fig. 1, C).

The cells of

3 0123^^ ^j^M^^ P lant and animal

are not hard and
solid as bricks
are. On the con-
trary, they are
soft and liquid.
It is quite com-
mon to think of
an orange as a
solid substance,
and yet the
orange is composed of cells which are filled with a liquid,
the juice. If we break open the segment of an orange,
we can see the cells with the unaided eye, and if we prick
one of them the juice will run out (Fig. 1, B).

Protoplasm* The liquid substance of which the body
cell is made is called protoplasm, and this name is applied
to the cell substance of both
animals and plants. Workers
with the microscope, many
years ago, found that plant
and animal tissues are com-
posed of cells, and that the
liquid in the cells is of more
importance than the walls F[G 2 _ Diagram of . coll

Which the protoplasm builds Showing that protoplasm has an
around itself. intricate structure; in this case it

appears somewhat like honeycomb.

We should not think be-
cause we use the same name, protoplasm, for the substance
forming the cellular material of both plants and animals,

* Words marked with a star * are defined in the glossary at the end of each
chapter.




Nuc/eofus
Protoplasm



The Cells of the Body





that its chemical composition is always the same (Fig. 2).

It is best to think of it as a substance that makes possible

the life and activity of the cell rather than as

a substance that has definite and fixed chemical

properties. Furthermore, it is important to

remember that the composition of protoplasm

varies in the same cell according to many

factors. Exercise, food, fresh air, alcohol,

and disease cause changes in the protoplasm.

Some of these changes are favorable. Can

you name, from the above, the factors which

cause unfavorable changes? Physiology is

the study of the way this protoplasm acts in

the cells of the body.

Nucleus. A living cell has two essential
parts. One is a small mass or globule* of
protoplasm, and the other is a small body
within the mass of protoplasm, called the
nucleus * (Fig. 2) . There are two other parts
of less importance. Within the nucleus there
may be a small body, called the nudeolus*
and usually the protoplasm has a membrane
surrounding it, called the wall. The nucleus
is the vital part of the cell. If a cell is
divided, that portion containing the nucleus
alone survives. After they lose their nucleus,
the red cells of the blood live only a few days.

One-celled animals. The cells of the body,
owing to the fact that they have a wall, soft food (as seen
contents, and a nucleus, resemble minute one- U Q^ ^ f h ^e
celled animals sometimes found in stagnant microscope),
water. Figure 3 shows the appearance under
the microscope of the amoeba, one of these small animals.
The amoeba seems to be hardly more than a minute drop of
jelly, yet it lives and does in a simple way many of the things





Healthful Living



that the human body can do. It moves by pushing out a
part of its body ; it takes in food by rolling a process of its
body around the food to be eaten ; and after digesting the
part it wants, it discards the indigestible portion of the food.
If the amoeba is struck or jarred, it reacts by moving its body.
It absorbs oxygen * from the air and it gives off carbon dioxide.*
When it attains a certain .size, it divides into two parts. It
does not divide, however, and produce new individuals
until it has reached its full growth.*
The origin of cells. For many
years it was believed that life origi-
nated spontaneously. This viev
is called the theory of spontane
ous generation. We know now,
however, that all cells are derived
from cells (Fig. 4) and that the vast
number of different cells which com-
pose a living body are all derived
from two single cells, the ovum*
(Fig. 5) and the spermatozoon*
The health and strength of these two
cells are dependent upon the health,
strength, and vigor of the whole
body. In this respect, the strength
and vigor of the race are dependent
upon the strength and vigor of each
member of the race. This is an im-
portant responsibility because each
person, by being strong and vigorous,
makes it possible for coming genera-
tions to have health and strength.
In this way, health is a duty that
no one may neglect.
The properties of cells. If we say that a stone is hard,
that it sinks when thrown into the water, that it will break




FIG. 4. A cell under-
going division. A, cell be-
fore division ; B, thread-like
formation of the vital parts
of the nucleus ; C, equal di-
vision of the nuclear thread ;
D, separation of the nuclear
structure for the new cells
and commencing constric-
tion of cell body ; E, nuclei
beginning return to resting
states ; F, complete division
of cell body into daughter
cells whose nuclei have re-
turned to the resting states.



The Cells of the Body 5

when hit with sufficient force, we are speaking of the proper-
ties * that belong to the stone. Cells also have properties





FIG. 5. Different stages in the development of the frog's egg (-4) to
form the body of the frog. In D the egg (ovum) has divided many times,
and presently these cells will begin to change into bone, nerve, and muscle
cells, and other types of body cells.

the characteristics which distinguish them from other struc-
tures.

In the first stages of the formation of the body, the cells
which later on develop into muscle cells, or nerve cells, or
skin cells, look very much alike and have identical properties.
They can divide and reproduce themselves (the property of
reproduction*) ; they can take up food and build it into tissue *
and remove the waste (the property of metabolism *) ; they can
receive an impulse and conduct it to all parts of the cell (the
property of irritability * and conductivity *) ; they can respond
to a stimulus and contract the cell body (the property of
contractility *) .

They also change in their properties. Certain cells be-
come unable to contract, but are very proficient in sending
nerve impulses ; others cannot secrete digestive juices, but
they are able to reproduce the individual. We say, there-
fore, that the sex cells develop the property of reproduction,
the nerve cells the properties of irritability and conductivity ;
the digestive and excretory cells develop the property of me-
tabolism, and the muscle cells the property of contractility.

Tissues formed from cell groups. Cells of one kind
group .themselves together to perform a particular function
and are called a tissue. We speak of muscle tissue, and we



6 Healthful Living

understand that there is this grouping of many muscle cells
for the purpose of contraction. Therefore, a group of cells
of a particular kind to perform a particular function is known
as a tissue (Figs. 6, 7, 8).

Organs formed from tissues. Tissues combine to per-
form more effectively a highly complex act. The resulting
structure is an organ. Tissues grouped in a definite way to
cooperate their tissue functions in some special task are
known as an organ. The stomach, for example, is an organ
composed of muscle, nerve, and connective tissues, and each
tissue cooperates in the digestion of food in the stomach. The
muscle contracts the stomach and moves the food at the
proper time into the intestine; the nerve tissue tells the
muscles when to contract, and the epithelial cells when to
secrete digestive juice ; and the connective tissue binds the
other tissues together to produce the whole organ.

Similarity between living organisms and social groups.
It has been learned that the body is composed of cells with
special properties grouped into tissues ; that the tissues are
arranged to form organs. An individual constructed to
carry on the activity of life by means of parts or organs
which are separate and yet dependent upon each other is
called an organism* Man is, therefore, frequently referred
to as an organism. The term is sometimes used with refer-
en^ce to society. The relation of the parts of the body to the
whole body and of the individual man to the organism of
society is very important. We have learned that there are
organisms composed of only one cell and that such organisms
may show all the properties of living matter. As soon as
an organism becomes multicellular,* an arrangement is nec-
essary for groups of cells to take up certain special tasks.
This arrangement and organization permits greater achieve-
ment in the group because certain cells are free to accomplish
results which would have been impossible in an unicellular *
type of organism.



The Cells of the Body 7

This division of labor among cells may be likened to a
similar division of labor that occurs in human society. A
city with its million inhabitants is a superior social group
for the performing of greater tasks than are possible for the
people in a pioneer settlement. In this respect, the organism,
man, is superior to the amoeba. Both man and a city are
superior as types because they have greater opportunities
and can make better use of abilities in acts that enrich the
life of the world. The city is more complex, more alive,
more sensitive than the pioneer settlement, but in order to
maintain this highly specialized state it must be exceedingly
watchful against disease * and degeneration.* In this same
way, man, a highly specialized organism, superior to the
unicellular animals, needs to be careful of the laws of life
and health, the observance of which makes such high special-
ization * possible. In each case then, in animal life and in
human society, specialization produces a superior life, but
it also produces the need for intelligent care of the basis of
life. The castle needs a better foundation than the kennel.

One-celled animals and primitive society. The basis of
life for the complex organism is the same as that for the
simple organism. The amoeba in its self-dependence is like
the savage living alone. Modern man with his highly de-
veloped body is like the organization of a great city. In
each case, however, the simple organism and the complex
organism resemble each other by requiring food, air, and
water, by needing activity of the proper kind and the re-
moval of body waste. In a complex society, it is necessary
that all groups of men do their special tasks well. In a
similar fashion, man must look for his strength and security
to the proper functioning of all his cells, and in no instance
may he with impunity sacrifice the removal of waste to the
development of the nerve cell. All must be cared for.

The developed body and modern society. The more com-
plex an organism becomes the greater is the necessity for



8 Healthful Living

cooperation. In human groups there is this important re-
lation between men and women and their fellow members in
society, which illustrates the cooperation required in the
developed body. Members of the human family are de-
pendent upon each other. The chemist has to rely upon
the integrity of the manufacturer of chemical apparatus ;
the farmer is dependent upon the chemist for a complete and
accurate analysis of his soil ; the child in school is dependent



Online LibraryJesse Feiring WilliamsHealthful living, based on the essentials of physiology, for high school pupils → online text (page 1 of 30)