Jesse Walter Fewkes.

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Washington, D. C., August 4, 1912.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the Thirty-
third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Eth
nology, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912.

With appreciation of your aid in the work under my
charge, I am

Very respectfully, yours,


Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.




Systematic researches 9

Publications 33

Illustrations 34

Library 35

(Collections f 36

Property 36

Recommendations 37

Note on the accompanying papers 39


Uses of plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, by Melvin Ran
dolph (Jilmore (pis. 1-30) 43

Preliminary Account of the Antiquities of the Region between the Mancoe
and La Plata Rivers in Southwestern Colorado, by Earl H. Morris (pis.
31-75; figs. 1-11) 155

Designs on Prehistoric Hopi Pottery, by Jesse Walter Fewkes (pis. 7<i-90;

figs. 12-112) 207

The Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai, by Martha Warren Beckwith (pis.
91-95) 285

Index 667






F. W. HODGE, Etlmologist-in-Charge

The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1912, were conducted
in accordance with the act of Congress approved March
-J, 1911, making appropriations for sundry civil expenses
of the Government, which act contains the following item :

American ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among
the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, including the ex
cavation and preservation of archa>ologic remains, under the direction
of the Smithsonian Institution, including salaries or compensation
of all necessary employees and the purchase of necessary books and
periodicals, including payment in advance for subscriptions, forty-
two thousand dollars.


The systematic researches of the bureau were conducted
by the regular staff, consisting of eight ethnologists, and
with the aid of specialists not directly connected with the
bureau, but the results of whose studies were procured for
publication. These operations may be summarized as
follows :

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist-in-charge, was occupied
with administrative affairs during the greater part of the
year, but from time to time, as opportunity afforded, he
was engaged in the preparation of an annotated Bibliog
raphy of the Pueblo Indians, with the result that almost


1,100 cards bearing titles, descriptions of contents, etc.,
of writings pertaining to the Pueblos were completed.
Knowledge of the Pueblo Indians commenced with the
year 1539, and these people have been the subject of so
much attention by early Spanish explorers and mission
aries, as well as by ethnologists and others, in recent years,
that the literature has become voluminous and widely scat
tered. The need of a guide to this array of material has
been greatly felt by students, and for this reason Mr.
Hodge has prepared notes on the subject for a number of
years with the view of their final elaboration in the form
of a bibliography.

Late in August Mr. Hodge proceeded to New Mexico,
and after a brief visit to the archeological sites in the
Rito de Los Frijoles, northwest of Santa Fe, where ex
cavations were conducted in conjunction with the School
of American Archaeology in 1911, continued to El Morro,
or Inscription Rock, about 35 miles east of Zufii, for the
purpose of making facsimile reproductions, or squeezes,
of the Spanish inscriptions there, which have such an im
portant bearing on the early history of the Pueblo tribes.
El Morro is a picturesque eminence of sandstone rising
from the sandy valley, and by reason of the former exist
ence of a spring at its base, which is now merely a seep,
it became an important camping place of the early
Spaniards on their journeys to and from the Rio Grande
and the Zuni and Hopi pueblos. The inscriptions of
these early explorers were carved near the base of the
rock, chiefly on the northern and southern sides of the
highest portion of the mesa, and in the main consist of
the names of the visitors with the dates of their visits,
but in a number of cases elaborated with a more or less
full statement of the object of the journey.

The earliest of the inscriptions is that of Juan de Onate,
the colonizer of New Mexico and founder of the city of
Santa Fe, who inscribed his name and the object of his
visit in 1606, on his return from a perilous journey to the
Gulf of California. Others who visited the rock and left


a record are, in order of date: Gov. Francisco Manuel de
Silva Nieto, who escorted the first missionaries to Zuni in
1629; Juan Gonzales, probably a member of the small
military escort accompanying the same party, and bearing
the same date (1629) ; Lujan, who visited Zuni in 1632 to
avenge the murder of Fray Francisco Letrado. one of
the missionaries who accompanied Silva Nieto ; Juan de
Archuleta, Diego Martin Barba, and Agustin de Ynojos,
1636; Gov. Diego de Vargas, 1692, the conquerer of the
Pueblos after their rebellion in 1680 which led to their
independence of Spanish authority during the succeeding
12 years ; Juan de Uribarri, 1701 ; Ramon Paez Hurtado,
1709; Ju. Garcia de la Rivas, Feliz Martinez, and Fray
Antonio Camargo, 1716; Joseph de Payba Basconzelos,
1726; Juan Paez Hurtado and Joseph Truxillo, 1736;
Martin de Elizacochea (bishop of Durango) and Juan
Tgnacio de Arrasain, 1737; and others of the eighteenth
century. These inscriptions were all carefully photo
graphed by Mr. Jesse L. Nusbaum, with whose aid Mr.
Hodge made paper squeezes which were brought to Wash
ington and transferred to the National Museum, where
Mr. Nusbaum later made plaster casts of the paper nega
tives, insuring the permanent preservation of the inscrip
tions in this manner. This work was accomplished none
too soon, since deterioration by weathering is progressing
in some parts of the cliff face bearing the inscriptions,
while vandalism is perhaps playing an even more serious
part in the destruction of these important historical
records, notwithstanding the fact that El Morro has been
created a national monument by Executive order.

Early in September Mr. Hodge joined Dr. Edgar L.
Hewett, director of the School of American Archeology,
and his assistants, in the Jemez Valley, about 65 miles
northwest of Albuquerque, for the purpose of conduct
ing excavations, under the joint auspices of the bureau
and the school, in an extensive ruined pueblo on a mesa
1,800 feet in height, skirting the valley on the west. This
village was occupied within the historical period by the


Jemez people, by whom it is known as Kwasteyukwa. The
ruins cover an area approximately 850 by 600 feet, and
even on partial excavation exhibited distinct evidence of
occupancy at two different periods. The original pueblo
was considerably larger than the one later inhabited,
although the latter was built on the ruins of the older
and of the same materials. The walls were of tufa
blocks, rudely shaped and set in adobe mortar ; the rooms
were small, the masonry crude, and practically none of the
walls remain standing above ground. A large artificial
reservoir in a northwestern angle of the ruin furnished
the water supply, and various smaller depressions prob
ably mark the sites of kivas. The later inhabitants those
within the historical period, or about the first half of the
seventeenth century buried their dead in and beneath
the debris of the older part of the pueblo. The mortuary
accompaniments were of the usual character, speaking in
general terms pottery, traces of textiles, stone and bone
implements and other objects, and a few ornaments.
The finding of glass beads with the remains of a child,
and an iron nail in another grave, bear testimony of the
comparatively recent occupancy of the village by the
Jemez Indians. It was the custom of the inhabitants to
throw large stones into the graves, resulting in the break
ing of almost all the pottery deposited with the dead.
The fragments were carefully preserved, however, and
will be repaired by the National Museum. A noteworthy
specimen of pottery bears in its decoration a feather
design almost identical with feather symbols found on
ancient pottery of the Hopi, and therefore tending to
verify traditions of the latter people that some of their
ancestral clans came from the Jemez.

Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, was engaged in
field work from July to October, having especially in
view the determination of the western limits of the an
cient Pueblo culture in Arizona. Outfitting at Jerome,
in that State, he proceeded to certain large ruins on the
upper Verde, on Oak Creek, and in Sycamore Canyon,


where some time was spent at each locality in photo
graphing and in making plans of these and adjacent re
mains, as well as in a study of the formerly occupied
caves near the mouth of Oak Creek. Crossing the rough
country separating the upper course of Oak Creek and
the great sandstone cliffs known as the Red Rocks, Doc
tor Fewkes revisited and further studied the large cliff
dwellings, known as Honanki and Palatki, excavated by
him in 1895. Several hitherto undescribed ruins were
added to the list of ancient remains in this general

From the Red Rocks Doctor Fewkes returned to the
Verde and followed that stream upward to the Jordan
ranch, where cliff houses of an instructive character
were photographed and studied. He also investigated on
the hills back of Cornville certain large stone structures
of the type known to Spanish-speaking people as trin-
cheras, rude but massive fortifications that here begin to
assume importance. A number of ruins hitherto unre
corded belonging to the cave or cliff-dwelling type were ob
served in the walls of Sycamore Canyon, or Dragoon Fork,
and the outlines of stone houses were seen above the river
terrace near the junction of Sycamore Creek and Verde
River. A large aboriginal fort, with walls well preserved,
was found on a height overlooking the Verde, above the
mouth of Granite Creek, and others more nearly de
stroyed were seen at the Baker ranch and in Hell Canyon,
not far from Del Rio Station. Near the Baker ranch,
a mile or two down the Verde, are the remains of a cliff
dwelling, directly in the line of a projected railroad,
which will probably be destroyed when the road is con
structed. Doctor Fewkes also visited the ruins of several
fragile- walled habitations, consisting of low mounds, near
Jerome Junction and Del Rio. Although many evidences
of such ancient dwellings are here seen, most of the foun
dation walls have been carried away by settlers and used
in their own house building.


A large fort, with well-preserved walls, occupies a low
limestone ridge east of Williamson Valley, above the trail
from Del Rio westward, and commanding a view of the
valley west of Jerome. This fort is typical of the trin-
cheras that appear more and more frequently as one pro
ceeds westward from the upper Verde. Several incon
spicuous ruins, hitherto undescribed, were found in Wil
liamson Valley, those situated on the hills belonging to the
fortification type, while those in the valleys consist merely
of low mounds of stone and other debris.

Proceeding westward from Chino Valley, many inter
esting ruins were observed along the valley of Walnut
Creek, referred to in Lieut. A. W. Whipple s report of
1853 as Pueblo Valley, once noted as the site of old Camp
Hualapai. This vale, from Aztec Pass to the point where
the creek is lost in the sands of Williamson Valley, was
extensively tilled in prehistoric times, as is attested by
the well-marked remains of ancient irrigation ditches.
Characteristic petroglyphs were also found in Walnut

As elsewhere in this region, two types of ruins were ob
served in Walnut Valley, namely, (1) extensive stone
fortifications with massive walls crowning the hilltops on
both sides of the valley and commanding a wide view, and
(2), on the low terraces bordering the stream, clusters
of small mounds constituting the remains of farm
houses, upright posts supporting walls of wattling plas
tered with mud like the jacales of the Mexicans and evi
dently identical in their general character with the dwell
ings of certain Yuman tribes. Among the best preserved
of the forts, called " pueblos " by Whipple, are those near
Aztec Pass and at Drew s ranch, Shock s ranch, and Peter
Marx s ranch, while others are found farther down Wal
nut Creek. No traces of terraced pueblo dwellings were
seen in this region.

In order to shed further light on the relations of the two
types of ruins described, Doctor Fewkes made an examina
tion of the ancient remains along the Agua Fria and near


Prescott. At both places the ruins were found to be of the
same dual character. In a few instances, as at Frog Tanks,
near the mouth of the Agua Fria, the ruins suggest the
great houses or compounds of the Salt and Gila Valleys,
but here also trincheras and fragile-walled houses are the
more common.

The observations made by Doctor Fewkes during this
field season indicate that the ruins in the region referred
to are the remains of buildings so different in architecture
from that of true pueblos that it is probable the culture of
their occupants was also different. Doctor Fewkes reached
the conclusion that the ruins of the forts and small dwell
ings referred to were constructed and used by a Yuman
people whose descendants, more or less mixed with Apache
and other nonrelated tribes, are represented to-day by the
Walapai, Yavapai, and Havasupai Indians. Although
the jacal domiciles of western Arizona were probably struc
turally similar to certain ancient houses in the Pueblo re
gion of New Mexico, the river-terrace houses of Walnut
Valley resembled certain habitations of the lower Gila
River more than they did the pueblos of the Rio Grande.

On returning to Washington, Doctor Fewkes prepared a
report on his observations in this interesting archeological
field, which, with suitable illustrations, is now in press as
one of the accompanying papers of the Twenty-eighth
Annual Report.

Doctor Fewkes also gave considerable time to reading
the proofs and arranging the illustrations of his memoir
on Casa Grande, which likewise is to appear in the Twenty-
eighth Annual Report.

On the completion of the above work Doctor Fewkes
commenced the preparation of another paper relating to
" Designs on Prehistoric Hopi Pottery," a subject to
which he devoted much attention in connection with his
studies of the Hopi Indians for 20 years. This memoir,
which was well advanced toward completion at the close
of the fiscal year, accompanied by numerous plates and
text figures, is designed as a key to the interpretation


of the decoration of ancient Hopi earthenware. The
great multiplicity of life designs appearing on the pot
tery of ancient Sikyatki is treated in the paper, in
which modifications in decorative devices derived from
feathers, birds and other animals, and conventional fig
ures are likewise discussed. One object of Doctor
Fewkes s treatise is to meet a growing desire of those
interested in primitive symbolism, and another is to de
fine the peculiarities of one ceramic area of the Pueblos
as a basis for comparison with others, thus facilitating
the study of Pueblo culture origins and prehistoric migra
tion routes.

As the construction of the Panama Canal has tended
to stimulate an interest in aboriginal remains in the
West Indies, and as many archeological specimens differ
ing from those of the Antilles previously known are now
being brought to light, the time for a scientific study of
them, as well as of the aboriginal sites of the West Indies,
has arrived. Much of the interest recently manifested
in early Indian life in the West Indies may be ascribed
to Doctor Fewkes s memoir on " The Aborigines of Porto
Rico and Neighboring Islands," which appears in the
Twenty-fifth Annual Report. Since the publication of
this paper the new material has become so abundant that
plans have been made for Doctor Fewkes to resume his
study of West Indian archeology. The most note
worthy collection of aboriginal objects from this area in
recent years is that of George G. Heye, Esq., of New
York, who courteously has placed his material at the dis
posal of the bureau as an aid to these investigations.
This collection has been studied by Doctor Fewkes, and
the most important objects contained therein are now be
ing drawn for illustrative purposes.

Doctor Fewkes s researches thus far indicate that the so-
called Tainan culture of Porto Rico and Santo Domingo
was represented in the Lesser Antilles by an agricultural
people, probably Arawak, w r ho were conquered and ab
sorbed by the marauding Carib. Study of the collections be-


fore noted tends to show that several of the Lesser Antilles
were marked by characteristic types of pottery, indicating
their occupancy by a people superior in culture to the
Carib and to those found there at the time of the discovery
by Columbus. New light has been shed on the relations
of these early Antillean people and the Orinoco tribes,
which, although generally called Carib, were probably an
antecedent people of higher culture.

Mr. James Mooney, ethnologist, spent the first three
months of the fiscal year in continuing investigations
among the East Cherokee of western North Carolina, and
in locating -and investigating mixed-blood remnant bands
in the eastern part of that State. The Cherokee work
consisted chiefly of a continuation and extension of the
study of the aboriginal sacred formulas of the priests and
doctors of the tribe, with the accompanying ceremonies
and prescriptions. Although the former dances and tribal
gatherings have fallen into disuse, the family rites and
medical ceremonies still hold sway among the full bloods.

The so-called " Croatan Indians " of southeastern North
Carolina were found to be an important and prosperous
community numbering about 8,000, evidently of Indian
stock with admixture of negro and white blood and closely
resembling the Pamunkey Indian remnant tribe in Vir
ginia, but with no survival of Indian language or custom
and with almost no knowledge of their own history. After
years of effort they have secured definite State recogni
tion as an Indian people. There is no foundation in fact
for the name "Croatan Indians," which they themselves
now repudiate, and in all probability they represent the
mixed-blood descendants of the aboriginal tribes of the
region which they now occupy. The existence was also
established, and the location ascertained, of several smaller
bands of similar mixed-blood stock, but without official
recognition, in the eastern section of the two Carolinas.

The remainder of the year was devoted by Mr. Mooney
to the compilation of material in connection with his pend
ing study of Indian population. By reason of the shift-

74030 19 33 KTH 2


ing, disintegration, and new combinations of tribes, no
one section can be treated separately or finally as apart
from others. Considering the difficulties met in a study
of this kind, the work is making satisfactory progress.

Dr. John B. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted most of the
year to field researches among the Creek Indians in Okla
homa. These investigations continued from the middle of
September, 1911, to the middle of INI ay, 1912, during which
period excursions were made into Texas to visit the
Alibamu Indians and for the purpose of endeavoring to
trace remnants of other Texas tribes, and to the Caddo
Indians of southwestern Oklahoma. No remains of Texas
tribes of ethnologic value, other than the Alibamu, were
located, but a considerable mass of material was obtained
from the latter. Doctor Swanton s visit to the Caddo
was with the view of learning how many of the old Caddo
dialects were still spoken, and some valuable dociimentary
material was obtained in Natchitoches, Louisiana. No
words of Haiish, supposed to be quite distinct from the
other Caddo dialects, could be gathered, but evidence was
obtained that it resembled Adai. In the course of his
Creek investigations Doctor Swanton visited and made
photographs of every busk ground of the Creeks and
Seminole still maintained, and information was gathered
regarding the organization of the " big house " in each,
as well as in those that have been abandoned. Doctor
Swanton devoted July and August, 1911, mainly to the
study of the Hitchiti and Natchez languages, and the
period subsequent to his return to Washington in May,
1912, was occupied in copying his field notes and in inci
dental work on the Timucua language of ancient Florida,
as preserved in Father Pareja s writings, with the view
of determining whether Timucua bears any relation to
the languages of the Muskhogean stock.

On his way from Oklahoma to Washington, Doctor
Swanton stopped at Bloomington, Indiana, for the purpose
of representing the bureau at the fifth annual meeting of
the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, before


which he read a paper on " De Soto s line of march, from
the point of view of an ethnologist.

Mrs. M. C. Stevenson, ethnologist, continued her field re
searches of the Tewa tribes of New Mexico throughout the
fiscal year, devoting attention particularly to those of San
Ildefonso and Santa Clara, and incidentally to the Tewa
of Nambe and San Juan. The pueblo of Pojoaque is now
practically extinct as an Indian settlement, only about six
Tewa remaining in that village. Special attention was
devoted to the religious, political, and social organizations
of these people, which, owing to their extreme conserva
tism, are difficult to determine. The Tewa are divided not
only into clans with patrilineal descent, but each tribe con
sists of a Sun people and an Ice people, each with its
own kiva, or ceremonial chamber. At San Ildefonso the
kiva for the Sun people is known as Po tee, " Squash
kiva," and that of the Ice people is Kun iya n tee, " Tur
quoise kiva." The element tee signifies "round," hence
indicating that originally the Tewa kivas were circular. A
third kiva of San Ildefonso is called Teepoa n te, meaning
"Round gathering or sitting place," and symbolizes a
lake. Although from its trim condition this kiva appears
to be modem, it is in reality very old, and within the
memory of the older men of San Ildefonso it was used
whenever the Sun and Ice people met together, because of
its large size. Large councils are still held in the Tee-
poa n te, and it is used also as a dressing room for the
dancers participating in ceremonies. The kivas are also
the meeting places of the sacred fraternities. The Squash,
Summer Bear, and Fire organizations of San Ildefonso
hold their ceremonies in the kiva of the Sun people. The
Fire fraternity was adopted in the ancient past from a
people in the north who lived in skin tipis, wore clothing
of dressed deerskin, and spoke a strange tongue. This
fraternity finally became extinct, and wishing to reestab
lish it, the San Ildefonso people sent four men to the Sun
people of Zuni (whose Fire fraternity, according to tradi
tion, had a similar origin), who initiated them into their


order, thus enabling them to revive the fraternity at San
Ildefonso. The Galaxy and Turquoise fraternities meet
in the Turquoise kiva. The members of the former or
ganization have a fraternity chamber adjoining this kiva,
and at the great Buffalo festival its members frequent the
chamber as well as the kiva.

Each fraternity at San Ildefonso has a tablet altar,
which is erected on the western side of the kiva, while
the participants in the ceremonies sit facing eastward.
These people have interesting animal fetishes and many
human images of stone representing their anthropic gods.
They appeal to their zooic deities to heal diseases inflicted

Online LibraryJesse Walter FewkesDesigns on prehistoric Hopi pottery → online text (page 1 of 61)